World History AP with Mr. Duez - Learning Targets2000px-Target_logo.svg.png

Part 1 - First Things First Beginnings in History, to 500 b.c.e.

Chapter 1 - First Peoples Populating the Planet, to 10,000 b.c.e.

Chapter 2 - First Farmers: The Revolutions of Agriculture, 10,000 BCE to 3,000 BCE


Chapter Learning Targets

THE BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS

1. What is the significance of the Paleolithic era in world history?

2. In what ways did various Paleolithic societies differ from one another, and how did they change over time?

3. What statements in this chapter seem to be reliable and solidly based on facts, and which ones are more speculative and uncertain?

4. How might our attitudes toward the modern world influence our assessment of Paleolithic societies?

 

MARGIN REVIEW QUESTIONS

Q1. What was the sequence of human migration across the planet?

Q2. How did Austronesian migrations differ from other early patterns of human movement?

Q3. In what ways did a gathering and hunting economy shape other aspects of Paleolithic societies?

Q4. Why did some Paleolithic peoples abandon earlier, more nomadic ways and begin to live a more settled life?

Q5. What are the most prominent features of San life?

Q6. In what ways, and why, did Chumash culture differ from that of the San?

 

KEY TERMS

Austronesian migrations: The last phase of the great human migration that established a human presence in every habitable region of the earth.

Austronesian-speaking people settled the Pacific islands and Madagascar in a series of seaborne migrations that began around 3,500 years ago.(pron. aws-troe-NEEZH-an)

Brotherhood of the Tomol: A prestigious craft guild that monopolized the building and ownership of large oceangoing canoes, or tomols (pron. toe-mole), among the Chumash people (located in what is now southern California).

Chumash culture: Paleolithic culture of southern California that survived until the modern era.

Clovis culture: The earliest widespread and distinctive culture of North America; named from the Clovis point, a particular kind of projectile point.

Dreamtime: A complex worldview of Australia’s Aboriginal people that held that current humans live in a vibration or echo of ancestral happenings.

Flores man: A recently discovered hominid species of Indonesia.

“gathering and hunting peoples”: As the name suggests, people who live by collecting food rather than producing it. Recent scholars have turned to this term instead of the older “huntergatherer” in recognition that such societies depend much more heavily on gathering than on hunting for survival.

great goddess: According to one theory, a dominant deity of the Paleolithic era.

Hadza: A people of northern Tanzania, almost the last surviving Paleolithic society. (pron. HAHDzah)

“human revolution”: The term used to describe the transition of humans from acting out of biological imperative to dependence on learned or invented ways of living (culture).

Ice Age: Any of a number of cold periods in the earth’s history; the last Ice Age was at its peak around 20,000 years ago.

“insulting the meat”: A San cultural practice meant to deflate pride that involved negative comments about the meat brought in by a hunter and the expectation that a successful hunter would disparage his own kill.

Jomon culture: A settled Paleolithic culture of prehistoric Japan, characterized by seaside villages and the creation of some of the world’s earliest pottery. (pron. JOE-mahn)

megafaunal extinction: Dying out of a number of large animal species, including the mammoth and several species of horses and camels, that occurred around 11,000–10,000 years ago, at the end of the Ice Age. The extinction may have been caused by excessive hunting or by the changing climate of the era. (pron. meg-ah-FAWN-al)

Neanderthals: Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, a European variant of Homo sapiens that died out about 25,000 years ago.

n/um: Among the San, a spiritual potency that becomes activated during “curing dances” and protects humans from the malevolent forces of gods or ancestral spirits.

“the original affluent society”: Term coined by the scholar Marshall Sahlins in 1972 to describe Paleolithic societies, which he regarded as affluent not because they had so much but because they wanted or needed so little.

Paleolithic: Literally “old stone age”; the term used to describe early Homo sapiens societies in the period before the development of agriculture.

Paleolithic rock art: While this term can refer to the art of any gathering and hunting society, it is typically used to describe the hundreds of Paleolithic paintings discovered in Spain and France and dating to about 20,000 years ago; these paintings usually depict a range of animals, although human figures and abstract designs are also found. The purpose of this art is debated.

Paleolithic “settling down”: The process by which some Paleolithic peoples moved toward permanent settlement in the wake of the last Ice Age. Settlement was marked by increasing storage of food and accumulation of goods as well as growing inequalities in society.

San, or Ju/’hoansi: A Paleolithic people still living on the northern fringe of the Kalahari desert in southern Africa. (pron. ZHUN-twasi)

shaman: In many early societies, a person believed to have the ability to act as a bridge between living humans and supernatural forces, often by means of trances induced by psychoactive drugs.

trance dance: In San culture, a nightlong ritual held to activate a human being’s inner spiritual potency(n/um) to counteract the evil influences of gods and ancestors. The practice was apparently common to the Khoisan people, of whom the Ju/’hoansi are a surviving remnant.

Venus figurines: Paleolithic carvings of the female form, often with exaggerated breasts, buttocks, hips, and stomachs, which may have had religious significance.


World History AP with Mr. Duez - Learning Targets

Part 1 - First Things First Beginnings in History, to 500 BCE

Chapter 2 - First Farmers: The Revolutions of Agriculture, 10,000 BCE to 3,000 BCE


LEARNING TARGETS

THE BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS

1.        The Agricultural Revolution marked a decisive turning point in human history. What evidence might you offer to support this claim, and how might you argue against it?

2.        How did early agricultural societies differ from those of the Paleolithic era? How does the example of settled gathering and hunting peoples such as the Chumash complicate this comparison?

3.   Was the Agricultural Revolution inevitable? Why did it occur so late in the story of humankind?

4.        “The Agricultural Revolution provides evidence for ‘progress’ in human affairs.” How would you evaluate this statement?

MARGIN REVIEW QUESTIONS

1.  What accounts for the emergence of agriculture after countless millennia of human life without it?

2.  In what different ways did the Agricultural Revolution take shape in various parts of the world?

3.  In what ways did agriculture spread? Where and why was it sometimes resisted?

4.  What was revolutionary about the Agricultural Revolution?

5.  What different kinds of societies emerged out of the Agricultural Revolution?

6.  How did chiefdoms differ from stateless agricultural village societies?

KEY TERMS

Agricultural Revolution: Also known as the Neolithic Revolution, this is the transformation of human (and world) existence caused by the deliberate cultivation of particular plants and the deliberate taming and breeding of particular animals.

Austronesian: An Asian-language family whose speakers gradually became the dominant culture of the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Pacific islands, thanks to their mastery of agriculture.

Banpo: A Chinese archeological site, where the remains of a significant Neolithic village have been found. (pron. bahn-poe)

Bantu: An African-language family whose speakers gradually became the dominant culture of eastern and southern Africa, thanks to their agricultural techniques and, later, their ironworking skills. (pron. BAHN-too)

Bantu migration: The spread of Bantu-speaking peoples from their homeland in what is now southern Nigeria or Cameroon to most of Africa, in a process that started ca. 3000 b.c.e. and continued for several millennia.

broad spectrum diet: Archeologists’ term for the diet of gathering and hunting societies, which included a wide array of plants and animals.

Cahokia: An important agricultural chiefdom of North America that flourished around 1100 C.E. (pron. cah-HOKE-ee-ah)

Çatalhüyük: An important Neolithic site in what is now Turkey. (pron. cha-TAHL-hoo-YOOK)

chiefdom: A societal grouping governed by a chief who typically relies on generosity, ritual status, or charisma rather than force to win obedience from the people.

diffusion: The gradual spread of agricultural techniques without extensive population movement.

domestication: The taming and changing of nature for the benefit of humankind.

end of the last Ice Age: A process of global warming that began around 16,000 years ago and ended about 5,000 years later, with the earth enjoying a climate similar to that of our own time; the end of the Ice Age changed conditions for human beings, leading to increased population and helping to pave the way for agriculture.

Fertile Crescent: Region sometimes known as Southwest Asia that includes the modern states of Iraq, Syria, Israel/Palestine, and southern Turkey; the earliest home of agriculture.

horticulture: Hoe-based agriculture, typical of early agrarian societies.

intensification: The process of getting more in return for less; for example, growing more food on a smaller plot of land.

Jericho: Site of an important early agricultural settlement of perhaps 2,000 people in present-day Israel.

Mesopotamia: The valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in present-day Iraq.

native Australians: Often called “Aboriginals” (from the Latin ab origine, the people who had been there “from the beginning”), the natives of Australia continued (and to some extent still continue) to live by gathering and hunting, despite the transition to agriculture in nearby lands.

pastoral society: A human society that relies on domesticated animals rather than plants as the main source of food; pastoral nomads lead their animals to seasonal grazing grounds rather than settling permanently in a single location.

 “secondary products revolution”: A term used to describe the series of technological changes that began ca. 4000 b.c.e., as people began to develop new uses for their domesticated animals, exploiting a revolutionary new source of power.

stateless societies: Village-based agricultural societies, usually organized by kinship groups, that functioned without a formal government apparatus.

teosinte: The wild ancestor of maize. (pron. tay-oh- SIN-tay)


AP World History Key Concepts - Condensed

Period 1: Technological & Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 BCE

Key Concept 1.1 Big Geography & the Peopling of the Earth

I. Hunter-foragers gradually migrated, adapting technology & culture to new climates.

A. Fire

B. Tools

C. Economic structures

Key Concept 1.2 The Neolithic Revolution & Early Agricultural Societies

I. Neolithic Revolution

A. Agriculture emerged

1. Mesopotamia

2. Nile & sub-Saharan Africa

3. Indus River valley

4. Yellow River or Huang He valley

5. Papua-New Guinea

6. Mesoamerica & the Andes.

B. Pastoralism developed

C. Domestication of crops & animals

D. Agricultural communities had to work cooperatively.

E. Environmental Impact of Agriculture & Pastoralism

II. Agriculture & pastoralism effects on human societies.

A. More reliable & abundant food supplies, increased population.

B. Surpluses led to specialization of labor & new social classes.

C. Technological innovations improved agricultural production, trade, transportation, pottery, plows, woven textiles, metallurgy, wheels & wheeled vehicles.

D. Elites accumulated wealth, creating more hierarchical social structures & promoting patriarchy.

Key Concept 1.3 The Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, & Urban Societies

I. Civilizations developed in a variety of geographical & environmental settings.

NOTE: Students should be able to identify the location of all of the following.

A. Mesopotamia in the Tigris & Euphrates River valleys

B. Egypt in the Nile River valley

C. Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa in the Indus River valley

D. The Shang in the Yellow River or Huang He valley

E. The Olmecs in Mesoamerica

F. Chavín in Andean South America.

II. The first states emerged.

A. Definition & characteristics of “States”

1. rulers had divine support

2. supported by military

B. States grew & competed. Hittites’ developed iron. Those w/more resources grew & conquered surrounding states

C. Examples: Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Egypt, Nubia

D. Pastoralists often developed & spread new weapons & modes of transportation, which

transformed warfare.

III. Culture unified states through law, language, literature, religion, myths & art.

A. Monumental architecture & urban planning

B. Elites promoted arts & artisanship

C. Systems of record keeping

D. Legal Codes

E. New religious beliefs

F. Trade expanded from local to regional & transregional

G. Social & gender hierarchies intensified

H. Literature, which also reflected culture