With a Startling Candor, Oxford Scientist Admits a Gaping Hole in Evolutionary Theory - November 2011
Excerpt: As of now, we have no good theory of how to read [genetic] networks, how to model them mathematically or how one network meshes with another; worse, we have no obvious experimental lines of investigation for studying these areas. There is a great deal for systems biology to do in order to produce a full explanation of how genotypes generate phenotypes,,,
Epigenetics: the 21st-Century Scientific Revolution - July 4, 2012 (Several Recent Studies Listed)
Excerpt: Geneticists used to speak of the “genetic landscape” but now there’s a vaster field: the “epigenetic landscape.” James Ferrell discussed this concept in his review, “Bistability, Bifurcations, and Waddington’s Epigenetic Landscape” in Current Biology (Volume 22, Issue 11, R458-R466, 5 June 2012), saying, “Waddington’s epigenetic landscape is probably the most famous and most powerful metaphor in developmental biology.” His rather lengthy review did not contain any (mention) of the following words: Darwin, phylogeny, evolution.,,,
,,If the genetic code was (extremely implausible) to explain by undirected processes operating stepwise by natural selection, what will be the reaction to codes upon codes, master regulators of other regulators, and millions of molecules performing a living symphony?,,
A few comments as to 'non-local' epigenetic information:
Though when many people speak of epigenetic information they are mainly focused on information flow in the cell that is not DNA centric in its basis, such as the many examples of epigenetic information flow Dr. Shapiro lists on page 22 of this following paper: ,,,
Revisiting the Central Dogma in the 21st Century – James A. Shapiro – 2009
,,,There is a particular type of extra ‘epigenetic’ information in life, that is not listed in Dr. Shapiro’s paper, that is very important for people to consider. To give a little background on this ‘extra’ epigenetic information, Dr. Stephen Meyer comments at the end of this following video,,,
Stephen Meyer – Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans – video
‘Now one more problem as far as the generation of information. It turns out that you don’t only need information to build genes and proteins, it turns out to build Body-Plans you need higher levels of information; Higher order assembly instructions. DNA codes for the building of proteins, but proteins must be arranged into distinctive circuitry to form distinctive cell types. Cell types have to be arranged into tissues. Tissues have to be arranged into organs. Organs and tissues must be specifically arranged to generate whole new Body-Plans, distinctive arrangements of those body parts. We now know that DNA alone is not responsible for those higher orders of organization. DNA codes for proteins, but by itself it does insure that proteins, cell types, tissues, organs, will all be arranged in the body. And what that means is that the Body-Plan morphogenesis, as it is called, depends upon information that is not encoded on DNA. Which means you can mutate DNA indefinitely. 80 million years, 100 million years, til the cows come home. It doesn’t matter, because in the best case you are just going to find a new protein some place out there in that vast combinatorial sequence space. You are not, by mutating DNA alone, going to generate higher order structures that are necessary to building a body plan. So what we can conclude from that is that the neo-Darwinian mechanism is grossly inadequate to explain the origin of information necessary to build new genes and proteins, and it is also grossly inadequate to explain the origination of novel biological form.’ - Stephen Meyer - (excerpt taken from Meyer/Sternberg vs. Shermer/Prothero debate - 2009)
So exactly where does this mysterious information, that Dr. Meyer illustrates the necessity of, that controls the overall ‘biological form’ of a organism, actually reside if not in DNA coding??? I think a very strong case can be made that it is ‘non-local’ quantum information, which is not reducible to a material basis (A. Aspect), that is what is actually in control of, and orchestrating, the biological forms of organisms to be in the particular ‘shapes’ we find them in.,,, To show the plausibility of this, first we find that DNA itself would not even have its necessary helical shape/structure if it were not for ‘non-local’ quantum information/entanglement holding it in that particular shape;
Quantum entanglement holds together life’s blueprint – 2010
Excerpt: When the researchers analysed the DNA without its helical structure, they found that the electron clouds were not entangled. But when they incorporated DNA’s helical structure into the model, they saw that the electron clouds of each base pair became entangled with those of its neighbours. “If you didn’t have entanglement, then DNA would have a simple flat structure, and you would never get the twist that seems to be important to the functioning of DNA,” says team member Vlatko Vedral of the University of Oxford.
As well, DNA is shown to do ‘chemically impossible’ things here:
Does DNA Have Telepathic Properties?-A Galaxy Insight
Excerpt: DNA has been found to have a bizarre ability to put itself together, even at a distance, when according to known science it shouldn’t be able to. Explanation: None, at least not yet.,,, The recognition of similar sequences in DNA’s chemical subunits, occurs in a way unrecognized by science. There is no known reason why the DNA is able to combine the way it does, and from a current theoretical standpoint this feat should be chemically impossible.
Quantum Entanglement confirmed in proteins here:
Persistent dynamic entanglement from classical motion: How bio-molecular machines can generate non-trivial quantum states – November 2011
Excerpt: We also show how conformational changes can be used by an elementary machine to generate entanglement even in unfavorable conditions. In biological systems, similar mechanisms could be exploited by more complex molecular machines or motors.
here is a analysis of the preceding paper:
Testing quantum entanglement in protein
Excerpt: The authors remark that this reverses the previous orthodoxy, which held that quantum effects could not exist in biological systems because of the amount of noise in these systems.,,, Environmental noise here drives a persistent and cyclic generation of new entanglement.,,, In summary, the authors say that they have demonstrated that entanglement can recur even in a hot noisy environment. In biological systems this can be related to changes in the conformation of macromolecules.
Three dimensional chromosome arrangements can affect genetics - March 2012
Gene Regulatory Networks in Embryos Depend on Pre-existing Spatial Coordinates – Jonathan Wells – July 2011
Excerpt: The development of metazoan embryos requires the precise spatial deployment of specific cellular functions. This deployment depends on gene regulatory networks (GRNs), which operate downstream of initial spatial inputs (E. H. Davidson, Nature 468 : 911). Those initial inputs depend, in turn, on pre-existing spatial coordinate systems. In Drosophila oocytes, for example, spatial localization of the earliest-acting elements of the maternal GRN depends on the prior establishment of an anteroposterior body axis by antecedent asymmetries in the ovary. Those asymmetries appear to depend on cytoskeletal and membrane patterns rather than on DNA sequences. I review that evidence, suggest that such patterns provide developmental information that must precede the operation of GRNs, and discuss possible implications of that information for evolutionary theory.
As to the 3-Dimensional structures of the cell communicating information. The cytoskeleton and microtubules, which are foundational to the 3-D structure of the cell, have been implicated in quantum computation and communication. Though most work in this area has thus far been done on neuronal activity and consciousness, I believe that many details are relevant to unlocking many mysteries that have yet to be solved for the rest of molecular biology where 3-Dimensional organization is implicated in communicating overriding ‘control’ information downstream (as was illustrated in Dr. Wells paper);
Electrodynamic Signaling by the Dendritic Cytoskeleton (Google Workshop on Quantum Biology)
The following experimental work found that microtubules (which serve a cytoskeletal role among other things) process classical bit and quantum topological bit together (from conclusions at 39:15 minute mark)
Experimental Studies on a Single Microtubule (Google Workshop on Quantum Biology)
What is the main function of microtubules in the cell?
Microtubules are conveyer belts inside the cells. They move vesicles, granules, organelles like mitochondria, and chromosomes via special attachment proteins. They also serve a cytoskeletal role. Structurally, they are linear polymers of tubulin which is a globular protein. These linear polymers are called protofilaments.The tubulin molecules are the bead like structures. A protofilament is a linear row of tubulin beads.
Microtubules may work alone, or join with other proteins to form more complex structures called cilia, flagella or centrioles.
Coherence in the cytoskeleton
NeuoQuantology 10(3) pp. 462-467: New Nonlocal Biological Effect: A Preliminary Research: - Sept. 2012
Abstract: We report here our experimental findings of new nonlocal biological effect measured objectively and quantitatively under blind conditions. The method used includes the steps of providing two parts of quantum-entangled medium, applying one part to a biological system such as a human, contacting the other part with a desired substance such as a medication, and detecting change of a biological parameter with a detecting device. Using this method, we have found that after consumption by a test subject of one part of the quantum entangled water, the subject’s heart rate was non-locally increased under blind conditions by adding to the second part of the quantum-entangled water an over-the-counter medication Primatene which contains the heart stimulant ephedrine. The said increase of heart rate is measurable with a heart rate monitor, statistically significant and consistently reproducible.
At the 6:05 minute mark, of this following video, cells are photographed as they pull themselves together, from a distance, to form flawless blood vessels. The commentator on the video refers to the 'at a distance' action of the cells, to form flawless blood vessels, as a 'miracle';
Fearfully and Wonderfully Made - Glimpses At Human Development In The Womb - video
For you created my inmost being; you knit me together in my mother's womb, I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made; your works are wonderful, I know that full well.
"Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, before you were born I set you apart;,,,
The (Electric) Face of a Frog - video
An Electric Face: A Rendering Worth a Thousand Falsifications - September 2011
Excerpt: The video suggests that bioelectric signals presage the morphological development of the face. It also, in an instant, gives a peak at the phenomenal processes at work in biology. As the lead researcher said, “It’s a jaw dropper.”
Biophotons - The Light In Our Cells - Marco Bischof - March 2005
Excerpt page 2: The Coherence of Biophotons: ,,, Biophotons consist of light with a high degree of order, in other words, biological laser light. Such light is very quiet and shows an extremely stable intensity, without the fluctuations normally observed in light. Because of their stable field strength, its waves can superimpose, and by virtue of this, interference effects become possible that do not occur in ordinary light. Because of the high degree of order, the biological laser light is able to generate and keep order and to transmit information in the organism.
The Real Bioinformatics Revolution - Proteins and Nucleic Acids 'Singing' to One Another?
Excerpt: the molecules send out specific frequencies of electromagnetic waves which not only enable them to ‘see' and ‘hear' each other, as both photon and phonon modes exist for electromagnetic waves, but also to influence each other at a distance and become ineluctably drawn to each other if vibrating out of phase (in a complementary way).,,, More than 1 000 proteins from over 30 functional groups have been analysed. Remarkably, the results showed that proteins with the same biological function share a single frequency peak while there is no significant peak in common for proteins with different functions; furthermore the characteristic peak frequency differs for different biological functions. ,,, The same results were obtained when regulatory DNA sequences were analysed.
Are humans really beings of light?
Excerpt: Dr. Popp exclaims, "We now know, today, that man is essentially a being of light.",,, "There are about 100,000 chemical reactions happening in every cell each second. The chemical reaction can only happen if the molecule which is reacting is excited by a photon... Once the photon has excited a reaction it returns to the field and is available for more reactions... We are swimming in an ocean of light."
Coast to Coast - Vicki's Near Death Experience (Blind From Birth) part 1 of 3
Quote from preceding video: 'I was in a body and the only way that I can describe it was a body of energy, or of light. And this body had a form. It had a head. It had arms and it had legs. And it was like it was made out of light. And 'it' was everything that was me. All of my memories, my consciousness, everything.' - Vicky Noratuk
We also find that non-local quantum information/entanglement is necessary for dictating the final shape that proteins will take upon protein folding;
Quantum states in proteins and protein assemblies:
The essence of life? – STUART HAMEROFF, JACK TUSZYNSKI
Excerpt: It is, in fact, the hydrophobic effect and attractions among non-polar hydrophobic groups by van der Waals forces which drive protein folding. Although the confluence of hydrophobic side groups are small, roughly 1/30 to 1/250 of protein volumes, they exert enormous influence in the regulation of protein dynamics and function. Several hydrophobic pockets may work cooperatively in a single protein (Figure 2, Left). Hydrophobic pockets may be considered the “brain” or nervous system of each protein.,,, Proteins, lipids and nucleic acids are composed of constituent molecules which have both non-polar and polar regions on opposite ends. In an aqueous medium the non-polar regions of any of these components will join together to form hydrophobic regions where quantum forces reign.
Excerpt: The authors conducted an experiment to observe quantum coherence dynamics in relation to energy transfer. The experiment, conducted at room temperature, examined chain conformations, such as those found in the proteins of living cells. Neighbouring molecules along the backbone of a protein chain were seen to have coherent energy transfer. Where this happens quantum decoherence (the underlying tendency to loss of coherence due to interaction with the environment) is able to be resisted, and the evolution of the system remains entangled as a single quantum state.
Another very interesting piece of evidence, that non-local’ quantum information/entanglement is dictating the shape of a organism, comes forth when we realize that the ‘shape’ of a organism fairly quickly disintegrates to thermodynamic equilibrium upon the death of the organism:
The Unbearable Wholeness of Beings – Steve Talbott
Excerpt: Virtually the same collection of molecules exists in the canine cells during the moments immediately before and after death. But after the fateful transition no one will any longer think of genes as being regulated, nor will anyone refer to normal or proper chromosome functioning. No molecules will be said to guide other molecules to specific targets, and no molecules will be carrying signals, which is just as well because there will be no structures recognizing signals. Code, information, and communication, in their biological sense, will have disappeared from the scientist’s vocabulary.
The following also lends support:
Some extremely interesting experiments were performed by V.P. Kaznacheyev et al regarding the paranormal transmission of death by light inter-organism communication.
Excerpt: Specifically, every cell emits mitogenetic radiation in the ultraviolet range twice: when it is born and when it dies. The UV photon emitted at death contains the exact virtual state pattern of the condition of the cell at death. The healthy cells are bombarded with death messages from those that are dying, and this diffuses the death pattern throughout the healthy culture, eventually kindling into the same death pattern there.
[V.P. Kaznacheyev et al, "Distant Intercellular Interactions in a System of Two Tissue Cultures," Psychoenergetic Systems, Vol. 1, No. 3, March 1976, pp 141-142.]
As well it is very interesting to note that this quantum information/entanglement, which will assuredly be 'totally missing’ from the organism, once the organism disintegrates to complete thermodynamic equilibrium, is shown to be ‘conserved’. i.e. This transcendent non-local quantum information, though missing from the dead, and now disintegrated, organism must reside somewhere 'in the universe':
Quantum no-hiding theorem experimentally confirmed for first time – March 2011
Excerpt: In the classical world, information can be copied and deleted at will. In the quantum world, however, the conservation of quantum information means that information cannot be created nor destroyed.
Quantum no-deleting theorem
Excerpt: A stronger version of the no-cloning theorem and the no-deleting theorem provide permanence to quantum information. To create a copy one must import the information from some part of the universe and to delete a state one needs to export it to another part of the universe where it will continue to exist.
I apologize for any evidence I may have left out, but yet, none-the-less, I feel that a very strong case is now evident, that ‘non-local’ quantum information/entanglement is in fact the ‘highest level’ of information in organisms, and that it is this non-local information that is ‘shaping’ organisms!!!
Here is a glimpse at ‘quantum computation’ in action:
Quantum Dots Spotlight DNA-Repair Proteins in Motion – March 2010
Excerpt: “How this system works is an important unanswered question in this field,” he said. “It has to be able to identify very small mistakes in a 3-dimensional morass of gene strands. It’s akin to spotting potholes on every street all over the country and getting them fixed before the next rush hour.” Dr. Bennett Van Houten – of note: A bacterium has about 40 team members on its pothole crew. That allows its entire genome to be scanned for errors in 20 minutes, the typical doubling time.,, These smart machines can apparently also interact with other damage control teams if they cannot fix the problem on the spot.
DNA as a "Optical" Quantum Computer - October 2011 - video
Professor McIntosh finds ‘transcendent’ information to be necessary to explain why thermodynamics are found to be in ordered disequilibrium here;
Information and entropy – top-down or bottom-up development in living systems? A.C. McINTOSH
Excerpt: This paper highlights the distinctive and non-material nature of information and its relationship with matter, energy and natural forces. It is proposed in conclusion that it is the non-material information (transcendent to the matter and energy) that is actually itself constraining the local thermodynamics to be in ordered disequilibrium and with specified raised free energy levels necessary for the molecular and cellular machinery to operate.
Nonlocal correlations between separated neural networks - Pizzi - 2004
Moreover, the dispute between IDists and neo-Darwinists has, thus far, not focused on transcendent quantum information so much, if at all, but has instead focused on ‘classical information’ which is information that is encoded onto a material substrate;,
“LIFE’S CONSERVATION LAW: Why Darwinian Evolution Cannot Create Biological Information” - Dembski, Marks
Yet, even though the dispute between neo-Darwinists and IDist has been over ‘classical information, classical information is now shown to be a subset of transcendent quantum information by the following method:
This following research provides solid falsification for Rolf Landauer’s contention that information encoded in a computer is merely physical (“Information is physical!” – Rolf Landauer) (merely ‘emergent’ from a material basis) since he believed it always required energy to erase it;
Quantum knowledge cools computers: New understanding of entropy – June 2011
Excerpt: No heat, even a cooling effect;
In the case of perfect classical knowledge of a computer memory (zero entropy), deletion of the data requires in theory no energy at all. The researchers prove that “more than complete knowledge” from quantum entanglement with the memory (negative entropy) leads to deletion of the data being accompanied by removal of heat from the computer and its release as usable energy. This is the physical meaning of negative entropy.
Renner emphasizes, however, “This doesn’t mean that we can develop a perpetual motion machine.” The data can only be deleted once, so there is no possibility to continue to generate energy. The process also destroys the entanglement, and it would take an input of energy to reset the system to its starting state. The equations are consistent with what’s known as the second law of thermodynamics: the idea that the entropy of the universe can never decrease. Vedral says “We’re working on the edge of the second law. If you go any further, you will break it.”
I would like to reiterate just how ‘spooky’, to use Einstein’s word, it is to find something that blatantly defies our concepts of time and space, on a massive scale, within our bodies;
Light and Quantum Entanglement Reflect Some Characteristics Of God – video
It is very interesting to point out that 'transcendent' quantum computation/information is found in molecular biology, on a massive scale, when they are having such a extremely difficult time achieving even the first tiny steps of quantum computation in machines, even though the payoff, and investment, is huge!;
Quantum Computing Promises New Insights, Not Just Supermachines - Scott Aaronson - December 2011
Excerpt: Unfortunately, while small quantum computations have already been demonstrated in the lab, they typically fall apart after only a few dozen operations. That’s why one of the most-celebrated quantum computations to date has been to factor 15 into 3 times 5 — with high statistical confidence! (With a lab full of equipment). The problem is decoherence: basically, stray interactions that intrude prematurely on the computer’s fragile quantum state, “collapsing” it like a soufflé. In theory, it ought to be possible to reduce decoherence to a level where error-correction techniques could render its remaining effects insignificant. But experimentalists seem nowhere near that critical level yet. (Of note: Now they have factored 143 into 13 times 11)
Quantum life: The weirdness inside us - 03 October 2011 by Michael Brooks
Excerpt: "It sounds harsh but we haven't learned a thing apart from the obvious." A better understanding of what is going on might also help us on the way to building a quantum computer that exploits coherent states to do myriad calculations at once. Efforts to do so have so far been stymied by our inability to maintain the required coherence for long - even at temperatures close to absolute zero and in isolated experimental set-ups where disturbances from the outside world are minimised.
Scientists take another step towards quantum computing using flawed diamonds - March 2011
Excerpt: Scientists have for years been intrigued by the idea of a quantum computer,,, Such a machine would dwarf the capabilities of modern computers,
14 quantum bits: Physicists go beyond the limits of what is currently possible in quantum computation - April 2011
Excerpt: They confined 14 calcium atoms in an ion trap, which, similar to a quantum computer, they then manipulated with laser light. The internal states of each atom formed single qubits and a quantum register of 14 qubits was produced. This register represents the core of a future quantum computer.
Two atoms entangled using microwaves for the first time - August 2011
Excerpt: Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology have for the first time linked the quantum properties of two separated ions (electrically charged atoms) by manipulating them with microwaves instead of the usual laser beams, suggesting it may be possible to replace an exotic room-sized quantum computing "laser park" with miniaturized, commercial microwave technology similar to that used in smart phones.
10 billion bits of entanglement achieved in silicon
Excerpt: The researchers used high magnetic fields and low temperatures to produce entanglement between the electron and the nucleus of an atom of phosphorous embedded in a highly purified silicon crystal. The electron and the nucleus behave as a tiny magnet, or ‘spin’, each of which can represent a bit of quantum information. Suitably controlled, these spins can interact with each other to be coaxed into an entangled state – the most basic state that cannot be mimicked by a conventional computer.,,, ‘Creating 10 billion entangled pairs in silicon with high fidelity is an important step forward for us,’ said co-author Dr John Morton of Oxford University’s Department of Materials who led the team. ‘We now need to deal with the challenge of coupling these pairs together to build a scalable quantum computer in silicon.’
Large scale qubit generation for quantum computing
Excerpt: "Many people are trying to build a quantum computer," Olivier Pfister tells PhysOrg.com. "One to the problems, though, is that you need hundreds of thousands of qubits. So far, scalability has been something of a problem, since generating that many qubits is difficult.",,,Pfister points out that quantum computers of this sort cannot actually replace classical computers. However, quantum computers can be used for processing some types of information faster. “This is an attractive model for experiments that need cluster states. The big deal is that we got all these little quantum registers, and the entanglement is remarkably consistent.”,,, The next step, Pfister says, is to entangle the already-entangled qubits into a bigger register. “It requires additional complexity to entangle them all together, and we’re on our way to this.,,, We have shown that our control of entanglement is pretty good, but we need even better control to make entangled sets bigger than four.”,,,
Physicists Entangle 8 Photons in 'Spooky' Experiment - February 2012
Excerpt: Entanglement is a fragile state, and entangling photons with any efficiency is a major challenge; physicists generally produce a huge number of photons for every pair of successfully entangled particles. The difficulty of creating multiple pairs of entangled photons grows exponentially as more are added. Xing-Can Yao and his colleagues at USTC calculated that if they simply extended previous six-photon experiments to include another pair of entangled photons, it would take roughly 10 hours of experimental time to generate one entangled eight-photon set. (Physicists verify the presence of entanglement by running statistical tests that require large samples of photons, so an experiment that takes hours to produce a single entangled state is impractically slow.) To overcome that limitation, the researchers used an optical scheme that filters out fewer photons and hence boosts the output of entangled photons.
Research Into Ghostly Particles Wins Nobel - Oct. 2012
Excerpt: Dr. Wineland's group already has demonstrated that, in a lab-made quantum computer that harnesses (entangles) multiple ions simultaneously, it can do some basic number-crunching. But building a workable quantum computer that can sit on a desk remains a distant prospect.
Quantum Computing Promises New Insights, Not Just Supermachines - Scott Aaronson - December 2011
Excerpt: And yet, even though useful quantum computers might still be decades away, many of their payoffs are already arriving. For example, the mere possibility of quantum computers has all but overthrown a conception of the universe that scientists like Stephen Wolfram have championed. That conception holds that, as in the “Matrix” movies, the universe itself is basically a giant computer, twiddling an array of 1’s and 0’s in essentially the same way any desktop PC does. Quantum computing has challenged that vision by showing that if “the universe is a computer,” then even at a hard-nosed theoretical level, it’s a vastly more powerful kind of computer than any yet constructed by humankind. Indeed, the only ways to evade that conclusion seem even crazier than quantum computing itself: One would have to overturn quantum mechanics, or else find a fast way to simulate quantum mechanics using today’s computers.
Quantum computer leap - May 18, 2012
Excerpt: The main technical difficulty in building a quantum computer could soon be the thing that makes it possible to build one,,, Surprisingly, the researchers found that the solution was to add even more noise to the system.
“We found that with the additional noise you can actually perform all the steps of the computation, provided that you measure the system, keep a close eye on it and intervene,” Dr Carvalho said.
You don’t understand quantum physics? Neil Turok will help you - Oct. 12 2012
Excerpt: As Dr. Turok says, the classical physical laws of Isaac Newton were developed by thinking about the motion of planets, and they led to a vast number new technologies, from bridge-building to the steam engine – the underpinnings of the Industrial Revolution (to the landing of people on the moon). With all of their abstraction, you might think that quantum physics’ practical applications were limited by comparison.
Yet Dr. Turok says it has already given us so much. “Quantum physics forms the foundation of chemistry, explaining how molecules are held together. It describes how real solids and materials behave and how electricity is conducted through them. … It enabled the development of transistors, integrated circuits, lasers, LEDs, digital cameras and all the modern gadgetry that surrounds us.’’
But that is only the beginning. Quantum electronics will be “infinitely more powerful, subtle and interesting” than what we have now, Dr. Turok says. “A quantum computer will make our laptops look like abacuses.”
Scientists' 3-D View of Genes-at-Work Is Paradigm Shift in Genetics - Dec. 2009
Excerpt: Highly coordinated chromosomal choreography leads genes and the sequences controlling them, which are often positioned huge distances apart on chromosomes, to these 'hot spots'. Once close together within the same transcription factory, genes get switched on (a process called transcription) at an appropriate level at the right time in a specific cell type. This is the first demonstration that genes encoding proteins with related physiological role visit the same factory.
3-D Structure Of Human Genome: Fractal Globule Architecture Packs Two Meters Of DNA Into Each Cell - Oct. 2009
Excerpt: the information density in the nucleus is trillions of times higher than on a computer chip -- while avoiding the knots and tangles that might interfere with the cell's ability to read its own genome. Moreover, the DNA can easily unfold and refold during gene activation, gene repression, and cell replication.
The following is very ‘spooky’ as to demonstrating the ability of quantum causes to control 3-Dimensional spatial organization:
Quantum (Locking) Levitation
A little deeper explanation on 'Quantum Locking' is here:
Quantum (Locking) Levitation, Superconductivity - video
Quantum locking will blow your mind — but how does it work?
Excerpt: Superconductors hate magnetic fields (when cold enough), and normally would just repel the magnetic force and float in a wobbly fashion. But because the superconductor is so thin in this case, tiny imperfections allow some magnetic forces through. These little magnetic channels are called flux tubes .,,, The flux tubes cause the magnetic field to be "locked" in all three dimensions, which is why the disk remains in whatever position it starts in, levitating around the magnets.
The phrase "quantum locking" appears to have been coined by Guy Deutscher, a superconductor researcher out of Tel Aviv University.
Also Known As: quantum trapping,quantum flux pinning
It is interesting to point out that even though the superconductor is traveling through the varying magnetic fields (varying energy fields) of the magnets of the track, it is the ‘non-local’, beyond space-time matter-energy, ‘quantum cause’ which has the final say so in determining the exact 3-Dimensional spatial position of the superconductor.,, i.e. This is another demonstration of the 'primacy' of non-local 'quantum causes', over the space-time matter-energy causes themselves, even to the macroscopic scale of determining the exact 3-D spatial organization within the space-time matter-energy world itself.
Quantum Levitation, The Flying Quantum Rug
Excerpt: The few points the magnetic field does penetrate are locked or pinned by the superconductor, freezing the superconductor exactly where it is, this is flux pinning or quantum pinning.
The amazing thing in all this is how the 'few' imperfections, which allow quantum pinning to be achieved in the first place, can have such a dramatic effect on the exact 3-Dimensional position of the entire superconductor structure. Simply put, in the reductive materialistic view of nature (the atheistic view of nature) this effect simply should not be so.
verse and music:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made.
"Worthy are You, our Lord and our God, to receive glory and honor and power; for You created all things, and because of Your will they existed, and were created."
Brooke Fraser – Lord of Lords(Legendado Português) -
The tips of the gecko's toes are covered with thin leaves of skin, just like the pages of a book. Every leaf, in turn, is covered in a special tissue known as setae, hair-like protuberances, whose ends are divided into thousands of microscopic tips.
On the gecko's toe, an area the size of a pinhead contains an average of 5,000 micro-hairs. That means each of the animal's feet contains around half a million hairs.
Every single hair consists of between 400 and 1,000 protrusions, all located in such a way as to face the animal's heels. The tip of each one is about 5,000th of a millimeter thick. The millions of microscopic tips on the gecko's feet use the gravitational force of the atoms in the surface it walks on to firmly adhere to that surface.
As the gecko walks, it places the soles of its feet on the surface and pulls them slightly backwards, ensuring maximum contact between the hairs and the surface. Its hairs cling tightly to microscopic protrusions and cavities on the surface, too small to be seen with the naked eye. Thus on the molecular level, a slight gravitational attraction forms between the foot and the surface, known as the Van der Waals Force in quantum physics.
This force is also present when you place your hand on the wall, but it is very weak. If you were to view your hand at the atomic level, you would see that its surface is covered in tiny crests, and only the few atoms at the tops of these crests make actual contact with the wall. However, the thousands of spatulate tips on the gecko's feet stick to the wall with greater force.
If the gecko's toes really were covered with an adhesive (or with suction caps, as scientists once believed) then every time it lifted its feet the lizard would have to expend considerable energy to break that adhesion. According to the findings of the research team, however, in order for the gecko to lift its feet, it needs only to change the angle at which it makes contact with the wall.
The position and concentration of the micro-hairs on the gecko's feet give rise to the Van der Waals Force, which overcomes the force of gravity. When it wishes to take another step, the reptile bends the sole of its foot forward and raises it by expending a greater molecular force than that of gravity.
Clearly, the number and angle of the hairs on the creature's feet are based on sensitive engineering. Were the density of the hairs any greater, the animal would stick to the ceiling; any less, or if the hairs were located at a different angle, it would fall off.
Yet such a thing never happens. The density of the hairs that give rise to the Van der Waals force is exactly right.
If a gecko that had 2,000 hairs per square millimeter instead of 2 million, an insufficient Van der Waals force would form, and it would fall off as it attempted to walk on the ceiling. The existence of the whole elaborate hair structure would be to no avail.
Here is more information than you probably want to know, but reveals yet even more complexity of the foot of the 'quantum gecko':
Geckos Walk On Walls Because Of Electrostatic Attraction Caused By Dust Nanoparticles
New type of extra-chromosomal DNA discovered - March 2012
Excerpt: A team of scientists from the University of Virginia and University of North Carolina in the US have discovered a previously unidentified type of small circular DNA molecule occurring outside the chromosomes in mouse and human cells. The circular DNA is 200-400 base pairs in length and consists of non-repeating sequences. ,, The team also compared the circular DNA to the linear DNA originally digested away, and they were able to match the microDNA with micro-deletions on the linear DNA.