Lab #1—blood

CELLS/FORMED ELEMENTS

Erythrocytes

        Most abundant

        Pinkish color

        No nucleus

        Specialized for gas transport

Lymphocyte (agranulocyte)

        Smallest, large nucleus with small rim of cytoplasm

Immune response

        B cells-make antibodies

        T cells-virus, tumor destroyers

Monocyte (agranulocyte)

        Largest WBC

        Horseshoe or kidney shaped nucleus with pale cytoplasm

        Become macrophages in tissue

        Kill viruses, intercellular bacteria, active in chronic infections

Neutrophil (granulocyte)

        Multi-lobed nucleus

        Most abundant WBC

        Neutral cytoplasm (light purple)

        Granules contain lysosomes and definsins

        Bacteria slayers

        Use respiratory burst (produce hydrogen peroxide, bleach to destroy bacteria)

Eosinophil (granulocyte)

        Bilobed nucleus

        Rare WBC

        Contain red granules which are lysosome like with digestive enzymes

        Active against parasitic worms (no good against bacteria)

Basophil (granulocyte)

        Rare

        Filled with blue granules

Contain histamine which is released in response to allergens and cause vessel dilation and chemically attract other cells causing inflammation

Thrombocytes (platelets)

        Small light purple cell pieces, sometimes in clumps on slide

        Derived from megakaryocyte

        Contain granules with serotonin, ca+, ADP, PDGF, enzymes

DISEASES

Sickle cell anemia

        Inherited disorder

RBCs are misshapen,sickled

causes hypoxia because of inefficient oxygen transport

Polycythemia

        Too many RBCs

        Causes

                Vera (inherited)

                Secondary (acquired)

                Doping

Leukemia

        Will see abundant abnormal WBCs

Cancer of WBCs

        Usually occur at blast stage of leukopoesis

        Affect children and the elderly primarily