World History AP with Mr. Duez - Learning Targets
PART SIX THE MOST RECENT CENTURY 1914–2010
CHAPTER 24 Accelerating Global Interaction Since 1945
• To consider the steps since 1945 that have increasingly made human populations into a single “world” rather than citizens of distinct nation-states
• To explore the factors that make it possible to speak now of a true “world economy”
• To explore the debate about economic globalization
• To raise student awareness of global liberation movements, especially feminism, and their implications for human life
• To investigate the “fundamentalist” religious response to aspects of modernity
• To consider environmentalism as a matter that cannot help but be global because the stakes are so high for all humankind
• To step back and ponder the value of studying history
BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS:
1. To what extent did the processes discussed in this chapter (economic globalization, feminism, fundamentalism, environmentalism) represent something new in the twentieth century? In what respects did they have roots in the more distant past?
2. In what ways did the global North/South divide find expression in the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries?
3. What have been the benefits and drawbacks of globalization since 1945?
4. Do the years since 1914 confirm or undermine Enlightenment predictions about the future of humankind?
5. “The twentieth century marks the end of the era of Western dominance in world history.” What evidence might support this statement? What evidence might contradict it?
6. To what extent do you think the various liberation movements of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries— communism, nationalism, democracy, feminism, internationalism—have achieved their goals?
7. Based on material in Chapters 21, 22, and 24, how might you define the evolving roles of the United States in the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries?
MARGIN REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. What factors contributed to economic globalization during the twentieth century?
2. In what ways has economic globalization linked the world’s peoples more closely together?
3. What new or sharper divisions has economic globalization generated?
4. What distinguished feminism in the industrialized countries from that of the Global South?
5. In what respect did the various religious fundamentalists of the twentieth century express hostility to global modernity?
6. From what sources did Islamic renewal movements derive?
7. In what different ways did Islamic renewal express itself?
8. How can we explain the dramatic increase in the human impact on the environment in the twentieth century?
9. What differences emerged between environmentalism in the Global North and that in the Global South?
al-Qaeda: International organization of fundamentalist Islamic militants, headed by Osama bin Laden. (pron. al-KIGH-dah or al-KAHY-dah)
antiglobalization: Major international movement that protests the development of the global economy on the grounds that it makes the rich richer and keeps poor regions in poverty while exploiting their labor and environments; the movement burst onto the world stage in 1999 with massive protests at a meeting of the World Trade Organization in Seattle.
bin Laden, Osama: The leader of al-Qaeda, a wealthy Saudi Arabian who turned to militant fundamentalism. (pron. oh-ZAHM-ah bin LAWD-n)
Bretton Woods system: Named for a conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in 1944, this system provided the foundation for postwar economic globalization, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; based on the promotion of free trade, stable currencies, and high levels of capital investment.
environmentalism: Twentieth-century movement to preserve the natural world in the face of spiraling human ability to alter the world environment.
fundamentalism: Occurring within all the major world religions, fundamentalism is a self-proclaimed return to the “fundamentals” of a religion and is marked by a militant piety and exclusivism.
globalization: Term commonly used to refer to the massive growth in international economic transactions from around 1950 to the present.
global warming: A worldwide scientific consensus that the increased burning of fossil fuels and the loss of trees have begun to warm the earth’s atmosphere artificially and significantly, causing climate change and leading to possibly catastrophic results if the problem is not addressed.
Guevara, Che: Ernesto “Che” Guevara was an Argentine-born revolutionary (1928–1967) who waged guerrilla war in an effort to remedy Latin America’s and Africa’s social and economic ills. (pron. chay gah-VAHR-ah)
Hindutva: Fundamentalist Hindu movement that became politically important in India in the 1980s by advocating a distinct Hindu identity and decrying government efforts to accommodate other faith groups. (pron. hin-DOOT-vah)
Islamic renewal: Large number of movements in Islamic lands that promote a return to strict adherence to the Quran and the sharia in opposition to key elements of Western culture.
jihad: Term used by modern militant Islamic groups to denote not just the “struggle” or “striving” that the word originally meant but also the defense of authentic Islam against Western aggression. (pron. ji-HAHD)
Kyoto protocol on global warming: International agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to slow global warming; as of November 2007, 174 countries had subscribed to the agreement, but the United States’ refusal to ratify the protocol has caused international tensions.
liberation theology: Christian movement that is particularly active in Latin America and that argues the need for Christians to engage in the pursuit of social justice and human rights.
neo-liberalism: An approach to the world economy, developed in the 1970s, that favored reduced tariffs, the free movement of capital, a mobile and temporary workforce, the privatization of industry, and the curtailing of government efforts to regulate the economy.
North/South gap: Growing disparity between the Global North and the Global South that appears to be exacerbated by current world trade practices.
Pinochet, Augusto: Military dictator of Chile from 1973 to 1990 who was known for his widespread use of torture and for liquidating thousands of opponents of his regime. (pron. ow-GOOS-toe pin-oh-SHAY)
Prague spring: Sweeping series of reforms instituted by communist leader Alexander Dubcek in Czechoslovakia in 1968; the movement was subsequently crushed by a Soviet invasion.
reglobalization: The quickening of global economic transactions after World War II, which resulted in total world output returning to the levels established before the Great Depression and moving beyond them.
religious right: The fundamentalist phenomenon as it appeared in U.S. politics in the 1970s.
second-wave feminism: Women’s rights movement that revived in the 1960s with a different agenda than earlier women’s suffrage movements; second-wave feminists demanded equal rights for women in employment and education, women’s right to control their own bodies, and the end of patriarchal domination.
socially engaged Buddhism: A growing movement in Asia that addresses the needs of the poor through social reform, educational programs, and health services.
transnational corporations: Huge global businesses that produce goods or deliver services simultaneously in many countries; often abbreviated as TNCs.
World Trade Organization: International body representing 149 nations that negotiates the rules for global commerce and is dedicated to the promotion of free trade.