Building Literacy in Boys     1

Running Head:  Building Literacy in Boys

Building Literacy in Boys

Integrating Effective Research- Based

Teaching Practices in the Classroom

Sam Leach

James John School

Action Research

CI 501-001

Dr. Caskey

Sam Leach

James John School

7439 N Charleston

Portland, OR 97203

sleach@pps.k12.or.us

        

During the past four years of teaching elementary age children, I’ve noticed a growing problem. The problem is that boys are not engaged in meaningful reading and writing experiences.  I wrote this lack of enthusiasm off as part of the pre-pubescent apathy, which often accompanies the onset of adolescence.  It was not until this year when I was visiting with my incoming third graders at their homes that I noticed that this problem might run deeper than preteen angst.  One of the student inventory questions I posed was what is your most favorite subject and what is your least favorite subject.  Across the board the boys chose solely math and science, while the girls chose mostly reading and writing-- with many girls saying they enjoyed all subjects.   This got me thinking-- are their gender, cultural or academic biases that are keeping boys out of literacy?  What are the factors that contribute to this problem?  If teachers can understand why the problem exists-- interventions can be designed and implemented to deal with it.  

        The purpose of this study is to identify effective interventions for hooking boys into meaningful self-directed reading and writing experiences.  The research questions that guide this study include:  What factors allow boys to see themselves as capable writers and readers?   How are gender equity of expectations expressed both implicitly and explicitly?  How am I redefining literacy experiences to include the pop culture activities in which many of my boys engage in?  What allowances am I making for my boys to write about topics and ideas that they are passionate about without making shaming comments about thematic elements in their writing such as violence?  What experiences am I facilitating for my student’s families in order to engage in rich literary experiences at home and at school?  However, most importantly, am I igniting a love for reading, writing and creative expression that will fuel thought and growth for their lifetime?

Literature Review

Lately much attention has been given to the seemingly growing achievement gap between boys and girls.  The statistics are alarming.  

The problem is obvious:  Boys aren’t making the grade in our schools- specifically relating to reading and writing.  

         Is it possible that the school culture itself may be partly to blame?  Much of the subject matter that boys want to write about is not accepted in schools.  Many educators frown upon stories of danger and death, of war and destruction.  As educators it’s important to understand that boys are not writing about violence for violence sake, but that often it is a way for them to get at underling themes of loyalty and courage. Why should boys want to engage in writing if educators disapprove of the themes and stories they feel passionate about?   Just as girls use talking as a way to socially interact with each other- adventure and problem solving are how boys socialize with each other. (Williams, 2004)

        Gender bias by teachers may be another cause for boys’ disposition to being disengaged in literacy. Teachers’ expectations that girls perform at a higher level than boys- often is a self-fulfilling prophecy. (Hunsader, 2002)

        Understanding the way boys think is another piece of the puzzle to engaging them in not just literacy, but also learning.   Boys need to feel that they are either competent in an activity or can demonstrate the ability to become competent in order to have buy in. (Smith & Wilhelm 2004).  Boys would rather say ‘Reading is Stupid’ than ‘I am stupid’.  Therefore, boys have the tendency to write off an activity that they believe they are not going to be successful at.  (Smith & Wilhelm 2004) suggests that just because boys are not successful in reading- does not mean that they are not deep thinkers.  Although boys are able to appreciate the complex satirical comedy of The Simpsons, and may be able to read and understand the sports page, they are often not considered good readers in the traditional classroom setting.  However, these outside successes are not transferred into the classroom for two reasons: one, they do not fit the schools’ definition of literacy experiences, and secondly, boys often compartmentalize abilities.  For example, a boy may feel he is excellent at sports and can read the playbook and run the plays, but considers himself a failure when it comes to reading abilities in the classroom. (Smith & Wihelm 2004)

        The literature supports that there is a problem with boys and academic achievement. (Mulrine, 2001)   It also suggests that teachers’ beliefs and practices may be one of the root causes (Williams, 2004).  So how can we support boys in literacy?  What literature circle?

        Williams (2004) suggests acknowledgement and validation of the literary practices already being carried out by boys in their home lives.  He goes on to say that this plays out in the kinds of conversations we have with our male students, such as discussing literary elements of TV shows or movies.  Teachers can link pop culture events to literacy informally through questions such as ‘What was the main problem in the show you watched last night?  How was it resolved?’  For educators, this requires broadening our definition of what qualifies as literary events in our students’ lives.  These events involve the same type of higher level thinking skills, but happen outside of the standard curriculum.  Boys’ self-perception is changed when they are recognized for the literary real life events in which they are already engaged. (Williams, 2004)

        As discussed earlier, boys will participate in what they feel they are competent in. (Smith & Wilhelm 2004)  By capitalizing on their strengths and interests and asking them questions of theme, plot, character, and setting in relation to movies, music videos, and video games- we are allowing them to bridge the gap between literacy and everyday life.

        Williams (2004) also points out that we need to let boys write what they are passionate about; understanding the root causes of why they write what they write.  Teachers need to see past stories of war, violence, and terror to the underlying themes of friendship, loyalty and cool-headed competence.  Boys need to be given the chance to transcend the reality of their controlled world of safety and monotony, into a world of power, danger and adventure.

        Elementary aged boys often have limited vocabulary and take a longer amount of time to verbalize what they want to say. (Hunsader, 2002)   He suggests we can empower our boys by providing lessons and activities that broaden their vocabulary, and by giving them time to process what they want to say.  
        Boys are wired for activity.  It’ is difficult for many if not most boys to sit still and read or write.  (Hunsader, 2002) suggests providing boys with stress balls to squeeze while working through a math problem, or reading.

        There are several reasons boys gravitate towards sports and away from reading.  Simmons (2002) suggests one of these reasons may be that sports are public and that boys need that publicity for their achievements.  She has implemented public academic awards programs for students that specifically recognize reading achievement.  She goes on to suggest creating boys-only reading groups, broadening the genres from which boys may choose at the school library, and creating after school time for parents to come and read with their children.

        Parsons (2004) disagrees with many of the interventions suggested by Williams.  He believes that in order to support not only just boys, but all of our students in literacy, we should not be asking how do we organize them, but rather what are we doing with them.   Are we teaching them to love reading, or to get the right answers on a comprehension test?

What the literature suggests is that our boys need support.  They need more time to process.  They need help connecting their real life literacy to the work they do in school.  They need the adults in their lives to see them as capable readers and public attention for their successes.  They need freedom to read and write about what they truly care about in topics and subject areas they are genuinely interested in.

Methods

        The main subjects of this study are the boys in my 3rd grade class.   They attend James John Elementary in Portland, Oregon.  Most of these boys have been attending James John School since Kindergarten.  They are from Caucasian and Latino cultures and from various family systems.  These boys all read at different levels.  Some are below benchmark-- others well above benchmark with others at grade level.  This data is based on The Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) (Pearson. 2004), which is given three times a year.

        James John Elementary is located in St. Johns in North Portland.  James John Elementary population has a 70% poverty rate with large Latino and Asian cultures represented.

        Many of the boys in my class are constantly reading video game source books to find tricks to get to higher levels, obtain more powerful weaponry, protection and short cuts.  They are thick unwieldy technical manuals, with screenshots, diagrams, sidebar legends, and loads of text.  Yet my third grade boys, even the ones who “weren’t good at reading” and had difficulty getting through a chapter book, were able to wade through these books and mine them for their secrets.  However, source books are often frowned upon despite the high level of thinking they require because they are not part of the standard curriculum.  

        I used informal student interviews to understand current literary barriers that may exist.  I conducted a Parent Survey addressing literacy behaviors at home.  This survey not only addresses the students’ literary activities at home but also the parents’ literary activities.  I also use observational data to find out current literary behaviors.  I observed the boys reading and writing behaviors in class during Literacy Block and if they chose reading or writing during choice time.  I also examined artifacts of student writings and recorded fluency in order to measure growth throughout the study.   I found the findings of my study are valid through the triangulation of the data through students’ interview, parents’ survey, and anecdotal records.  This information paints a picture of what boys’ literacy activities and what behaviors and attitudes lead to their lack of engagement.

        The initial step was implementing the Parent Survey (Appendix A) to gain knowledge of boys reading and writing activities at home. The second step in the research is the student informal interview.  I conducted the interview over lunch.  I invited 2-3 boys at a time to bring their lunch up to the room and eat with me.  This is something I use as a reward on Fridays, so my students had a very positive response to this.  At this point I asked them the questions contained on the interview sheet.  (Appendix B) Lastly, I kept an anecdotal record of the boys’ behaviors during reading, writing and choice time.  (Appendix C & D).  Confidentiality was maintained by using a color for each student’s name.

        When I asked one of my male students when does he like to read, he responded, “at night during homework”.  Reading is part of our homework curriculum.  I said yes- I know you have to read 20 minutes a night for homework- but when do you like to read?  He looked up at me and said, “I don’t. “  I asked another one of my boys, who is a very good reader why he likes to read.  He told me he liked to read because then he could visualize or be able to read harder books.  He could not give me a nonacademic answer.  Is he going to still want to read when there are no questions at the end for him to answer?  I am sensing that boys just see reading as a means to an end, and not an end itself.   Reading should be viewed as a recreational activity and not just a tool.   I think this is what Parsons was getting at.  We need to look at why kids aren’t falling in love with books, not how many possible ways can we organize and assess them.

Timeline:

Building Literacy in Boys:  Sam Leach 3rd grade teacher (Action Research) 2006

Tasks

3/6- 3/17

3/20 -4/7

4/10-4/14

4/17- 4/21

4/2- 4/28

5/1-5/5

5/8-5/12

5/15-5/19

Student Interviews

Parent Surveys

Anecdotal Records

DRA

Interest Inventory

Data Analysis

Interventions

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Week 7

Week 8

Week 9

Week 10

Figure 1

Results

This study included eight out of the thirteen 3rd grade boys from my class this year.  Although I had all but one of my parent permission slips signed and returned—I had only eight parent surveys returned.  These eight boys are the basis for my research.  

        I used the parent survey to find out what reading and writing behaviors were in the home by both the boys and their parents.         

Question 1:  What activities do you see your son doing in his free time?  The top responses were:  Video games, playing outside, playing with toys, using the computer drawing and reading.  Five of the responses included reading although reading was almost always at the end of the list.

Question 2: How do you feel about your son as a reader?  Four parents said they felt that their son was a good reader with one saying they felt their son was a very good reader.  One parent said they felt like their son didn’t read enough and would like to see him get involved and excited about reading.  Another parent cited that they felt pretty confident- that his vocabulary is really growing as well as his word comprehension.  Three parents stated that their child reads for his own enjoyment..

Question 3:   How do you feel about your son as a writer?  Handwriting was the number one concern from parents—followed by punctuation and sentence structure.  Two parents said their sons had great ideas.  One parent said their son was a great writer and should be a writer when he grows up.  

Question 4:  (on a scale of 1 -10  1 being not important at all, ten being very important) How important is it to you that your son becomes a strong reader?  Six of the parents circled ten that it was Very Important.  One parent circled six.

Question 5: (on a scale of 1 -10  1 being not important at all, ten being very important) How important is it to you that your son becomes a strong writer?  Again six of the parents circled ten that it was Very Important.  And the same parent that circled six in the previous answer circled six on this answer as well.  

Question 6:  About how many times a week do you see your son reading?  These responses ran the gamut:  Everyday- several times a day, seven days a week, five to six times a week, four times as week, two to three times a week, with one parent putting 0.

Question 7:  About how many times do you see your son writing?  These responses show that overall boys are writing less than they are reading.  Two parents stated that their boys were writing only if their homework required it “He really hates to do it.”  Other responses were three, three to four, 2-3.  The most interesting response was from the mother who had stated earlier that her son read 0 times a week.  She stated that her son writes constantly especially cursive.

Question 8:  In what ways do you enjoy reading or writing for pleasure?  Six parents said they enjoy reading.  Three of these parents stated they read a lot—one book a week.  One parent stated that they “are very lazy about reading.”  However, when she finally applies herself she enjoys certain books.”   Four parents stated they write emails, letters, recipes, and one stated that she journals.   Again, it appears from the survey that parents were doing less writing than reading.

        It was interesting to do the student interview after reading the parent surveys.  I was curious to see if my boys had the same answers as their parents.  I invited my boys up to eat lunch with me in groups of three or four.  After lunch I would call each boy one at a  time over to my desk and ask them the questions one at a time.

Question 1:  What do you like to do in your free time? Playing video games was the most common response.  One boy did not list video games as a choice.  His free time choice when he was at home was “planning layouts, figuring out grades, and determining how much track to lay for his model trains.”   Other responses were playing with toys, playing outside, riding bikes.  One student said that he read Harry Potter books during his free time.

Question 2:  How do you feel about yourself as a reader?  There was a variety of  responses to this question.  “Good, I am the best reader in my house.”  I asked him what best reader meant?  “I have a high rate of reading.”   “Good, I like reading”   “Glad that I can read.”   “Kinda good- because I don’t read much.”   “A long reader.”  “Not good because I hate reading.  It’s boring.”  Why do you think it’s boring?   “Because I am different—I like to do other stuff.  I like to play video games because I’m good at it.”

Question 3:  How do you feel about yourself as writer? “Not so good.  I have bad handwriting and it takes me a long time to get ideas out.” “Good.”  “Glad that I can spell.”  “Kinda good because I don’t write much.”  “Confident, I’m a good speller.”  “Not good- I don’t like it-  it’s boring.”

Question 4:  What do you like to read?  “Mysteries.”  “Harry Potter, Pokemon”  “Animorphs, Roald Dahl”  “Disney Classics”  “Anything automotive, big car books, train books.”  “Cars”

Question 5:   What types of books do you read?   I had several of the same responses to this question: Fiction, Fantasy, Informational, Mysteries and Humor.

Question 6:  What do you like to write about?  “Myself, Imaginative Stories.”  “Knights and Dragons”  “Imaginative and non-fiction, anything.”  “My family, summer vacation, my great grandfather.”  I had two responses of  “I don’t know”.  

Question 7:  What would make reading (more) fun for you?  “More Harry Potter books.”  “Reading more – more time.”   “Good selection, choice, chapter books.”   “(Books with) lots of pictures, read aloud.”  “Reading about Hotrods.”    “Nothing-- reading is fun.”

Question 8:  What would make writing more fun for you?  “If I could think of more stories.”  “More time.”  “If I had better handwriting.”  “If I could write and not get disturbed or if I could finish my writing.”  “Writing about my life.”  “Don’t know.”

Question 9:  When have you seen your parents ever reading or writing?  Again there were several responses which were the same:  Mom writing recipes, letters to friends, “filling stuff out”, reading the newspaper and magazines, my homework.  There was one response of dad writing checks and reading letters from customers.

        There’s a few ideas that I extrapolated out of the Parent Survey and Student interview:  As the research suggested—boys need to feel they are either competent or well on their way towards competence in an activity in order to have buy in.  All of the boys who felt good or even great about their writing and reading- did indeed have specific skill strengths that helped them in either reading or writing.   So the question then is since self-view has such an impact on literacy proficiency-- does competence build interest or interest build competence?  What was also very interesting is how parental literacy behaviors impact their son’s literacy behaviors.  The parents who felt their son was a strong reader or writer sited specific reading or writing behaviors they themselves were actually doing in the home.   Parents who were not reading and writing for enjoyment in the home had sons who were not reading or writing either.  Several parents also complained about their son’s handwriting and had responses that tend to reflect that this was a typical “boy thing”- and although they weren’t happy about it- it was acceptable as a cultural norm.

        Naturally, when you single a group of people out and say your going to study them- in order to help them- there is generally a great deal of buy in.  I was surprised how excited the boys in my class were to participate in the study.  When the girls in my class asked why they weren’t in the study it was very difficult to respond to them in a way that didn’t cast my boys in a bad light.  I simply responded that it was for a class—and that it was about boys and reading and writing.  My girls pressed on.  They asked why it was just about boys.  I stated that I’m learning that boys’ needs are different than girls’.  This seemed to satisfy my girls.  

        In reading we created a Boys Only bin of books in our classroom library- and filled it with all of the titles my boys felt were boys books.  I visited guys read.com and found this to be a wealth of resources.  Jon Scieszka author of The Stinky Cheese Man, and many other great books, has complied a great reading list for Young Guys, Middle Guys, and Old Guys.  Many of the  Young and Middle Guy titles we already had in our classroom library. We downloaded templates for stickers, bookmarks and posters.  I then had my boys put the stickers on all of the “guy books” they had selected had found on Scieszka’s list.  I explained to the class that of course anyone could read these books- but we were putting these guys read stickers on them to identify them as great reads for guys.   Of course we also then had to create a bin for girls only.  Our class found out that there were far more books in our classroom library for girls.  Along with choice, another intervention the research suggested was shorter amounts of time with increased “intensity”.  I had used a kitchen timer in math – so I decided to start using it in reading as well.  Instead of having 45 minutes of sustained silent reading—I broke the Literacy block into shorter amounts of time.  I would set the timer for 20 minutes.  And challenge the class to see if they could read the entire time.  The timer would be in the front of the room and the kids could always look up and see how much time was left on the clock.   I also built in short amounts of activity time with simple partner games like Guy, Girl, Gorilla (a whole body version of Paper, Rock, Scissors).

        In writing I started by engaging my boys in “literate discussions”  Trying to allow them to identify literary events they were having outside of school, and often outside of books.  The following is an example of a conversation I had with one of the boys in my room.

Me:   “Hi Brown.  What did you do over the weekend?”

Brown:  “I played my new Harry Potter game!”

Me:  “Oh really.  That sounds fun.  Who were the characters in it?”

Brown:  “Harry, Ron and Herimone.”

Me:  “Can you tell me about the setting?”  

Brown:  “Hogwarts.”

Me:  “I know you are a huge Harry Potter fan.”  “You’ve read most of the books-“

Brown:  “I’m reading the third right now.”

Me: “Right, and you’ve seen all the movies-“

Brown:  “Yep! I have the first three on DVD and my mom said she’s buying me the third when it comes out!”

Me:  “So tell me how does the plot of the video game compare with the movie and the book?”

        This is obviously a very informal conversation.  However, by using interests and activities that my boys are already engaged in and excited about-  it is changing their self perception by helping them to realize they are using literary ideas all the time.

        Choice is just as important a concept in writing as it is in reading.  Allowing my boys to write about what they really want to write about turned out to be just as important as allowing them to choose books they really wanted to read.  Schools are very skittish about allowing boys to write about war and violence and guns.  I don’t my believe boys are want to write about violence for violence sake.  I believe they want adventure, and they want to feel powerful.   Monster Trucks, Dinosaurs,  Jets, Trains, Machine Guns. Super Heroes, Monsters:  these are all of the topics my boys have included in their imaginative writings.  What do all of these topics have in common?  Power.  They all exert power.  The most powerful thing about an eight-year-old boy is his imagination.  His ability to create stories with powerful characters facing dire circumstances and over coming them with the help of loyal friends, this is the power boys have inside them.  During my study I replaced writing prompts such as, “Tell about a time when you helped a friend?”and encouraged them to write about their favorite characters or topics.  (See Appendix E)   I also increased the amount of time given to boys to finish a piece of writing.  At the beginning of the study I was in the habit of having only people who had published share their writing during sharing.  It should have come as no surprise that the majority of people sharing were girls.  Now I am encouraging my boys to share—even if they haven’t taken the piece completely through the writing process.

Discussion

        Since we created the Boys Only book bin boys in my class have increased their sustained silent reading time.  I have noticed many boys have decreased the amount of time and frequency spent choosing books in our classroom library during literacy block.   The first few weeks all of the boys were reading out of the Boys Only tub—however now boys are choosing books from other bins.  Several of my boys who were only reading informational books have started choosing chapter books.  One boy who was only reading fantasy chapter books is now picking up Shel Silverstein (Poetry).

        In writing I have seen an increase in time boys spent sitting and writing at their desks.  Since they are being encouraged to write about what they want to write about I now have even some of my most reluctant writers starting to pick up their pencil and write – in the first few minutes- instead of staring at a blank page for 15 minutes.    Boys are also writing in more than just one mode.  At the beginning of the study most of my boys were writing strictly narrative pieces – about what they did over the weekend- or an event that happened over the summer.  These writings were rather flat and took less than half a page.  As the weekly anecdotal record shows (see appendix D )  Most boys writing in more than one mode and their writing  has a stronger voice.

        If I could wrap up everything that I have learned from this project into one sentence it would be this:  Know your audience.  In order to serve the students we work with and we work for—we must know them.  The message is useless if it is falling on deaf ears.  We must strive to understand where boys are coming from, in order to enable them to care about what they are coming to.   We need to show them everyday that they are key, competent players in our classrooms communities.  

        There are many environmental elements I, as an educator cannot control.  However, I believe that we as teachers have far more power than we realize, or want to accept.  There is no large overriding intervention to motivate boys to read and write.  This research was made up of many small thoughtful actions given over a relatively short amount of time to a small group of boys.  I wonder if what really motivates boys and girls to learn is when we as educators are motivated not only to teach them but also to reach them, to validate their thinking, to muster all our belief in their potential and whisper over their shoulder, “Yes you can.”

References

Dobson, J. (2001). Bringing up boys. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale.

Hunsader, P. (2002). Why boys fail- and what we can do about it. NAESP.org, 82(82),         52-54.

Parsons, L. (2004). Challenging the gender divide: improving literacy for all. Teacher         Librarian, 32(2), 8-11.

Pearson Learning Group  (2004). Developmental Reading Assessment Pearson         Education Group Inc.

Mulrine, A. (2001). Are boys the weaker sex?. U.S. News and World Report, 131, 40-47.

Smith, M., & Wilhelm, J. D. (2004). I just like being good at it": the importance of         competence in the literate lives of young men. Journal of Adolescent & Adult         Literacy, 47(6), 454-461.

Simmons, J. (2001). Raising the standard of boys' achievement in literacy. Retrieved         Nov. 11, 2005, from Spotlights Web site:         http://www.scre.ac.uk/spotlight/spotlight81.html.

Williams, B. T. (2004). Boys may be boys, but do they have to read and write that way?.         Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(6), 510-515.

Young, J., & Brozo, W. (2001). Boys will be boys. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 316-        325.

Appendix A

Parent Survey

Student ID#                                 

  1. What activities do you see your son doing in his free time?

  1. How do you feel about your son as a reader?

  1. How do you feel about your son as a writer?

  1. How important is it to you that your son becomes a strong reader?

                1        2        3        4        5        6        7        8        9        10

Not important at all                                                                Very important

  1. How important is it to you that your son becomes a strong writer?

                1        2        3        4        5        6        7        8        9        10

Not important at all                                                                Very important

  1. About how many times a week do you see your son reading?        

  1. About how many times a week do you see your son writing?        

  1. In what ways do you enjoy reading or writing for pleasure?  Explain.

 Appendix B

Informal Student Interview  

Student ID#                                 

  1. What do you like to do in your free time?

  1. How do you feel about yourself as a reader?

  1. How do you feel about yourself as a writer?

  1. What do you like to read about?  

  1. What types of books do you read?

  1. What do you like to write about?    

                                                             

  1. What would make reading fun for you?

  1. What would make writing more fun for you?

  1. When have you seen your parents ever reading or writing?  Explain

Appendix C

Weekly Anecdotal Observation Checklist (Independent Reading)

Date: 

Week 1

Student

Sustainability

Time on Task (number of times out of seat)

Commitment

Reads One Book at a time

Comprehension

Answers questions to literary elements

Chooses Reading during choice time.   

Genre

of book

Misc. Observations

Blue

^

/

^

/

I

Only reading Train books

Brown

^

^

+

^

F

Only reading Harry Potter

Green

<

-

<

-

PI

Looks at pictures

Purple

/

^

/

-

PI

Red

+

+

^

^

CH

Yellow

/

/

^

/

F, I

Orange

^

/

^

^

F, H

Black

+

+

/

+

F

Only reading Deltora Quest 

 Key:       +Consistently      ^Most of the time        /  Sometimes            < Rarely            - Never

Genre:     Informational      Fantasy    Graphic Novels    Humor    Poetry  

                CHapter books         PIcture Books

Weekly Anecdotal Observation Checklist (Independent Reading)

Date: 

Week 10

Student

Sustainability

Time on Task (number of times out of seat)

Commitment

Reads One Book at a time

Comprehension

Answers questions to literary elements

Chooses Reading during choice time.   

Genre

of book

Misc. Observations

Blue

^

+

^

^

I

Multiple Topics

Brown

^

^

+

^

F, P

Enjoying Shel Silverstein

Green

/

^

/

-

PI, G

Cam Janson

Purple

^

^

^

-

PI, F

Red

+

+

^

^

F, FI

Yellow

^

+

^

+

CH, G

Orange

^

+

^

^

F, H

Black

+

+

^

+

F, G

 Key:       +Consistently      ^Most of the time        /  Sometimes            < Rarely            - Never

Genre:     Informational      Fantasy    Graphic Novels    Humor    Poetry  

                CHapter books         PIcture Books

Appendix D

Weekly Anecdotal Observation Checklist (Writing)

Date: 

Week 1

Student

Sustainability

Time on Task (number of times out of seat)

Stamina

Writes for the entire Writing Block

Coventions

uses correct punctuation

Chooses Writing during choice time.   

Mode

of writing

Misc. Observations

Blue

2

/

/

<

E, N

Brown

4

/

/

<

N

Green

7

<

<

-

N

Purple

4

/

^

/

N

Red

0

^

^

/

I, N

Yellow

5

<

/

-

N

Difficulty getting ideas

Orange

1

+

^

/

I, N

Black

1

^

/

+

I

Key:       +Consistently      ^Most of the time        /  Sometimes            < Rarely            - Never

Mode;     Narrative     Imaginative    Expository  (Persuasive not yet taught)

Weekly Anecdotal Observation Checklist (Writing)

Date: 

Week 10

Student

Sustainability

Time on Task (number of times out of seat)

Stamina

Writes for the entire Writing Block

Coventions

uses correct punctuation

Chooses Writing during choice time.   

Mode

of writing

Misc. Observations

Blue

1

^

^

/

E, N, I

Brown

3

+

/

<

N, I

Green

6

<

<

-

N

Purple

3

/

^

/

N

Red

0

^

^

/

I, N

Yellow

3

<

/

-

N, I

 

Orange

0

+

^

/

I, N

Black

0

^

/

+

I, N

Key:       +Consistently      ^Most of the time        /  Sometimes            < Rarely            - Never

Mode;     Narrative     Imaginative    Expository  (Persuasive not yet taught)

Appendix E: