HISTOLOGY 2009/2010

QUESTION 1

  1. Name- Mammotrophs

       Classification- Adehypophysis, Chromophils, Acidophils

       Site- Postero-lateral part of anterior lobe and peripherally located

       Stain- acidophilia with H&E, negative with PAS

  1. Erdheim cells- rounded cells with rounded central or eccentric nuclei and acidophilic cytoplasm

                       - EM= rER, Golgi complex, mitochondria

                       - large, irregular specific granules

  1. Oxytocin- Supraoptic & paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus

                 - storage= Pars nervosa of neurohypophysis

QUESTION 2

Chromaffin cells

Spongiocytes

Site

adrenal medulla

Zona fasciculate, adrenal cortex

Arrangement

into rounded groups or short cords, intimate relation to capillaries & BV

into cords perpendicular to surface with one or two cells thick, separated by longitudinal-arranged fenestrated capillaries

LM

large ovoid cells with large spherical nuclei, pale basophilic cytoplasm

large, pale & round nuclei with peripheral heterochromatin clumps, large amount of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm

EM

few rER, numerous oval mitochondria, prominent Golgi app, microtubules & microfilaments, membrane-limited electron dense granules

extensive rER, numerous mitochondria with tubular cristae, lysosomes, lipochrome pigments, large number of lipid droplets (cholesterol & ascorbic a)

Special stain

brown (chromaffin reaction)

green (vulpian)

acidophilic (H&E)

Subtypes

cells with epinephrine granules

cells with nor epinephrine granules

QUESTION 3

changes in menstrual cycle especially at the time of the ovulation

slight proliferation of the duct system

increased vascularity of the surrounding intralobular connective tissue

accumulation of fat

QUESTION 4

-dilated ampulla= part where fertilization of the ovum takes place

-partially ciliated simple columnar epithelium of the mucosa

  = ciliated ones are responsible for the movement of the viscid liquid film covers its surf

  = non-ciliated ones secrete liquid that helps in transportation of fertilized ovum towards the uterus, prevents the passage of microorganisms from uterus to the peritoneal cavity and maintains an environment containing necessary gases & nutrition to sustain sperms motility.

QUESTION 5

Secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum leads to

- stimulation of secretion of uterine glands the glands become tortuous & lumina are dilated by the secretion which accumulates in their interiors

-lamina propria (stroma) become edamatous & highly cellular

-coiled arteries continue their elongation & convolution & extend into the superficial portion of the endometrium

- epithelium become secretory in function secrete glycogen

QUESTION 6

  1. Prostatic urethra- transitional epithelium

Membranous urethra- pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Penile urethra- pseudostratified columnar epithelium but line by stratified squamous epithelium at its end

  1. The lining epithelium in the mucosa is transitional epithelium, helping in urinary bladder distension

No layer of muscularis mucosa, decreasing the contact of luminal fluid and epithelium

Wide intercellular spaces and viscid intercellur fluid, helping in sliding of the epithelial cells during distension

Present of plaques and intercellular occluding junctions in superficial layer that helps in formation of osmotic barrier

QUESTION 7

Structure

Function

Numerous microvilli on the apical cell membrane forming brush border

increase the surface area for absorption

coated vesicles, pinocytic vesicles, large vacuoles & lysosomes in the apical cytoplasm

active endocytosis processes

Extensive cellular interdigitations extending from the apex & becoming more prominent near the base

increase the surface area for pumping molecules out of the cell

basal cell membrane is thrown into numerous deep infoldings

increase the surface area

abundant longitudinal oriented mitochondria lodged between the deep infoldings

provide the energy for the active transport of ions to the peritubular tissue fluid

QUESTION 8

-juxtaglomerular apparatus

-podocytes

-mesangial cells

QUESTION 9

Structure

Function

extensive cytoplasmic ramifications

supportive to spermatogenic cells

microtubules & microfilaments in cytoplasm

help in change of cell shape to facilitate movement & lodging of the germ cells

primary & secondary lysosomes in cytoplasm

phagocytosis of dead sperms & residual cytoplasm discharged during spermiogenesis

extensive lipid sroplets in cytoplasm

accumulation of testosterone

tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells

formation of the blood-testis barrier

QUESTION 10

  1. -parenchymatous CT made up of fibroelastic f & smooth m.

       -secretory acini are irregular in outline & arranged in 3 groups.

mucosal

central, small, lined by pseudostratified columnar epi

submucosa

medium, lined by pseudostratified columnar epi

outer

peripheral, large & numerous, lined by simple columnar epi

      -corpora amylacia inside lumen of acini

      -ducts= those that are open into prostatic urethra- ejaculatory ducts & ducts of prostatic acini

Part of male urethra

ducts that open into the urethra

Prostatic

prostatic utricle, ejaculatory ducts, ducts of prostatic glands

membranous

-

penile

ducts of the bulbourethral glands, mucus secreting glands Littre’