Research Evidence for Hypoglycemia Notes


Jurriaan Plesman, BA (Psych), Post Gad Dip Clin Nutr.


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 From Web site.

Comments: ‘Hypoglycemia’ is not a medically recognized term, except in connection with diabetes and various other diseases. Doctors appear to be in denial about the significance of hypoglycemia in relation to many illnesses, probably due to the fact that it can be treated without recourse to drugs.  See  “Hypoglycemia” by Marilyn Light. It is a popular term used by people with hypoglycemic symptoms as a result of unstable blood sugar levels, and often seen in a special Glucose Tolerance Test. It is now generally accepted that it is the forerunner of diabetes. (See R. Cosford —> page 2) See also: Hypoglycemia: an unnamed medical condition. When it comes to mood disorders, there are many other silent diseases that have an influence on our mind.

Both hypoglycemia and diabetes share Insulin Resistance and so if you want to do research into non-diabetic hypoglycemia, you need to look for medical terms such as ‘insulin resistance’, ‘hyperinsulinism’, Glucose Intolerance, hyperglycemia, HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis), metabolic syndrome, cerebral glucose metabolism. Some scientists studying schizophrenia have already come up with terms such as ‘Cerebral diabetes’, ‘brain diabetes’, pointing to abnormal glucose transport systems across the membranes of brain cells. This comes very close to what we understand hypoglycemia to be, but we would prefer Dr George Samra’s definition of ‘Cerebral Hypoglycia‘, in his book:

The Hypoglycemic Connection II,

which more accurately points out the importance of glucose transport into cell, including brain cells.

Other terms used and that points to hypoglycemia are Syndrome X, Syndrome W. It is to be expected that the medical science will soon recognize ‘hypoglycemia’, although this term may not be used. Until such time when medical scientists can agree on a common term, we will be using the popular term ‘hypoglycemia’. The point is that ‘hypoglycemia’ is a real disease and is forgotten by the medical profession. It is very difficult to research a disease, that ‘doesn’t exist’.

The scarcity of research into hypoglycemia is due, no doubt, to the fact that most medical research is carried out by global pharmaceutical companies with an eye on profits for their investors. The financial reward for the production of xenobiotic chemical agents cannot be matched by scientific research about nutritional influences on disease and mental disorders without a ‘profit’ component. For a critical view of the benefits of pharmaceuticals on our health see: Death by Medicine by Gary Null et als. There is little money to be made from Nutritional Medicine by doctors, because nutrients cannot be patented. There has been much reluctance by the Medical Profession to reward doctors for non-drug therapy based on Clinical Nutrition.

We as a Association will continue to support those doctors who have a professional interest in holistic medicine.

Below is just a small sample of the research carried out on topics under major headings in alphabetical order which has a bearing on hypoglycemia and Clinical Nutrition. It should also be remembered that hypoglycemia is one aspect of a much wider cluster of symptoms relating to degenerative diseases in general. Thus the net may be cast wide. Because hypoglycemia shares with diabetes “insulin resistance”, much of the research findings concerning diabetes applies equally to hypoglycemia, but the reader should keep in mind the differences between the two, when assessing the data. The under-mentioned references will be updated from time to time. You can search topics in alphabetical order or finding a term by means of “FIND”. [Ctrl+F+”Term”]

Aboriginals and alcoholism —> Alcoholism


ACUPUNCTURE FOR DEPRESSION: Following treatments specifically designed to address depression, 64% of the women (n = 33) experienced full remission. Psychological Science, 9,(5), 397-401

Acupuncture helps to treat hot flashes in women.

ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) or biological energy, is closely related to motivation see here.

ADRENALINE: “Adrenaline, secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland, is carried by the blood to the liver, where it stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, thus increasing the blood sugar levels” Lehninger 346 See: Adrenaline to Glucose image.

“ Normal blood level is 0.06µg/L but when an animal is aroused and galvanized into readiness to fight or flee, adrenaline concentration in blood may increase to almost thousandfold in seconds or minutes.” Lehninger, 728

“During the dynamic phase of Hypoglycemia in response to the rapidly falling blood sugar, serum adrenaline levels rises. This physiological mechanism is involved in increasing serum glucose by promoting gluconeogenesis, i.e., new glucose formation and glycogenolysis whereby glucose is freed from liver stores.”Samra, 25, See Adrenaline Synthesis

AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION: “Since the 1960s the ‘green revolution’ has increased crop yield, and has also accelerated the exodus of hundreds of millions of farmers and their families from the land into lives of misery in mega-cities.” Cannon G 2002,

ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA)(12 Steps): “Research indicates that participation in Alcoholics Anonymous and in 12-step treatment are associated with significant reductions in substance abuse and psychiatric problems.” Humphreys K 2003,

“There were, however, some indications that bipolar patients functioned at a better level during the follow-up period, particularly those who were older, had a previous history of longer periods of abstinence, and maintained more frequent contact with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and their family doctor.” O’Sullivan K, et als. 1998,

“God belief appears to be relatively unimportant in deriving AA-related benefit, but atheist and agnostic clients are less likely to initiate and sustain AA attendance relative to spiritual and religious clients. This apparent reticence to affiliate with AA ought to be clinically recognized when encouraging AA participation.” Tonigan JS, et al. 2002,

“The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between attendance at meetings of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and follow-up status in a sample of prison inmates.[It was found] the most severe alcoholics were the best AA attenders.” Seixas FA, et als. 1988,

“When a person is preoccupied with sex and continues to engage in compulsive sexual activity despite adverse consequences (eg, loss of marriage, job, health, freedom), he or she is a sex addict. Preferred treatment includes professional counseling and attendance at self-help programs based on the Alcoholics Anonymous model.” Schneider JP. 1991,

Alternative to Higher Power Concept in AA see SOS.

ALCOHOLICS IN RECOVERY: Comorbid depression appears to be a significant risk factor for relapse among recovering alcoholics. Nutritional therapy + Psychotherapy may prevent relapse.

“Of 72 alcoholics who had abstained for a mean of 64 months, 15% had serious, debilitating depressive symptoms, which had begun after a mean of 35 months of sobriety.” Behar D, et als. 1984,

“There were, however, some indications that bipolar patients functioned at a better level during the follow-up period, particularly those who were older, had a previous history of longer periods of abstinence, and maintained more frequent contact with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and their family doctor.” O’Sullivan K, et als.1988

“Depression was prominent among 40 alcoholics in an alcohol treatment program. Untreated depression may increase risk for relapse to problem drinking.” Lippmann S, et als. 1987,

“Sleep variables, anxiety, and depression are considered as possible markers of relapse in persons treated for alcoholism.” Mackenzie A, et als. 1999,

“We conclude that severe trait anxiety persisting after 3 weeks of abstinence, comorbid depressive and/or anxiety disorders, and combinations of these with moderate or severe current anxiety and depressive states represent the greatest risks of relapse and therefore may indicate a treatment need.” Driessen M, et als. 2001,

“Alcoholics apprehended drink drivers. Assessment revealed that 91% of the alcohol impaired drivers complained of at least some acute symptoms of depression. However, in total 38% of the sample showed significant signs of a clinical psychiatric syndrome (one requiring intervention or treatment) in addition to alcohol dependence.” Sutton LR. 1994,

Depression; “Our results showed that (a) the mild-to-moderately symptomatic participants (BDI = 14-19) at 3 months post treatment were on average 2.9 times more likely than the non depressed to have relapsed across follow-ups, and (b) the severely symptomatic participants (BDI = 20+) at 3 months post treatment were on average 4.9 times more likely to have relapsed across follow-ups.” Curran GM, et als. 2000,

“Biochemical mechanisms that may contribute to alcohol craving include the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, the endogenous opiate beta-endorphin system, neurotransmitter synthesis and release, hypoglycemia, and nutrient deficiencies.Patients who received nutrition therapy reported significantly fewer hypoglycemic symptoms, lower sugar intake, less alcohol craving as well as significantly greater nutrient intakes; a greater number abstained from alcohol. These findings indicate that nutrition therapy can aid in the recovery from alcoholism.” Biery JR, at als. 1991,

Alcoholism: Recovery rate: “Today, everyone in the industry concedes that conventional treatment offers, at best, only a 30 percent success rate. While few major independent studies agree the success rate is that high and more than 600 studies have consistently shown the success rate to be substantially lower (18 percent at six months and less than 10 percent at five years), this has not deterred the treatment industry from proclaiming that treatment works.” Here for source

Source including a list showing 10 studies at St. Jude Home Recovery, Amsterdam.

“A 1980 Rand Corporation study confirmed earlier research which found that the addictive population studies, once sober, or “clean”, had less than a 15 to 20% rate of continued abstinence.” Strohecker page 487

See also: A.Orange

ALCOHOLISM: ( —-> Drug Addiction) Alcoholism associated with Hypoglycemia Virkkunen M, Kallio E, et al 1994

A good article explaining the relationship between hypoglycemia and alcoholism, by

“Based on results of this study and evidence from the literature, it is suggested that chronic alcoholism is diabetogenic in susceptible individuals and that the transient carbohydrate intolerance found in our study represents and early step in the development of adult-onset diabetes eventually developing in a significant number of chronic alcoholics.” Sereny G, Endrenyi L. 1978,

“Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were given to 31 nondiabetic alcoholics and 11 healthy nonalcoholic controls. In almost half of the alcoholics peak glucose concentration was higher and glucose elimination from the plasma was slower than in the controls.” Sereny G, Endrenyi L, Devenyi P. 1975,

“It was concluded that glucose intolerance in alcoholic patients is a common finding that occurs in the presence or absence of liver damage.” Iturriaga H, et als. 1986,

“These findings indicate that glucose metabolism in alcoholics in a withdrawal state can be disturbed by impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance.” Adner N, Nygren A. 1986,

Alcohol dependency is accompanied by zinc content decrease in the hippocampus

Bovt VD, 2001.

Aboriginal populations in Australia have been found to be zinc deficient. This could be a factor in alcoholism found among the Aborigines. Cheek 1981, & Cheek 1981 (A), Holt AB et als 1980,

Zinc administration improves gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in alcoholics, rat model, Caballeria J, 1997

Alcoholics may be deficient in zinc, an essential coenzyme in alcohol dehydrogenase. Bahmer 1981, Lorentzen HF 2000, Menzano E et als 1994, Prasad AS 1991,

Zinc “The synthesis of serotonin involves Zn [zinc] enzymes and since serotonin is necessary for melatonin synthesis, a Zn deficiency may result in low levels of both hormones. Zn levels tend to be low when there is excess Cu and Cd. Moreover, high estrogen levels tend to cause increased absorption of Cu and Cd, and smoking and eating food contaminated with Cd result in high levels of the latter. Furthermore, ethanol ingestion increases the elimination of Zn and Mg (which acts as a cofactor for CuZnSOD)[superoxidedismutase]” Johnson S. 2001

“Alcoholism impairs zinc absorption and increases zinc loss via urine” Milne DB et al (1993)

A case study of an alcoholic with severe long-term hypoglycemia: “The probable etiology of low blood sugar in our patient was alcohol-induced inhibition of gluconeogenesis along with starvation. The prolonged hypoglycemia caused cortical damage simulating ischemic brain damage. Ten months in to follow-up patient is still in persistent vegetative state with no noticeable neurological recovery.” Jain H, et als. 2002,

“acute alcohol consumption brings on hypoglycemia in many individuals, since it inhibits gluconeogenesis from lactate and amino acids” Lehninger, 762

Hypoglycemia may be antecedent: “The origin of this atypical blood glucose response may antedate the onset of alcoholism, or it may be secondary to alcohol-related damage that persists beyond 6 months. Previous accounts of increased sweet consumption in alcoholics were not substantiated, although they may be present in the peri-withdrawal period.” Umhau JC, et als. 2002,

Alcoholics are found to be vitamin C deficient.

For more studies about association between violence, alcoholism, blood sugar levels here.

ALCOHOLISM AND GENETICS: Scientists have found that alcoholics appear to metabolize a break-down product of alcohol (acetaldehyde) in a different way from non-alcoholics. This appears to be due to a mutation in the gene affecting the action of an enzyme. Small amounts of acetaldehyde in combination with some neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine) are converted to tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ), an opiate-like substance, rendering the person very sensitive, tolerant and addictive to alcohol.

Another enzyme, Fyn tyrosine kinase, has also be implicated in sensitizing individuals to alcohol. However a recent study appear to dispute this. See for an explanation  Cowen MS et als. 2003, See also Diabetic gene (s)


“Based on clinical observations in a series of studies on Finnish alcoholic, violent offenders, we asserted that the impulsive offenders represented an extreme group of type 2 alcoholics. We also observed that these subjects were vulnerable to hypoglycemia after the administration of oral glucose load. Furthermore, we believe that while being hypoglycemic, the impulsive offenders are particularly irritable and aggressive.”Virkkunen M, Kallio E, Rawlings R, et als. 1994,

“Partner violence is a serious problem for women in alcoholism treatment.” Chase KA, et als. 2003,

“The odds of severe male-to-female physical aggression were more than 11 times (11 times) higher on days of men’s drinking than on days of no drinking. These findings support the proximal effect model of alcohol use and partner violence.” Fals-Stewart W. 2003,

“A defect in central serotonin metabolism may manifest itself in poor impulse control leading to attempts at suicide, violence towards others, and Type II alcohol abuse. We also studied pathological gamblers. They showed significantly increased central noradrenaline metabolism, perhaps related to sensation seeking.” Roy A, Linnoila M. 1989, See also: Violence and Aggression

ALLERGIES: A good book is; Samra G (2003), THE ALLERGY CONNECTION; Food and Disease Paradigm.

See also: Allergies: The Food and Disease Paradigm by Dr George Samra

“…the proportion of the persistent young offender population with maladaptive behaviours linked to food allergy, food intolerance and nutritional problems is cautiously estimated to be 75% whereas 18% of the young non-offender population is similarly affected. C Peter et als. 1997

ALOE VERA: beneficial in diabetes. 5 patients with type II diabetes given the dried sap of aloe (1/2 tsp daily) experienced a reduction from mean glucose level 273 to 151 mg/dl (15 mmol/L to 8.4 mmol/L), including a study with diabetic mice. Gannam, N 1986,

ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: There is evidence of of increasing use of alternative or complementary medicine: de Visser et al 2002, Eisenberg et als 1998, Fautrel B et als 2002, MacLennon et als 1996, Ramel B 2002, Sagaram et als 2002, Alan Bensoussan, Wikepedia

ALTERNATIVE SWEETENERS: There is a lot of information on the internet, some of it rather controversial. The American Diabetic Association has this to say. But see the numerous articles about the symptoms of aspartame. We recommend Stevia as a very safe alternative sweetener. See also Xylitol. See also Herbs with hypoglycemic effects. See also article on sweeteners by Sue Litchfield here and go to page 2.

ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: For a connection between insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s Disease. —>Imagawa M, et als 1992, Craft S et als 1996, Holden RJ et al, 1995, Watson GS, et als 2003,  Ronnemaa E et als. (2008) Five more studies. And here

Its aluminium connection. Storey E, et al. 1995,

For insulin receptors in the brain, Werther GA, et als. 1987,

Diabetes poses a greater risk , Frey J 2001,

Alzheimer’s disease discussed by Dr Chris Reading

“The human brain uses glucose as a primary fuel; insulin secreted by the pancreas cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reaching neurons and glial cells, and exerts a region-specific effect on glucose metabolism. Glucose homeostasis is critical for energy generation, neuronal maintenance, neurogenesis, neurotransmitter regulation, cell survival and synaptic plasticity. It also plays a key role in cognitive function. In an insulin resistance condition, there is a reduced sensitivity to insulin resulting in hyperinsulinemia; this condition persists for several years before becoming full-blown diabetes. Toxic levels of insulin negatively influence neuronal function and survival, and elevation of peripheral insulin concentration acutely increases its cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration. Peripheral hyperinsulinemia correlates with an abnormal removal of the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) and an increase of tau hyperphosphorylation as a result of augmented cdk5 and GSK3beta activities. This leads to cellular cascades that trigger a neurodegenerative phenotype and decline in cognitive function.”

Neumann KF et als (2008), Insulin resistance and Alzheimer’s Disease.

ANHEDONIA is an inability to experience pleasure, including in sexual orgasm. It appears it can be reversed by fluoxetine in some cases – an SSRI – indicating that it may be due to a serotonin deficiency. It is associated with some ‘mental’ illnesses such as anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Anhedonia associated with depression. Further References. For more information see: Anhedonia, Anhedonia related to clinical depression and insulin resistance. Ian H Gotlib et al. 20

ANTIPSYCHOTIC MEDICATIONS: Significant weight gain experiences in children using antipsychotic drugs, such as olanzapine (Zyprexa), aripiprazole (Abilify), quetiapine (Seroquel) or risperidone (Risperdal).Science Update Oct 2009


Anxiety & “REACTIVE HYPOGLYCEMIC” PROCESSING: Consume excessive sugar food or beverage; pancreas dumps excess insulin (remember ADAPTION); About two hours later blood sugar crashes to emergency level; adrenal gland dumps excess adrenaline (remember ADAPTION); RESULT=ANXIETY and HORMONAL IMBALANCE”

Professor Joel H. Levitt,

There is a significant association between anxiety attacks and hypoglycemia according to these sources and here.

Clinical anxiety may be associated with an elevated blood lactate level and increased lactate to pyruvate ratio. (Buist RA, Anxiety Neurosis: The lactate connection, Int Clin Nutr Rev 5(1): 1-4, 1985)

“The lactate to pyruvate is increased by alcohol, caffeine and sugar, and decreased by deficiencies of niacin, thiamine and magnesium. While more studies are needed, it appears that normalizing an elevated blood lactate level will sometimes relieve anxiety”, Werbach, 1991, 48,

Low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) may be associated with anxiety, irritability, numbness, paresthesia (subjective feelings, numbness, ‘pins and needles’) no abstract, mentioned in Werbach 1991, 53

For more research for Anxiety & Hypoglycemia look here.

APPLE CIDER VINEGAR: is fermented form  crushed apples alcohol into acetic acid-forming bacteria into vinegar. “This small study shows that vinegar delays gastric emptying in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis. Clearly, a larger, randomized trial involving a greater number of patients would be needed to validate the findings of this pilot study.” Hlebowicz J et als.(2007) Popular home remedy for allergies, sinus infections, acne, high cholesterol, flu, chronic fatigue, candida, acid reflux, sore throats, contact dermatitis, arthritis, osteoporosis, blood pressure, gout. It assist in stimulating digestion and is said to help in weight control. Source.

ARSONISTS may be hypoglycemic Virkkunen M 1984


“All of those dysfunctions together with hyperinsulinism can greatly enhance the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease.” Nunes JS, et als. 2000,

ATTENTION DEFICIT AND HYPERACTIVITY (ADHD) DISORDER: Lendon Smith’s article about the non-drug treatment of ADHD.

Hyperactive children will benefit from a hypoglycemic and allergies free diet, with specific supplements such as B-Complex vitamins, Vitamin C and proanthocyanidins, fish oil containing DHA, zinc, magnesium and digestive enzymes Maria Zimmerman,

“ADHD was highly prevalent among obese patients and highest in those with extreme obesity. Comorbid obesity and ADHD symptoms rendered treatment less successful compared to NAD counterparts. Reasons for the comorbidity are unknown, but may involve brain dopamine or insulin receptor activity. If replicated in further studies, these findings have important implications for treatment of severe and extreme obesity.” Altfas JR. 2002,

AVOCADO EXTRACT: “The article suggests controlling blood glucose sugar levels in order to “help starve the cancer and bolster the immune system.” It also suggests that mannoheptulose, a purified avocado extract, may help. Researchers at Britain’s Oxford University Department of Biochemistry found that mannoheptulose inhibits tumor cell glucose uptake and also inhibits glucokinase, the enzyme used in glycolysis. In laboratory tests, mannoheptulose inhibited growth in cultured tumor cells as well as reducing tumor size in animal subjects.” Townsend Letter June 2002,

“Partial replacement of complex digestible carbohydrates with monounsaturated fatty acids (avocado as one of its main sources) in the diet of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus improves the lipid profile favorably, maintains an adequate glycemic control, and offers a good management alternative.” Lerman-Garber I, et als. 1994,

BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA: “Over the last decade, double-blind clinical trials have proven that 320 mg per day of the liposterolic extract of saw palmetto berries is a safe and effective treatment for the symptoms of BPH.

BILBERRY: see Diabetic Retinopathy.

BIPOLAR DISORDER: —> For more information see Alternative Mental Health go to “articles”, See also Lithium Carbonate.

“Glucose utilization, serum insulin, human growth hormone, and free fatty acids were studied in 18 unipolar depressed patients and 14 normal controls, using the intravenous glucose tolerance test. [But] endogenous depression was associated with lowered glucose utilization rate with insulin resistance.” Wright JH, et als. 1978,

A case study of a bipolar disorder with a deficiency of folate and vitamin B12 leading to pseudodementia. Reid SD 2000

Omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oil may benefit people with bipolar disorder. Rudin DO 1981 .

There are studies to show that the supplementation with phenylalanine (Precursor of L-tyrosine (amino acids found in food) can benefit Bipolar patients. Phenylalanine with vitamin B6 are the forerunners of phenylethylamine (found in chocolate). Sabelli HC et al., 1986

Misdiagnosis: Between 10 and 30% of depressed patients, mostly bipolar, develop a therapy-resistant illness. The known causes of such chronic evolutions are discussed: Levine S 1986

Bipolar patients can benefit from lecithin, which contains 10-20% phosphatidylcholine, the precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5 required as coenzyme in conversion). It is known to treat mania. Hirsch MJ et als, 1996 Stoll AL, et als 1996 , however this should not be used in the depressive phase of bipolar disease. See also Hypo NL June 2001, Page 10.

‘A double-blind trial found that bipolar patients taking 9.6 grams of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil per day in addition to their conventional medications had significant improvements compared with those taking placebo”Stoll AL, et als. 1999, Kato 1996 ,

See also relation between Vanadium & bipolar Disorder.

“Polyunstaruted fatty acids in bipolar patients: The major finding was significantly reduced arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) compositions in bipolar patients as compared to normal controls with P values of 0.000 and 0.002, respectively.” Chiu CC, et als. 2003,

“CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that bipolar disorder is associated with alterations in the metabolism of cytosolic, choline-containing compounds in the anterior cingulate cortex. As this resonance arises primarily from phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine, both of which are metabolites of phosphatidylcholine, these results are consistent with impaired intraneuronal signaling mechanisms.” Moore CM, et als. 2000,


“Linkage evidence suggests that chromosome 13 (13q32-33) contains susceptibility genes for both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Recently, genes called “G72″ and “G30″ were identified, and polymorphisms of these overlapping genes were reported to be associated with schizophrenia. These data suggest that a susceptibility variant for bipolar illness exists in the vicinity of the G72/G30 genes. Taken together with the earlier report, this is the first demonstration of a novel gene(s), discovered through a positional approach, independently associated with both bipolar illness and schizophrenia.” Hattori E, et als. 2003, John Easton.

BIPOLAR DISORDER: See: supplements for.

E.M. Power+ product for Bipolar Disorder. Kaplan BJ et als. 2001, and PubMed

BITTER LEMON (Momordica charantia): also known as Balsam pear, Bitter Gourd, Karela is tropical fruit. Glucose tolerance of 73% of the maturity onset diabetic patients improved with fruit juice of M. charantia  Welihinda 1986 , Also Cunnick J et als. J Naturopath Med 4(1): 16-21, 1993, mentioned in Werbach et al. 1994, 130 , The effects are gradual and cumulative.

BRAIN & GLYCOGEN: “The data suggest that brain glycogen can provide fuel for extended periods of time when glucose supply is inadequate. Furthermore, brain glycogen can rebound (super-compensate) after a single episode of hypoglycemia. We postulate that brain glycogen serves as an energy store during hypoglycemia and that it may participate in the creation of reduced physiological responses to hypoglycemia that are involved in a symptom often observed in patients with diabetes, hypoglycemia unawareness” Choi IY, et als. 2003,

BRAIN & IT’S INSULIN RECEPTORS: “Insulin facilitates glucose uptake by most tissues including the hypothalamus but not including most parts of the brain. The difference in behaviour is thought to have something to do with the presence of large amounts of neuroglia (supporting structural tissue) found in the hypothalamus. Figure 4 shows how the brain ‘reflects’ blood glucose levels yet the hypothalamus may have different glucose content. This explains why a person with extremely low blood sugar may appear to function near to normal yet another person with slightly higher blood sugar level may be in a hypoglycemic coma.” Samra, 2003, Hypoglycemia… 63

For Insulin Receptors in other parts of the brain and Central Nervous System: see here

BRAIN & SUGAR: “This review focuses on the neurologic issues concerning the treatment of hypo- or hyperglycemia in the critically ill patient. Moderate hypoglycemia may evoke a significant stress response, behavioral changes, and alterations in cerebral blood flow and metabolism. CONCLUSION: Because both hypo- and hyperglycemia may produce neurologic changes, aggressive management of abnormal glucose values is warranted.” Sieber FE, et al. 1992, see also Glucose

Glucose have different effects on different parts of the brain. Samra, 2003, Chapter 3

“The glucose solution produced more substantial EEG effects than the other three carbohydrate solutions. Absolute blood glucose level was the primary determinant of electrocortical changes found predominantly in the left parietal-occipital and left temporal cortical regions. Implications for the study and evaluation of cognitive function were discussed.“  Fishbein DH, et als. 1990,

For Glucose requirement of the brain —> Glucose ,

CANCER: Sugar feeds cancer cells. See “When a purified avocado extract called mannoheptulose was added to a number of tumor cell lines tested in vitro by researchers in the Department of Biochemistry at Oxford University in Britain, they found it inhibited tumor cell glucose uptake by 25 to 75 percent, and it inhibited the enzyme glucokinase responsible for glycolysis. It also inhibited the growth rate of the cultured tumor cell lines.” More studies relating to Sugar Feeds Cancer

CANNABIDIOL: also known as CBD, is a cannabinoid found in Cannabis (marijuana). It is a major constituent of the plant, representing up to 40% in its extracts. It has been produced as a drug called Sativex. Has been used as an antipsychotic in treating schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis,  and also as anti-tumor agents in human breast cancer. Wikipedia

CHILDREN & HYPERGLYCEMIA: “Stress hyperglycemia is a frequent clinical occurrence in a pediatric emergency department. It does not appear to be associated with a particular diagnostic category but is significantly associated with severity of illness as measured by elevated temperature, hospital admission, and hydration status.” Bhisitkul DM, et als. 1994,

CHOLESTEROL & HEART ATTACKS: “Until now, large studies of cholesterol-lowering drugs have shown that they can reduce deaths from heart attacks but not the overall death rate. People who lowered their cholesterol levels with drugs died at higher rates of other causes, like cancer or violence or suicide. Source”. Low cholesterol concentrations were associated with increased risk of suicide. BMJ 1996;313:649-651. Cholesterol is a controversial issue among many natural health practitioners. Some authors have claimed that pharmaceutical companies have lowered the “acceptable risks” of cholesterol levels thereby “increasing the number of people it wants to put on cholesterol lowering drugs”, making it a phony issue. Mary Enig PhD . Damaged cells in arteries need cholesterol for repair (multiplication) of cells, hence high cholesterol levels. Statin drugs can lead to depletion of Coenzyme Q10 , which can lead to heart failure, aggression and depression Source. Low cholesterol levels associated with violent criminal offences PMID: 12056583 “Most statins’ adverse effects, including the musculoskeletal (including rhabdomyolysis) and gastrointestinal system are dose related.” Mercola.  IOWs, the lower the dose the less harmful the medication without sacrificing the beneficial effects. Statins inhibit HMG Coenzyme A reductase causing your liver to manufacture cholesterol when it is stimulated by high insulin levels. “High insulin levels are one of the primary drivers for raising cholesterol.” This is a reason why a low sugar diet will help lower cholesterol. Although omega-3 fatty acids in fishoil will not lower cholesterol levels it will reduce the risk of of heart attack. Mercola. “CONCLUSIONS: The Warfarin/Aspirin Study in Heart failure (WASH) provides no evidence that aspirin is effective or safe in patients with heart failure. The benefits of warfarin for patients with heart failure in sinus rhythm have not been established. Antithrombotic therapy in patients with heart failure is not evidence based but commonly contributes to polypharmacy.” Am Heart J. 2004 Jul;148(1):157-64.“About 80 percent of total body cholesterol is manufactured in the liver, while 20 percent comes from dietary sources” Balch, 326. See also: Cholesterol Myth by Dr Robert Buist —> page 6 and Mercola on Crestor“Conclusion This literature-based meta-analysis did not find evidence for the benefit of statin therapy on all-cause mortality in a high-risk primary prevention set-up.”Kausik K. Ray et als. June 2010

For more studies by Mercola See also Natural Cholesterol Lowering Remedies.

See also video about cholesterol by Dr Vincent Bellonzi

See also: Cholesterol lowering drugs can be dangerous and discuss with your doctor.

Understanding the cholesterol myth by Mercola.

“Cholesterol drugs make you more vulnerable to bacterial infections such as e. coli and salmonella — a recent study shows that the statin drug simvastatin (sold under the names Zocor and Simvacor, Pravachol, Mevacor, Lipitor, Crestor), which the government advocates as a means of lowering cholesterol levels, actually weakens your immune system”. Source

CHROMIUM: “The insulin receptor, the structure on the surfaces of your cells that actually become resistant to insulin, requires chromium to function properly. Deficiency of chromium is rampant – it affects 90% of the American population – because a diet high in starch and sugar puts a heavy demand on the insulin system to handle the incoming carbohydrate load, and that demand depletes chromium.” Diabetes Breakthrough,

“Eight patients with refractory mood disorders received chromium supplements and described dramatic improvements in their symptoms and functioning. The putative antidepressant effects of chromium could be accounted for by enhancement of insulin utilization and related increases in tryptophan availability in the central nervous system, and/or by chromium’s effects on norepinephrine release” McLeod MN et al, 2000,

“ Preliminary observations suggest that chromium may potentiate antidepressant pharmacotherapy for dysthymic disorder. Controlled studies are indicated to test the validity of these initial observations.” McLeod MN, et als. 1999,

Chromium deficiency associated with Anxiety, Fatigue, Glucose Intolerance, Growth Impairment, Hypercholesterolemia AND Chromium toxicity associated with dermatitis, GI ulcers, Kidney impairment, Liver impairment, Werbach 1991, 336

Sugar consumption causes urinary chromium excretion, Werbach 1991, 313,

Chromium Reasonable Dietary Levels (RDL) 50-200µg, pharmacological dosage range 200-300µg, Werbach 1991, 286

Chromium enriched Brewer’s yeast may improve glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism. Offenbacher EG 1980,

The insulin-enhancing factor in Brewer’s yeast was found to have little chromium, and the GTF activity was isolated in cationic and anionic small amino acid or peptide-like molecules. Davies DM et al. 1985,

Health benefits of chromium that can improve insulin resistance.


CHRONIC PAIN: When suffering from chronic pain as in fibromyalgia, avoid certain foods in chronic pain; such as sugar, preservatives in foods, caffeine, nightshade vegetable like tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, trans-fatty acids (fried foods, use omega-3 fatty acids instead), yeast, pasteurized dairy, cut down on carbs, avoid aspartame, avoid additives such as monosodium glutamate (MSG), avoid junk food. Mercola

CINNAMON: “The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.”  Khan A et als, 2003, Anderson RA et als. 2004

Studies on how Cinnamon improves Insulin Resistance here.

CLINICAL NUTRITION: Dr Ian Brighthope’s article about Nutritional medicine “Nutritional Medicine – Its presence and power”  in Hypo Newsletter March 1999  go to page 4

For any queries about clinical nutrition, diseases, conditions, nutrient supplements, go to deliciousliving and choose one of the indexes.

Another useful web site is


* Help you lose weight, or maintain your already good weight see also here.

* Reduce the risk of heart disease

* Lower your cholesterol

* Improve conditions in those with diabetes and chronic fatigue

* Improve Crohn’s, IBS, and other digestive disorders

* Prevent other disease and routine illness with its powerful antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents

* Increase metabolism and promotes healthy thyroid function

* Boost your daily energy

* Rejuvenate your skin and prevent wrinkles

See Mercola.

COENZYME Q10: also known as Ubiquinone. “The conversion of energy from carbohydrates and fats toadenosine triposphate (ATP), the form of energy used by cells, requires the presence of coenzyme Q in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Coenzyme Q10 is synthesized in most human tissues. The biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 requires synthesis of the benzoquinone structure from either tyrosine or phenylalanine.

“Therapeutic use of statins, including simvastatin (Zocor), pravastatin (Pravachol), lovastatin (Mevacor, Altocor), and atorvastatin (Lipitor), has been shown to decrease blood plasma orserum levels of coenzyme Q10 (83-91).” Linus Pauling Institute

The first step in benzoquinone biosynthesis (the conversion of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid) requires vitamin B6 in the form of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (P-5-P). Thus, adequate vitamin B6 nutrition is essential for coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis. A pilot study in 29 patients and healthy volunteers found significant positive correlations between blood levels of coenzyme Q10 and measures of vitamin B6 nutritional status (6).Linus Paulng Institute

“The treatment was well tolerated and did not interfere with glycemic control, therefore CoQ10 may be used as adjunctive therapy in patients with associated cardiovascular diseases.” Eriksson JG, et al.

“The lipophilic antioxidant and mitochondrial respiratory chain redox coupler, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), has the potential to improve energy production in mitochondria by bypassing defective components in the respiratory chain as well as by reducing the effects of oxidative stress. We hypothesized that CoQ10 pretreatment prior to stress could improve the recovery of the myocardium after stress.” Rosenfeldt FL, etals. 2002,

“OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess effects of dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) on blood pressure and glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes, and to consider oxidative stress as a potential mechanism for any effects. These results show that CoQ supplementation may improve blood pressure and long-term glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes, but these improvements were not associated with reduced oxidative stress, as assessed by F2-isoprostanes. SPONSORSHIP: This study was supported by a grant from the NH&MRC, Australia.” Hodgson JM, et als. 2002,   CoQ10 may help in Parkinson Disease. Linus Pauling Institute.

For sources of Coenzyme Q10. See also Natural Cholesterol Lowering Remedies

COPPER: Zinc levels are related to copper levels and should be in balance. A high ratio of copper/zinc may cause zinc deficiency and could lead to violent behaviour. Negroes have higher copper levels than whites. Copper is needed in the production of melanin skin pigmentation. Pfeiffer, CC, 216, and in the production of biological energy (ATP). Copper deficiency can lead to problems in the synthesis of collagen and red blood cells, such as hemoglobin formation leading to anemia (Source: Linus Paul Institute). Question: Could excess copper lead to zinc deficiency and vulnerability to alcohol metabolism?

“The highest concentration of copper is found in the brain and liver. Copper is found in all other tissues in varying amounts, and about 50 percent of the total copper content of the body is found in the bones and muscles. It is essential in the production of collagen and the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. It plays a role in the production of the skin pigment melanin by converting the amino acid tyrosine. It is involved in production of hemoglobin. Copper influences iron absorption and mobilization from the liver and other tissue stores. Absorption of the mineral is increased by acids and inhibited by calcium (Kirschmann, 1996). Wearing copper bracelets is a long-term folk remedy for arthritis. This remains a controversial topic. See here.

Elevated hair copper levels may be related to criminal behaviour, Werbach 1991, 7

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) a zinc and copper or manganese containing enzyme which reacts with superoxide radicals to convert them to less dangerous. It is the fifth most common protein in the human body. All organisms not killed by air contain SOD. Intracellular cytoplasmic SOD contains Zinc & Copper, mitochondrial SOD contains zinc & manganese. Superoxide radicals is implicated in arthritis and cataract formation. Pearson 1982, 803.

“Elevated levels (often due to contaminated drinking water) can be toxic, causing profound mental and physical fatigue, poor memory, severe depression and insomnia. Werbach 1991, 273,

CORTISOL: The connection between high cortisol levels due to psychological stress and depression has been explained in the article. The Serotonin Connection.

“Social adversity may be a risk factor for depression, by increasing stress induced cortisol secretion, which impairs serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission.” Strickland PL et als 2002

Chronic fatigue syndrome patients display cortisol hyposecretion in saliva as well as plasma compared to patients with depression and healthy controls. Strickland PL 1998 See also: Chrousos GP 2000 and (1), (2)

“Recent evidence suggests that increased cortisol secretion, altered cortisol metabolism, and/or increased tissue sensitivity to cortisol may link insulin resistance, hypertension, and obesity. In summary, in patients with glucose intolerance, cortisol secretion, although normal, is inappropriately high given enhanced central and peripheral sensitivity to glucocorticoids.” Andrews RC, et als. 2002,

“Insulin resistance has been proposed as a mediator of the association between risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the population. The clinical syndrome of glucocorticoid excess

(Cushing’s syndrome) is associated with glucose intolerance, obesity and hypertension. By opposing the actions of insulin, glucocorticoids could contribute to insulin resistance and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors.” Andrews RC, Walker BR, 1999,

CURCUMIN (TURMERIC): “Administration of turmeric or Curcumin to diabetic rats reduced the blood sugar” Arun N, Nalini N. 2002, Antitumor agent. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients June 2001

DEPRESSION and INSULIN RESISTANCE: Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine showing 82 studies that  link hypoglycemia (insulin resistance) with depression…. here.

Depressive patients showed decreased glucose tolerance. Okamura F et al, 1999. and Okamura et als 2000,

“Depressed patients demonstrated significantly higher basal glucose levels, greater cumulative glucose responses after the GTT, and larger cumulative insulin responses after the GTT than control subjects.” Winokur A et als. (1988)

“One of the predictive factors of treatment-resistant depression is the syndrome of relative insulin resistance”Bech P, et als. 1999,

“Since insulin resistance is positively associated with the development of diabetes, we hypothesised—given that disturbed glucoregulatory functions behind the development of diabetes might be associated with pathophysiological changes in depression—that insulin resistance should be positively correlated with depressive symptoms.” Timonen M, (2005) and

Timonen et als (2005)

“Research has shown that depression is commonly associated with diabetes. People who have both diabetes and depression tend to have more severe symptoms of both diseases, higher rates of work disability and use more medical services than those who only have diabetes alone.” Science Update, 1 March 2010

“Stress is commonly associated with a variety of psychiatric conditions, including major depression, and with chronic medical conditions, including diabetes and insulin resistance.”  Wolkowitz OM, et als. 2001,

“Insulin resistance has been associated with people diagnosed with depression. Conversely, it has also been documented that diabetics have an increased risk of depression. Evidence suggests that insulin activity plays a role in serotonergic activity by increasing the influx of tryptophan into the brain. This increased influx of tryptophan has been shown to result in an increase in serotonin synthesis. In accordance with the serotonin theory of depression, it may be possible to treat depression by increasing insulin activity. The antioxidant alpha lipoic acid has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and is used to treat people with diabetes. Therefore, the nutrient alpha lipoic acid should be clinically tested as an adjunct treatment for depression.” Salazar MR., 2000,

“An association between affective disorders and alterations in glucose utilization has been recognized. The authors administered a 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) to 28 depressed patients and 21 healthy volunteer control subjects and measured serum glucose as well as plasma insulin and glucagon responses. Depressed patients demonstrated significantly higher basal glucose levels, greater cumulative glucose responses after the GTT, and larger cumulative insulin responses after the GTT than control subjects. Values for cumulative glucagon did not significantly differ between groups. These findings indicate the presence of a functional state of insulin resistance during major depressive illness and suggest the presence of a more generalized biological disturbance in some depressed patients.” Winokur A, et als. 1988,

“Glucose utilization, serum insulin, human growth hormone, and free fatty acids were studied in 18 unipolar depressed patients and 14 normal controls, using the intravenous glucose tolerance test. [But] endogenous depression was associated with lowered glucose utilization rate with insulin resistance.” Wright JH, et als. 1978,

“Depression is often associated with insulin resistance, owing to cortisol overproduction; conversely, many studies suggest that diabetics are at increased risk for depression. Recent evidence indicates that insulin is transported through the blood-brain barrier and influences brain function via widely distributed insulin receptors on neurons. These receptors are particularly dense on catecholaminergic synaptic terminals, and, while effects are variable dependent on brain region, several studies indicate that insulin promotes central catecholaminergic activity, perhaps by inhibiting synaptic reuptake of norepinephrine. This may rationalize anecdotal reports of improved mood in clinical depressives and diabetics receiving the insulin-sensitizing nutrient chromium picolinate. This nutrient, perhaps in conjunction with other insulin-sensitizing measures such as low-fat diet and aerobic exercise training (already shown to be beneficial in depression), should be tested as an adjuvant for the treatment and secondary prevention of depression” McCarty MF. 1994,

Psychological stress may lead to increased cortisol levels, interfering with serotonin synthesis causing endogenous depression. Strickland PL et als 2002 .

“For the six countries with available data for the primary analysis, there was a highly significant correlation between sugar consumption and the annual rate of depression (Pearson correlation 0.948, P=0.004). Naturally, a correlation does not necessarily imply etiology.” Westover AN, et al. 2002,

Both folate and vitamin B12 deficiency may cause similar neurologic and psychiatric disturbances including depression, dementia. These nutrients are required in the the production of SAM-e, and anti-depressant  substance present in every cell of the body. Bottiglieri T, 1996 Coppen A et al. (2005) Related Articles

Most prevalent health conditions in order of frequency were: depression, allergies, low back pain, arthritis, cardiovascular disease and poor digestion. Most deficient minerals were chromium, magnesium, zinc and calcium. Alcoholism, drug abuse, criminal activities Campbell JD 2001

Obese subjects with psychiatric manifestations ranging from those of melancholic depression to anxiety with perception of ‘uncontrollable’ stress, frequently have mild hypercortisolism, while carefully screened obese subjects with no such manifestations are eucortisolemic. The former may have stress-induced glucocorticoid-mediated visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations, Chrousos GP 2000

Noradrenergic and serotonergic abnormalities have long been suspected in patients with major depression. Hypersecretion of cortisol as well as the presence of cortisol receptors in the brain is suggested as the pathway for monoamine change. Dinan TG 1996

Preliminary observations suggest that chromium may potentiate antidepressant pharmacotherapy for dysthymic disorder. Controlled studies are indicated to test the validity of these initial observations. McLeod MN 1999

Negative finding in a study supplementing elderly people with chromium with stable impaired glucose intolerance. Uusitupa MI, 1992,.

Some epidemiological, experimental and clinical data favour the hypothesis that polyunsaturated fatty acids could play a role in the pathogenesis and/or the treatment of depression. Colin A, 2003,

“We investigated relationships between severity of depression and levels and ratios of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. We suggest, however, that our findings provide a basis for studying the effect of the nutritional supplementation of depressed subjects, aimed at reducing the AA/EPA ratio in tissues and severity of depression.” Adams PB et als 1996,

“Recently, it was hypothesised that a decreased consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, may be a risk factor for depression and suicide. Currently, we do not have sufficient evidence that cholesterol-lowering therapies increase the risk factor for suicide” Brunner J et als, 2002, But see a study showing that low cholesterol concentrations were associated with increased risk of suicide. BMJ 1996;313:649-651

Depression may be caused by frequent consumption of caffeine or sucrose (sugar). Possible deficiencies: biotin, folic acid, pyridoxine (B6), riboflavin, thiamine, vitamin B12 or vitamin C, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium or potassium. Or excess magnesium, vanadium, Look for food sensitivities. Nutritional supplements; lithium, rubidium, phenylalanine or tyrosine (nutritional precursors to norepinephrine). S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), Hypericin in St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum). Werbach, 1991, 123,

“Hypercortisolemic depressed patients suffer from resistance to insulin and increased visceral fat. The fact that hypercortisolemia reverses depression-related fat loss, particularly in the visceral area, might partially explain why major depression can be considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders.” Weber-Hamann B, et als. 2002,

“A high association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depressive illness has been reported. Insulin resistance during depressive illness might contribute to the linkage between depression and type 2 diabetes.”Chiba M, et als. 2000,

“Commons [triggers] for Depression and Fatigue; Sugar, Honey and glucose, Yeasted foods. G Samra, The Allergy Connection, 91.

Depression can lead to criminal offences such as shoplifting.

Elevated copper levels can lead to depression and violence.

Depression may be due to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, a coenzyme that converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and may be responsible for elevated lactate, associated with anxiety. Werbach 1991, 52

Self-harming is associated with depression.

There is a significant association between Depression and Insulin Resistance. See for more here and here.

Conventional treatment of depression centering around medications and/or psychotherapy show disappointing results. See below

DEPRESSION AND FISH OIL: Studies showing the beneficial effects of supplementation of fish oil (eicosapentaenoic acid EPA) in the treatment of depression. Google Scholar Search and general Google Search.


“Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have found a mutation in the human serotonin transporter gene, hSERT, in unrelated families with OCD. A second variant in the same gene of some patients with this mutation suggests a genetic “double hit,” resulting in greater biochemical effects and more severe symptoms. Among the 10 leading causes of disability worldwide, OCD is a mental illness characterized by repetitive unwanted thoughts and behaviors” NIH Press Office

“Gene More Than Doubles Risk Of Depression Following Life Stresses

Among people who had inherited two copies of the stress-sensitive short version of the serotonin transporter gene (s/s), 43 percent developed depression following four stressful life events in their early twenties, compared to 17 percent among people with two copies of the stress-protective long version (l/l). About 17 percent of the 847 subjects carried two copies of the short version, 31 percent two copies of the long version, and 51 percent one copy of each version. (Source: Avshalom Caspi,Ph.D., University of Wisconsin)” Avshalom Caspi and PubMed Study.

Another study found that one gene called MKP-1 was increased more than twofold in the brain tissues of depressed individuals. PsychCentral October 2010


DEPRESSION AND NUTRITION: For scholarly articles see 24 pages of abstracts at:   “Depression and Nutrition” —> Pubmed and Google Scholar


DIABETIC GENE is responsible for the tendency for Hypoglycemia and diabetes to run in families. If mental illness is closely associated with insulin resistance then it could also theoretically account for the genetic influence on mental illnesses such as alcoholism, schizophrenia, depression, anxieties.

One gene has been found on he short arm of chromosome 11. “A significant increase has been demonstrated in the frequency of the UU allele in NIDDM compared with IDDM patients, and non-diabetic carriers of UU. The UU allele shows a delayed insulin response to oral glucose and reduced glucose tolerance with age.” Macleod, J (Ed) 459. See also Holden RJ,  Mooney PA, Newman JC. Schizophrenia: an extended etiological explanation. Med Hypotheses. 1994 Feb; 42(2):115-23. Review, which suggests a diabetic gene in schizophrenics.

The question of a diabetic gene may be more complex; Genetic of Diabetics ADA.

For a popular book by psychiatrist Dr Chris Reading et al. on the influence of one’s family tree on mental illness

DIABETIC RETINOPATHY: Administration of Ginkgo biloba extract may protect against diabetic retinopathy. Doly M 1986, Doly M, 1992, Droy-Lefaix MT, 1991,

The herb Bilberry may improve condition.

“Thirty-one patients with various types of retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy n=20, retinitis pigmentosa n=5, macular degeneration n=4, hemorrhagic retinopathy due to anticoagulant therapy) were investigated with regard to the effect of anthocyanosides (found in Vaccinium myrtillus Bilberry extract standardized for an anthocyanidin content of 25% at a dose of 160 mg to 480 mg daily) on the retinal vessels. All patients improved, especially in patients with diabetic retinopathy, a positive influence on the permeability and tendency to hemorrhage was observed. The importance of internal treatment of the primary disease is pointed out.” Sharrer A et al. 1981, and Werbach, 1994, 138-9,

“In experimental and clinical studies, Lipoic acid (LA) markedly reduced the symptoms of diabetic pathologies, including cataract formation, vascular damage, and polyneuropathy. To develop a better understanding of the preventative and therapeutic potentials of LA, much of the current interest is focused on elucidating its molecular mechanisms in redox dependent gene expression.” Packer L, et als. 2001,

“Lipoic Acid has been used in Germany for over 30 years for the treatment of diabetes-induced neuropathy.”Evans Jl et al. 2000, For treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy See herb Herbs2000

DIGESTIVE ENZYMES: “Hypo- and achlorhydria were found in 19.2 per cent of the patients and hyperchlorhydria in 15.4 per cent” [in a group of 26 diabetic patients]. Hypoglycemics should consider digestive enzymes [my own]. Dinkov I, et als. 1977,

DRUG ADDICTION & ADDICTS: “The results indicate that substance abusers with high levels of self-reported antisocial personality and aggressive behavior have altered neuroendocrine responses to glucose challenge, although there was no evidence of hypoglycemia.” Fishbein DH et als. 1992, Fishbein at als 1989,

“These data further support the hypothesis of altered serotonergic activity in aggressive and impulsive behaviors in substance abusers.” Fishbein DH, Lozovsky D, et al 1989,

“Kathleen DesMaisons , M.Ed., President of Radiant Recovery in Burlington, California, believes that many addicted people have an actual flaw in the way they process sugar and carbohydrates. This flaw in metabolization causes an addict to respond to sugar as if it were an alcohol and to white flour products as if it were sugar. She explains “Genetically, these people have biochemically sensitive bodies which invite chemical imbalance.Substances like sugar, by creating insulin and rapidly penetrating the cell wall, actually alter the permeability of the cell””. Strohecker 486,

“Dr Chaitow points to the link between brain chemistry and food addictions. Serotonin (another neurotransmitter) is a calming, analgesic-like substance which is secreted in response to carbohydrate and sugar consumption. “Sugar addiction” she says, “may be a misguided attempt to replenish serotonin in the system.”

Drug Addiction Recovery: May take nine months.

“The main finding was that, in methamphetamine abusers who were able to stay drug-free for at least 9 months, dopamine transporter levels showed significant improvement, approaching the level observed in control subjects. In abusers studied within 6 and after 9 months, the longer the period between the first and second evaluation, the larger the increase in dopamine transporter levels. Cognitive and motor function showed a trend toward improvement on some tests, but these changes were not statistically significant.”Brookhaven National Laboratory Dec. 2001,

“The concentrations of testosterone in the plasma of 102 heroin addicts assigned to a Methadone Program were measured and compared with the values of 29 male healthy students as controls. Plasma testosterone levels were found to be significantly decreased in heroin addicts as compared to controls.” Friedrich G et als. 1990,

“These results demonstrate that heroin users have impaired insulin secretion to oral glucose but not to arginine and suggest that: the impaired insulin secretion in heroin addicts is not dependent on beta-cell exhaustion, and a selective inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion is operative in these subjects, as it happens in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.” Passariello N, et als. 1986,

“In the basal state, the heroin addicts had markedly reduced insulin responses to intravenous glucose and low glucose disappearance rates (p less than 0.01 vs controls). Hypoglycemic values were found in all addicts at the end of the test during salicylate infusion. Endomethacin pretreatment in five additional addicts also caused normalization of the impaired insulin responses to the intravenous glucose challenge and restored to normal the reduced glucose disappearance rate.” Giugliano D, et als, 1987,

“Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on 16 addicts and 16 control subjects. A flat delayed glucose response was demonstrated, with hyperinsulinemia, elevated plasma growth hormone and normal plasma cortisol in heroin addicts compared with control subjects.” Ghodse AH 1977,

“From the results obtained, it appears that in heroin addicts the glycemic response to the glucose load shows a delayed peak time. The insulin curves show increased insulin peaks, delayed peak time and prolonged hyperinsulinemia.” Brambilla F, et als. 1976,

“In the present study, 72% of the heroin addicts who sought treatment demonstrated reduced adrenal cortisol reserve. Effective immune and stress responses are dependent on adrenal cortisol reserve. This finding provides an explanation for the heroin addict’s vulnerability to AIDS and other infectious diseases.” Tennant F, et als, 1991,

“Heroin addiction seems to produce a beta-cell failure and contemporaneously a state of hyperinsulinaemia. We conclude that chronic heroin addiction may produce a change in the rate of hepatic extraction of insulin.”Zandomeneghi R et als. 1988,

“Heroin use was consistently associated with low plasma testosterone levels in narcotic addicts. Heroin addicts maintained on high dosage methadone (80-150 mg/day) also had depressed testosterone levels. Patients on low dosage methadone maintenance (10-60 mg/day) had testosterone levels which were not significantly different from normal adult male controls. An inverse relationship between methadone dosage and plasma testosterone occurred during methadone detoxification.” Mendelson JH et als. 1975,

Heroin addicts show that they have abnormal sexual hormones, which can contribute to infertility. Cicero TJ, et als. 1975,  Rasheed A, Tareen IA 1995,

Drug addicts have high copper levels. “The result of the study show that in the examined group [of drug addicts], copper serum concentrations (1.35 mg/L) upon admission to the clinic were higher than in the control group (1.11 mg/L) but decreased during hospitalization (1.18 mg/L).” Piekoszewski W, et als. 2000,

“ Copper and bromine showed a significant rise in whole blood (male) (22 and 32%, respectively), while zinc, iron, manganese, calcium, sulfur phosphorus, potassium, and chlorine showed a significant drop (49, 8, 25, 34, 21, 51, 61, and 72%, respectively) in proportion to the period of heroin intake (6 yr) and in comparison with the control group.” Elnimr T, et als. 1996,

Drug Addiction & Dopamine:

Dr. Nora Volkow, Brookhaven’s Associate Laboratory Director for Life Sciences and the lead author of the study, commented, “We know from past studies that drug addicts and alcoholics have fewer dopamine receptors than people who are not addicted to drugs or alcohol. In our current research, subjects who were not drug abusers and reported the effect of the stimulant as pleasant – as most cocaine abusers do – had dopamine levels similar to those in cocaine abusers. Thus, the hypothesis that people with fewer dopamine receptors may take drugs to activate these pleasure circuits may be one of the factors that predisposes a person to drug abuse. Other biological as well as genetic and environmental factors are likely to contribute to the susceptibility to drug abuse and addiction.” Brookhaven Lab. See also: Dr Nora Volkow.

DRUG COMPANIES: The influence of drug companies on governments, their commercial activities see:

Drug Approvals

Drug Industry

Research of Drugs 

Drug Companies

How Drug Companies control the Nutritional Supplements Industry.


DRUG/HERB Interactions

Go to:

DRUGS & VIOLENCE: “Positive drug toxicology was present in over half of all firearm death victims during this time. Cocaine, cannabis, opiates, and alcohol accounted for almost all of these deaths with drug-positive toxicology.”

Galea S, et als. 2002,  see Violence

EXERCISE can reduce a prediabetic (hypoglycemic) condition. Duncan GE et als 2003,

Exercise and depression,

“In animal studies conducted elsewhere, exercise has been found to increase dopamine release and to raise the number of dopamine receptors,” in a Science Daily article.

FENUGREEK (Trigonella foenum graecum) 100 gm defatted fenugreek seed powder for 10 days to type I insulin dependent diabetics reduced fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL, improved the glucose tolerance test and halved 24-h urinary glucose excretion,

Madar Z et al (1988), PubMed Studies for Fenugreek for Diabetes

FOOD ADDICTION: Certain foods such as fat and/or sugar are capable of promoting “addiction” with increased risk for comorbid conditions such as obesity, early weight gain, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse as well as with relapse and treatment challenges. Corwin RL et al. (2009)

GAMBLING: “Cognitive correction techniques were used first to target gamblers’ erroneous perceptions about randomness, and then to address issues of relapse prevention. Post-treatment results indicated that 88% of the treated gamblers no longer met the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling compared to only 20% in the control group.” Ladouceur R, et als. 2003,

“Depression rather than gambling specific characteristics, marital difficulties, or the presence of illegal behaviors appear to be related to the risk of suicidality.” Maccallum F, et al. 2003,

“It was concluded that a history of pathological gambling is associated with previous attempted suicide, and that the association may be due to a common factor–”mental illness.”” Newman SC, et al. 2003,

“Tryptophan-depleted volunteers showed reduced discrimination between magnitudes of expected gains associated with different choices.”[in gambling] Rogers RD et als. 2003,

“These preliminary results suggest that nefazodone [an antidepressant] may be effective in reducing symptoms of pathological gambling and is well tolerated.” Pallanti S, et als. 2002,

“A younger age of GB [gambling behaviour] onset is seen for girls than boys and is correlated with a history of suicide attempts, diagnosis of depression, number of symptoms of oppositional behavior, cluster B personality disorders, and a higher need for psychiatric treatment.” Kaminer Y, et als. 2002,

“ In addition, 2 key variables (i.e., disabling depression and dissatisfaction with one’s personal life) emerged as predictors of transitions to healthier levels of disordered gambling.” Shaffer HJ, et al. 2002,

“This study assessed the frequency of impulse control disorders (ICDs) and their association with bulimia, compulsive buying, and suicide attempts in a population of depressed inpatients. We found 18 cases of intermittent explosive disorder, three cases of pathological gambling, four cases of kleptomania, three cases of pyromania, and three cases of trichotillomania. Patients with co-occurring ICDs were significantly younger (mean age = 37.7 versus 42.8 years). Patients with kleptomania had a higher number of previous depressive episodes (5.7 versus 1.3), and patients with pyromania had a higher number of previous depressions (3.3 versus 1.3, p =.01). Bipolar disorders were more frequent in the ICD+ group than in the ICD- group (19% versus 1.3%, p =.002), Lejoyeux M, et als. 2002, —> Impulse control.

“Psychiatric disorders strongly associated with alcohol disorders were, other drug abuse or dependence, major depression, simple phobia, antisocial personality disorder, tobacco dependence, and pathological gambling.”Cho MJ, et als. 2002,

“Citalopram appears to be an effective treatment for pathological gambling, and this benefit was independent of its antidepressant properties. Future studies employing a control group will be important to examine the extent of the response to nonspecific factors of treatment.” Zimmerman M, et als. 2002,

Association between gambling and depression.

GARLIC AND ONIONS: the active ingredients believed to have blood sugar lowering action are the sulfur containing compounds, allicin and allyl propyl disulphide (APDS) although other constituents such as flavonoids play a role. For studies see: Werbach et al 1994, 145,

GLUCOMANNAN: “Glucomannan delays stomach emptying, leading to a more gradual absorption of dietary sugar; this effect can reduce the elevation of blood sugar levels that is typical after a meal. Controlled studies have found that after-meal blood sugar levels are lower in people with diabetes given glucomannan in their food, and overall diabetic control is improved with glucomannan-enriched diets according to preliminary and controlled trials. Glucomannan may help weight loss by occupying space in the stomach, thereby making a person feel full.”

See also: Glucomannan. Chen HL, et als 2003, Gallaher DD, et als 2002,

GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS (GM Foods): People concerned about the influence of GM foods on human health should be familiar with scientific studies showing that GM foods – such as Soya, Corn, Cotton, Canola –  may affect the intestinal flora of human digestive system. This may have serious consequences for human health, such as toxins, allergies, infertility, infant mortality, immune dysfunction, stunted growth, accelerated aging and death. See: 84 minutes DVD by Jeffrey Smith.

The Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) claims to carry out safety assessments on a case-by case basis. But it is should be remembered that the agency itself does not carry out the safety testing as it states:“It is the responsibility of companies that have developed GM foods to demonstrate the safety of that food and to supply FSANZ with the raw data from scientific studies to prove this.” This is the same policy of the ineffective American FDA that is meant to protect consumers against the processing of harmful foods. GM foods must be identified on labels with the words “genetically modified”. However, it would be better if labels showed “Non-GMO Food” to insure that humans are not exposed to any GM foods at all.

GLUCOSE: “[The brain] consumes about 120 g daily, which corresponds to an energy input of about 420 kcal. The brain accounts for some 60 per cent of the utilization of glucose by the whole body in the resting state”.Stryer 634,

“Cerebral tissue is reported to use from 0.23 to 0.57 gm of glucose per hour per 100 gm wet brain and rates as one of the highest consumers among normal tissues.” Sugar Feeds Cancer p.121

“Results suggest that glucose ingestion may affect in vitro measures of cellular immunity by increasing serum insulin, which complexes with mitogens for binding sites on lymphocytes”.

Glucose is the major source of biological energy called Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). “ATP molecules act therefore as short-term ‘biological batteries’, retaining energy until required for such purposes as active transport, synthesis of new materials, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction. An active cell requires more than two million molecules of ATP per second to drive its biochemical machinery.” Hale et als. 1995, Collins Dictionary of Biology ,p66.see here.

“Thus, it is widely believed that the evolution of the sophisticated means of maintaining a relatively constant level of blood glucose, ca 70 to 90 mg/dl, reflects the need to maintain a constant supply of glucose to the brain.” HR Lieberman et als. Nutritional neuroscience.


Nine studies showing that impairment in mitochondrial energy production of ATP from glucose may be a mechanism underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, like bipolar disorder, depression and schizophrenia. Source.

GLYCEMIC INDEX: “The glycemic index of food is a ranking of foods based on their immediate effect on blood glucose (blood sugar) levels. Carbohydrate foods that break down quickly during digestion have the highest glycemic indexes. Their blood sugar response is fast and high. Carbohydrates that break down slowly, releasing glucose gradually”See Sydney University Glycemic Index web site.

“Although I applaud the concept of Glycemic Index I believe I have detected a major flaw in the methodology and believe there is a need for a new Glycemic Index to be produced which compares the height of the rise from fasting to peak level for all foods, as they compare to glucose. The current Glycemic Index is based on an area of rise under the sugar curve in the first two hours. With this flawed methodology foods such as carrots, potatoes, rice and bread have Glycemic Indices that are wrongly higher than their actual impact on the patient” Samra, 2003, 157

GLYCERINE (GLYCERIN, GLYCEROL): Conversion of glycerol (Glycerine) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate –> glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate –> pyruvate or –> ATP. Glycerol (glycerine) bypasses glucose and enters glycolysis as Phosphoglyceraldehyde as illustrated here and here. Thus it is an alternative source of energy without affecting insulin over-stimulation. See also Stryer 472 One tablespoon of Glycerine mixed in a glass of water and a dash of lemon for taste may help in withdrawing from sugar (ratio of 20 mls of glycerine to 285 mls of water).

Take glycerine to treat anxiety, depression or withdraw from drugs, overcome sugar cravings, treat insomnia, when having to face a stressful event (like job interview, exam, public speaking). See also Glycerin by Dr George Samra. It should be remembered that glycerine does not “cure” unstable blood sugar levels, it is temporary remedy.

GLYCINE —> Schizophrenia

GOUT: Insulin resistance (IR) has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of gout.” Dessein PH, et als., 2000, For more studies showing an association between gout (hyperuricemia) and insulin resistance as in  metabolic syndrome, see here.

GREEN TEA: “Herbs have been used for medicinal purposes, including the treatment of diabetes, for centuries. Plants containing flavonoids are used to treat diabetes in Indian medicine and the green tea flavonoid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), is reported to have glucose-lowering effects” Waltner-Law ME, et als., 2002,

“Green tea was significantly more effective than the black tea. These results show in the hamster model that black and green tea improve the risk factors for heart disease by both hypolipemic and antioxidant mechanisms and possibly a fibrinolytic effect.” Vinson JA 1998,

L-theanine, an amino acid found in green tea, produces a pronounced feeling of tranquility in as little as fifteen (15) minutes. L-theanine increases the activity of GABA, a neurotransmitter (i.e. natural messenger in the brain) that promotes relaxation and reduces anxiety. L-theanine also stimulates the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for confidence and a sense of well-being. Theanine is a component in Seredyn

Clinical trials Black tea and diabetes

GUGULIPID: A herbal compound that lowers both cholesterol and sugar levels. See Mukul myrrh

GYMNEMA, GURMAR (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves of this woody climber grows in tropical forests and has been used to enhance endogenous insulin production in both type I and II diabetes. GS4, is a water soluble extract of the leaves and unlike the crude extract, has removed two contaminants which inhibit absorption and alters the taste of sweetness. Werbach et al, 1994 146,

“These data suggest that the beta cells may be regenerated/repaired in Type 2 diabetic patients on GS4 supplementation. This is supported by the appearance of raised insulin levels in the serum of patients after GS4 supplementation.” Baskaran K, 1990, Shanmugasundaram ER, Rajeswari G,, Shanmugasundaram ER, Gopinath KL, 1990,

HEART ATTACKS: “Diabetes is a risk factor for increased mortality after a myocardial infarction. In conclusions, our study in an unselected patient population demonstrates that admission plasma glucose level independently predicts 1 year mortality even in absence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Further studies evaluating the effect of acute insulin intervention in reducing mortality are warranted.” Bolk J,et als. 2001, See also

HERB - DRUG INTERACTIONS: “Herbal medicinals are being used by an increasing number of patients who typically do not advise their clinicians of concomitant use. Known or potential drug-herb interactions exist and should be screened for. If used beyond 8 weeks, Echinacea could cause hepatotoxicity and therefore should not be used with other known hepatotoxic drugs, such as anabolic steroids, amiodarone, methotrexate, and ketoconazole. However, Echinacea lacks the 1,2 saturated necrine ring associated with hepatotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may negate the usefulness of feverfew in the treatment of migraine headaches. Feverfew, garlic, Ginkgo, ginger, and ginseng may alter bleeding time and should not be used concomitantly with warfarin sodium. Additionally, ginseng may cause headache, tremulousness, and manic episodes in patients treated with phenelzine sulfate. Ginseng should also not be used with estrogens or corticosteroids because of possible additive effects. Since the mechanism of action of St John’s Wort is uncertain, concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is ill advised. Valerian should not be used concomitantly with barbiturates because excessive sedation may occur. Kyushin, licorice, plantain, uzara root, hawthorn, and ginseng may interfere with either digoxin pharmacodynamically or with digoxin monitoring. Evening primrose oil and borage should not be used with anticonvulsants because they may lower the seizure threshold. Shankhapushpi, an Ayurvedic preparation, may decrease phenytoin levels as well as diminish drug efficacy. Kava when used with alprazolam has resulted in coma. Immunostimulants (eg, Echinacea and zinc) should not be given with immunosuppressants (eg, corticosteroids and cyclosporine). Tannic acids present in some herbs (eg, St John’s wort and saw palmetto) may inhibit the absorption of iron. Kelp as a source of iodine may interfere with thyroid replacement therapies. Licorice can offset the pharmacological effect of spironolactone. Numerous herbs (eg, karela and ginseng) may affect blood glucose levels and should not be used in patients with diabetes mellitus.” Miller LG. 1998,

Ginseng may produce manic symptoms. A special risk situation seems to be affective patients under antidepressant medication.” Vazquez I, et al. 2002,

Some studies on Kava (for menopausal symptoms, depression, anxiety) St John’s Wort (mild depression), Ginkgo Biloba (dementia) and some other herbs. See also Medicine- Herb/Food Interactions.

HERBALISM: HerbMed is perhaps the best website on herbalism, with references to scientific studies on the various herbs. Go to the web site and either click the alphabet or enter term in the search engine. See also Clinical Nutrition above.

HERBS: “St John’s wort, ginkgo, saw palmetto now have sufficient clinical studies to consider orthodox use.”Pinn G. 2001,

“There is still insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions about the efficacy of individual herbs and supplements for diabetes; however, they appear to be generally safe. The available data suggest that several supplements may warrant further study. The best evidence for efficacy from adequately designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is available for Coccinia indica and American ginseng. Chromium has been the most widely studied supplement. Other supplements with positive preliminary results include Gymnema sylvestre, Aloe vera, vanadium, Momordica charantia, and nopal.” Yeh GY, et als. 2003,

HERBS WITH HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS: (possibly enhancing insulin sensitivities in hypoglycemics). Warning: herbs with hypoglycemic effects that are beneficial for diabetics, may not be so for hypoglycemics.


Bitter lemon


Aloe vera



Mukul myrrh



Prickly-pear cactus


Green Tea

Holy Basil


Coconut Oil

See also: here

HOLY BASIL: (Ocimum basilicum) Holy basil, like sweet (culinary) basil, comes from India where it is revered as a sacred herb. The Egyptians burned a mixture of basil and myrrh to appease their gods. Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum) was introduced in Europe as a seasoning for food. The herb has very important medicinal properties – notably its ability to reduce blood sugar levels. It also prevents peptic ulcers and other stress related conditions like hypertension, colitis and asthma. Basil is also used to treat cold and reduce fever, congestion and joint pain. It’s known to reduce the stress hormone, cortisol, which in turn reduces the fat the body stores in the abdomen and around the waist. HerbMed

HYDROCHLORIC ACID: The secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach plays an important role in protecting the body against pathogens ingested with food or water. A gastric fluid pH of 1 to 2 is deleterious to many microbial pathogens; 12870767. Hydrochloric acid is also required to cleave vitamin B12 from its protein carrier, Lisa Hark et al, 189. Some authors claim that HCl is the gateway to all digestive processes and that any imbalance may lead to immune disorders responsible for all sorts of degenerative diseases. Check your stomach for sufficient hydrochloric acid here.

HYPERGLYCEMIA: Hospitalized patients with hyperglycemia, poor insulin control, have poorer prognoses: “Our results indicate that in-hospital hyperglycemia is a common finding and represents an important marker of poor clinical outcome and mortality in patients with and without a history of diabetes. Patients with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia had a significantly higher mortality rate and a lower functional outcome than patients with a known history of diabetes or normoglycemia.”  Umpierrez GE, et als., 2002,

HYPERTENSION: “ In vitro it was shown that glucose, in a specific, dose- and time-dependent manner, can directly and coordinately alter intracellular ions, increasing cytosolic free calcium, while suppressing intracellular free magnesium and pH levels.” [IOW: High insulin levels make the intracellular Magnesium decrease and the Calcium increase, causing hypertension. High insulin flushes out magnesium but not calcium.] Barbagallo M, et al. 1994,  Hyperinsulinism can cause magnesium to be dumped in the urine, upsetting the delicate balance of intracellular magnesium and calcium ions that regulate blood pressure, thereby contributing to hypertension.RAS Hemat Page 38

HYPOGLYCEMIA: For a good alternative article on hypoglycemia at Newtreatment web site.

How to test for hypoglycemia with the special Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) designed by Dr George Samra. See also: Testing

How to test for hypoglycemia with a paper-and-pencil test called the NBI.

Books see Samra, Dr George ,THE HYPOGLYCEMIC CONNECTION II, One Stop Allergies, PO Box 394 Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia Fax: 612-9588-5290 See also Committee Members.

High sugar diet affects the immune system, Sanchez A et als 1973.

Negative findings on hypoglycemia: Negative report on GTT, Johnson DD, et als. 1980 , Reactive hypoglycemia uncommon: Hogan MJ, et als. 1983,


The fact that alcohol results in a dose-related elevation in insulin levels with unaltered blood glucose and free fatty acid responses in NIDDM points to an aggravation of insulin resistance. Hypoglycemics advised not to drink alcohol. Christiansen C, 1993

Article by R Cosford: Hyperinsulinism, Hypoglycemia, Obesity and Diabetes. Here go to page 2

“Hypoglycemia and Atherosclerosis” by J Plesman go to page 6 here.

“Hypoglycemia and Essential Fatty Acid” by J Plesman 1996 and go to page 7

“146 reasons how sugar can destroy your health” with supporting literature. by Dr Nancy Appleton

Do's and Don'ts of Hypoglycemia by Oberta Ruggiero

“In contrast, depression and negative schizophrenia represent another continuum of liability involving hypoglycaemia, hypodopaminergia, and hyposerotonergia. Essentially, this paper reaffirms a previously stated contention that mental illness, in its many guises, is a general manifestation of a diabetic brain state which has been termed ‘cerebral diabetes’.” Holden RJ 1995,

“It has been reported that depression and diabetes mellitus often occur together, and insulin resistance has been observed in patients with depression” Okamura F et als, 1999,

“We conclude that patients with depression have impaired insulin sensitivity and resultant hyperinsulinemia and that these abnormalities can be resolved after recovery from depression.”

Okamura F, Tashiro A, et als 2000,

For connection between hypoglycemia and violence —> violence below.

“In addition, the doubling in diabetes prevalence in Australia in the past 20 years, which is linked to increased obesity from consumption of energy-dense foods, including those with added sugars (sugar-sweetened drinks being particularly important), provides a strong rationale for retaining a dietary guideline for sugar.” O’Dea K, et al. 2001,

“Oral supplementation with MgCl(2) solution restores serum magnesium levels, improving insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients with decreased serum magnesium levels.” Rodriguez-Moran M, et als. 2003,

IMMUNODEPRESSION: High blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) suppress immune response and delays wound healing. Gore DC et als, 2001,  Mowlavi A et als., 2000, Several references in Werbach 1987, 243,

INCIDENCE OF DEPRESSION: About 9.5% of the US population aged 18 and over in a given year are affected by a Depressive, Dysthymic or Bipolar Disorder. Everyone will at some time in their life be affected by depression — their own or someone else’s, according to Australian Government statistics. (Depression statistics in Australia are comparable to those of the US and UK.) Pre-schoolers are the fastest growing market for antidepressant drugs. The rate of increase of depression among children is an astounding 12%. About 15% of the population of most developed countries suffer severe depression. 30% of  women are depressed. 54% of people believe depression is due to a personal weakness. An estimated 80% of depressed people are not currently having any treatment. 15% of depressed people will commit suicide.  Source

INOSITOL: See at Rich Sources


IMPULSE CONTROL: “individuals with poor impulse control tend to become hypoglycemic during an oral glucose tolerance test,” Roy A, et al. 1988, Sexual offenders may have poor impulse control. For 8 more studies see here. Sexual Abuse. —> Gambling,

INSOMNIA AND HYPOGLYCEMIA: “Hypoglycemia (2.8 mmol/l) was induced for 45 min by insulin infusion once during sleep and once at the same time of night while being awake. During sleep, the organism is less sensitive to hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia per se has an awakening effect.” Gais S, et als. 2003,

“Melatonin seems to be the natural hormone to facilitate sleep in insomniac patients and causes no hang over. When applied together with benzodiazepine it allows reduction of benzodiazepine without withdrawal effects. It should be applied 2 h before sleeping time in doses between 3 and 5 mg. Constant application of benzodiazepine reduced the production of natural melatonin in rats, supporting the evidence that long-term application of benzodiazepine in humans does not restore sleeping habits but reduces natural sleeping habits even more. Low melatonin levels were seen in bulimia or neuralgia and in women with fibromyalgia; replacement reduced pain, sleeping disorders, and depression in fibromyalgia and bulimia” Rohr UD et al. 2002,

INSULIN RESISTANCE “has been estimated to occur in up to 25% of the ‘normal’ non-diabetic population of the USA” Dr Robyn Cosford 1998 –> page 2

INULIN: Burdock root (Arctium lappa), dandelion root (Taraxacum officinalis) and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) contain inulin, a polyfructosan or fructose oligosaccharides that exerts beneficial effects on blood sugar control. The consumption of these roots, as vegetables or as teas, may be effective in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. Re Jerusalem artichoke, Rumessen JJ, et als. 1990,

Powdered burdock root fed to diabetics in the form of palatable crackers inhibited postprandial hyperglycemia after a starch meal. Silver AA et al. Ann Intern Med 5: 274-84, 1931 mentioned in Werbach 1994, 147 .

LEAKY GUT SYNDROME (LGS): “When toxic matter and undigested food, collected in the intestines as a result of bowel toxemia, are absorbed from the bowels into the bloodstream, the result is a recognized medical condition known as ‘leaky gut syndrome’”. “The undigested molecules act as antigens, foreign substances that provoke an immune reaction. Many of these antigens are similar in structure to normal body components, and the antibodies produced to fight them can destroy healthy tissues. Recent studies suggest this immune reaction contributes to, or may cause, rheumatoid arthritis and other degenerative diseases”Strohecker 144, and RAS Hemat p.394 [This immune reaction can affect any organ in the body, including the brain, but there appears to be only a few studies done on the relationship between Leaky Gut Syndrome and mental illness.]

“This study shows that nutritional depletion is associated with increased intestinal permeability and a decrease in villous height.” van der Hulst RR, et als. 1998,

“Stress can increase gut permeability, increase ion secretion by a mechanism involving neural stimulation or mast cells, increase mucin release and deplete goblet cells.” Hart A, et al. 2002,

“ A rationale is given for the hypothesis that the gut is the likely source of the antigens causing inflammatory arthritis, and the studies of this hypothesis to date are reviewed.” Rooney PJ, et als. 1990,

“We conclude that small intestinal passive permeability is increased in some patients with atopic eczema.”Ukabam SO, et als. 1984,

A good article on “Leaky Gut Syndrome” by Dr Zolta P Rona, –> page 7 and Dr Paul Ameisen  at: Leaky Gut Syndrome —> page 3

LIGHT THERAPY: for SAD and for migraines, See SAD below.

LIGHTING AND BEHAVIOUR: Alexander Schauss in his book “Diet, Crime and Delinquency” mentions “the standard cool-white fluorescent tubes and fixtures with solid diffusers (covers)”. In a study with hyperactive children scientists replaced these tubes with “full-spectrum fluorescent tubes that more closely duplicated natural daylight”. In this study the behaviour of hyperactive children were filmed using time lapse photography. “A dramatic improvement in behavior was demonstrated in hyperactive children. The first graders settled down and paid more attention to their teachers in the full-spectrum lighted rooms”.

“The body’s ability to absorb calcium was diminished by a lack of full-spectrum light from the sun”.

“Comparing a group of ten elderly men living under full-spectrum fluorescent with ten living under cool-fluorescent, it was found that over the winter calcium absorption in the cool-white group fell by 25 percent.” Under the heading “Using Color To Reduce Aggression” he writes; “I suggested that corrections officials try to use a ‘pink room’ (the pink color is 620 nanometers) to curb physically violent inmates or delinquents”.

“Dr Humphrey Osmond, a psychiatrist at Bryce Hospital in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, has had schizophrenic patients stare at pink cloth to reduce stress” These patients felt much more relaxed. Schauss, 1980, 90-93,

LITHIUM CARBONATE: administration in bipolar disorder can cause folic acid deficiency. Folic acid, vitamin B12 or Vitamin C may be deficient in Bipolar Patients. Calcium levels may be decreased in manic patients, omega-6 essential fatty acids and potassium chloride may reduce certain side effects of lithium, excess vanadium or L-Glutamine may cause mania and can be reduced by ascorbic acid (vitamin C), Nutritional precursors of neurotransmitters, L-phenylalanine, phosphatidylcholine (precursor of acetylcholine), L-tryptophan (precursor of serotonin) may be effective. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM-e) supplementation may reduce depression in bipolar patient, however patients may switch to mania. Werbach 1991, 81.  A low-saltdiet increases the risk of lithium toxicity; excessive salt reduces the drug’s efficacy.

Safflower oil may reverse lithium toxicity (tremor and ataxia), folic acid supplementation may improve condition, lithium affects sodium metabolism. See Drug/nutrient interaction.

“Weight gain is a frequent adverse effect associated with lithium use. Leptin is an adipocyte hormone, regulating food intake and energy balance providing the hypothalamus with information on the amount of body fat. In conclusion, our result suggest that leptin may be associated with lithium-induced weight gain.”Atmaca M, et als. 2002.

MAILLARD REACTION: “It is now known that glucose and other reducing sugars can react in our bodies with proteins and with nucleic acids like DNA and RNA to form complex compounds. These glycosylation reactions are known generally as the Maillard Reaction. It is the cause of the yellow brown colour (called Amadori products), that develop when foods containing proteins and sugars are heated in air in cooking.” “Because diabetics are hyperglycemic, i.e., have high blood sugar, they have high concentrations of proteins modified by the Maillard Reaction…..” and this may be responsible for the development of cataracts and atherosclerosis. Florence 50-1,

MARIJUANA: Significant impairment on a psychomotor performance task paralleled elevations in subjective effects, hormone effects and peak THC determinations. Marijuana affects hormones including reduction in testosterone, (related to sex drive and aggression), cortisol etc.. Cone EJ, 1986 . Barnett G et als 1983,Harclerode J 1984, Murphy LL et als 1994 (Rat study),

Marijuana use can lead to violence, and is a risk factor for schizophrenia. References

There is a significant association between use of marijuana and depression. References

MAX PLANCK: (1858-1947), German physicist and Nobel laureate, who was the originator of the quantum theory.: Quotation

“An important scientific innovation rarely, makes its way by gradually winning over and converting its opponents. What does happen is that its opponents gradually die out and that the growing generation is familiar with the idea from the beginning.”

MEDICAL JOURNALS: From article by Dr Ian Brighthope : “There are 30,000 biomedical journals in the world and they have grown steadily by 7% per year since the 17th century. Yet, according to the editor of the British Medical Journal, Richard Smith (October 1994), only about 15% of medical interventions are supported by solid scientific evidence. According to Professor David Eddy, of Duke University, only 1% of the articles in medical journals are scientifically sound and many treatments have never been assessed at all. If , according to Professor Eddy, it is time, as the total quality management gurus tell us, ‘that every defect is a treasure’, then we are sitting on King Solomon’s mine. There is a poverty of medical evidence to support the majority of present day medical practices.”

How the JAMA journal got funded see Mercola. For a further critique of medical practice see Death by Medicine by Gary Null at als.   See also:The Truth about Medical Journals by Ben Kage

MEDICINE seen as a religion. See: Modern Medicine: The New World Religion by Olivier Clerc.


“The symptoms of 81 premenopausal and 70 menopausal women were studied to determine the association with obesity, attitudes towards sexuality (ATS). We concluded that: (1) data indicative of insulin resistance correlated to both depression and sleep alterations; (2) overweight is related to NSSD [nonspecific symptoms of depression], sleep alterations, and hormonal changes.” Huerta R, et als. 1995,

METABOLIC TYPING DIET: The hypoglycemic diet should be adjusted to the individual. Find out whether you are the low carbohydrate, high protein or high fat metabolic type. “Generally speaking, eating a meal that is right for your metabolic type should produce marked and lasting improvement in your energy, your mental capacities, your emotional well-being, and leave you feeling well-satisfied for several hours.” Not all “low-carb diets” are the same. Metabolic Typing .

METHADONE: “These data indicate that methadone addiction produces a metabolic state similar to insulin-resistant diabetes.”  Sadava D, et als. 1997 (rat study)

“These data show that both heroin and methadone addiction may alter glucose metabolism, and, furthermore, stress the findings of similarities between opiate addicts and non-insulin dependent diabetics.” Ceriello A, et als. 1987,

MEMORY & HYPOGLYCEMIA: “All memory systems were impaired during acute hypoglycemia, with working memory and delayed memory being particularly susceptible. These findings are informative concerning the metabolic basis of adequate memory function and are of practical importance to people with insulin-treated diabetes, in whom hypoglycemia is common.” Sommerfield AJ,et als. 2003,

A study with rats investigating the results of administration of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba and their combination in Gincosam®, The results suggest that the Panax ginseng G115 and the Ginkgo biloba GK501 extracts possess properties similar in every respect to those of nootropic drugs. Petkov VD,, 1993,

Memory loss caused by Glucose Intolerance. Convit A, et als. 2003, See also Alzheimer’s Disease

MIGRAINES AND HEADACHES: Go to page 3 of in our Newsletters for an article by Dr Joachim Fluhrer –> page 3.

“Commons [triggers] for headaches and migraines are: Chocolate and cola drinks, Oranges, citrus fruits, Peanuts and peanut paste, Green beans and peas, Cow’s milk dairy, MSG (Code 621)” Dr Samra, The Allergy Connection, 81.

“The objective was to assess the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as a preventive treatment for migraine headaches. Thirty-one of 32 patients completed the study; 61.3% of patients had a greater than 50% reduction in number of days with migraine headache. From this open label investigation coenzyme Q10 appears to be a good migraine preventive. Placebo-controlled trials are now necessary to determine the true efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in migraine prevention.” Rozen TD, et al 2002.,

MUKUL MYRRH: “Dr. Mercola’s Comment: Clearly lowering one’s insulin levels is the first and most important key to optimizing cholesterol ratios. Occasionally other treatments are required. I have used gugulipid in the past and have been impressed with its ability to lower cholesterol. I was not aware that it was derived from myrrh. This is not a panacea to lower cholesterol, but it can be a useful modality while one makes the transition to the diet and exercise program that will provide a more effective strategy.”

MILK: Cow’s milk; reports from several Michigan detention facilities indicate that moderating the consumption of cow’s milk significantly reduced the incidence of antisocial behavior, Werbach 1991, 4,

NATURAL PRODUCTS USED IN DIABETES: (May be useful in hypoglycemia) Opuntia, karela, gymnema, tecoma, alpha lipoic acid, thioctic acid, ginseng, panaxans, nopal (prickly pear cactus), fenugreek, karela (bitter melon), gymnema, ginseng, tronadora, chromium, and alpha-lipoic acid. Shapiro K, Gong WC., 2002 See also:Herbal Remedies for Diabetes and Hypoglycemia


Phenylalanine –> Tyrosine –> L-Dopa –> Dopamine –> Norepinephrine —> Epinephrine (Adrenaline) Image Adrenaline synthesis

Tryptophan –> 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) –> Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine) –> Melatonin (Image)

Choline + Acetyl-CoA –> Acetylcholine

Glutamic acid –> Glutamine —> GABA (gamma-amino-butyric-acid) Source.


NIACIN DEFICIENCY: Known as Pellagra may be responsible for depression. When there is a deficiency of niacin (vitmin B3, nicotinamide, niacinamide), the body will use its available tryptophan to synthesize niacin. It takes 60 mg of tryptophan to produce 1 mg of niacin. Niacin supplementation may reduce depression. Niacin may cause a harmless flush, and a safe alternative would be inositol hexaniacininate. Head KA 2000,

Niacin at 500 mg daily enhances the conversion of lactate (high levels associated with anxiety) to pyruvate and may have a mionor tranquilzing effect. Werbach, 1991, 51.

NOISE SENSITIVITY: can increase with age, (Stephen A Stanfeld page 8), can be due to magnesium deficiency, (J D Kirshman Nutrition Almanac page 70.)(MA Schmidt page 56) (Evelyn Roehl page 231) See also:Calcium/Magnesium Ratio. See Other References

NUTRITIONAL MEDICINE —> “Clinical Nutrition

Post Graduate Degree courses in Nutritional Medicine for doctors ACNEM, and other professionals IACN.

NUTRIENTS AGAINST DRUGS AND ALCOHOL: Nutrients, and go to page 2 of Newsletter of September 1992.


OBESITY may be related to abnormal levels of dopamine, and exercise may increase dopamine. Wang GJ, et als. 2001, & Science Daily,

“Treatment with beta-blockers also results in insulin resistance, which may aggravate existing diabetes and elicit diabetes in predisposed patients. Overweight and obesity are frequently complicated with hypertension and angina pectoris, which are often treated with beta-blockers. The consequence may be aggravation of hypertension, insulin resistance and other atherogenic factors.” Astrup AV 1990,

Body Mass Index (BMI) measures your obesity by dividing

You weight in (in kg) = w/(h)2

Your height squared (in metres)

Thus if you weigh 75 kg and your height is 1.7 m then

72/ (1/7)2 = 75/ (1.7 x 1.7) = 26

An ideal BMI is 20-22. >30 = Obese.

Calculate your BMI  here.

Obesity: “Insulin resistance may result from the lack of adipocyte hormones (such as leptin) and increased metabolite (such as triglyceride) levels in nonadipose tissue. Mice with depleted adipocyte triglyceride levels typically are insulin sensitive and have normal or low liver and circulating triglycerides” Reitman ML 2002,

“Obesity is associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance underlies a constellation of adverse metabolic and physiological changes (the insulin resistance syndrome) which is a strong risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes and CHD. Adipose tissue in obesity becomes refractory to suppression of fat mobilization by insulin [meaning high insulin interferes with conversion of fat (triglydcerides) in fat cells to energy], and also to the normal acute stimulatory effect of insulin on activation of lipoprotein lipase (involved in fat storage).” Frayn KN. 2001, For studies associating Obesity with Depression see: PubMed Sources.

“In conclusion, monocytes from obese patients with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus, present increased intracellular insulin concentrations and these conditions are associated with a significant impairment of insulin receptor processing.” Benzi L, et als. 1999,

“Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) [may cause obesity] is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. It has become increasingly evident that insulin resistance plays a significant role both as a cause and result of the syndrome. Insulin resistance in PCOS seems to involve a postbinding defect in the insulin receptor and/or in the receptor signal transduction. Current research has focused on identifying a genetic predisposition for insulin resistance in this syndrome.” Sozen I, et al. 2000,

“However, experimental studies provide evidence that the ingestion of > or = 50 g sugar within 20-60 min of a meal results in reduced mealtime food intake, which suggests that appetite regulatory centers respond to sugar’s energy content. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that sugar consumption, as well as carbohydrate consumption, is associated with leanness, not obesity. Thus there is no evidence to support the hypothesis that sugar is unique among carbohydrates as a dietary component affecting food intake.”  Anderson GH 1995,

“In a study led by Dr. C. Ronald Kahn, President of Joslin Diabetes Center, in collaboration with researchers at Joslin and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, mice were bred to lack insulin receptors in their fat cells. Insulin is a hormone that moves sugar (glucose) from the blood into cells where it is used as fuel. Remarkably, these mice had a lean body mass and differed from control mice in that they were protected from obesity associated with age — and overeating. They were also protected from a condition called insulin-resistance that is associated with obesity and leads to diabetes.” The Discovery of Brown Fat by Dr C. Ronald Kahn (Video).

“Therefore, obese/insulin-resistant subjects are characterized by endothelial dysfunction and endothelial resistance to insulin’s effect on enhancement of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. This endothelial dysfunction could contribute to the increased risk of atherosclerosis in obese insulin-resistant subjects.”Steinberg HO, et als. 1999,

“The molecular mechanisms underlying the link between obesity and diabetes have been elusive. A new protein, christened ‘resistin’, can now be added to the panoply of factors that may be involved.” Flier JS 2001,

“Although obesity has multiple etiologies, an overlooked possibility is an infectious origin. We previously identified two viruses, SMAM-1, an avian adenovirus (Ad), and Ad-36, a human adenovirus, that produce a syndrome of visceral obesity, with paradoxically decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens and mice. These studies illustrate that the adiposity-promoting effect of Ad-36 occurs in two nonhuman primate species and demonstrates the usefulness of nonhuman primates for further evaluation of Ad-36-induced adiposity.” Dhurandhar NV, et als. 2002,  Dhurandhar NV. 2001,

“The obesity of parents is one factor of risk of the child obesity. The short length of sleep (< 8 hours), the erosion between meals especially in the evening after the dinner, the daily consumption of sugary foods and sparkling drinks is the important risk factors exposing to the infantile obesity this group of age. These behaviours can be corrected by a strategy of prevention and nutritional education.” Ben Slama F, et als. 2002,

“The LC [low carbohydrate] diet appears to be an effective method for short-term weight loss in overweight adolescents and does not harm the lipid profile.” Sondike SB, et als. 2003,

“Serum leptin increased with increase in body mass index and waist hip ratio was strongly related with insulin resistance in NIDDM. CONCLUSION: Leptin levels are increased in obesity and may play a role in development of insulin resistance and NIDDM.” Haque Z, et al. 2003,

“Phenylalanine PHE stimulate production of cholecystokinin CCK and thus induces satiety stops hunger and control appetite, control overweight obesity.” Chaitow L, 92,

“In addition, certain psychologic problems, including binge-eating disorder and depression, are more common among obese persons than they are in the general population (8.9). Finally, obese individuals may suffer from social stigmatization and discrimination, and severely obese people may experience greater risk of impaired psychosocial and physical functioning, causing a negative impact on their quality of life (10).” Khaodhiar L et als. 1999,

“According to studies in unipolar and bipolar patients, 57-68% of patients is overweight or obese, and the rate of metabolic syndrome was found to be between 25-49% in bipolar patients. The rate of metabolic syndrome is further increased by pharmacotherapy. Low total and HDL cholesterol level increases the risk for depression and suicide and recent studies suggest that omega-3-fatty acids possess antidepressive efficacy.” Rihmer Z et als. (2008)

“CONCLUSION: These data provide a systematic and comprehensive assessment of the association between body weight and psychiatric conditions. Interventions addressing weight loss may benefit from integrating treatment for psychiatric disorders.” Petry NM et als (2008) Other references. See also Obesity Controversy

Oolong Tea or Wulong Tea “ may be an effective crude drug for the treatment of obesity and fatty liver caused by a high-fat diet.” Han LK et als. Jan 1999.

A therapeutic dosage is 3 to 4 tablespoons a day of coconut oil will reduce obesity, improve the function of the thyroid gland, improve insulin sensitivity (hypoglycemia and diabetes) menopausal symptoms and lower cholesterol among many other health benefits. Brian Shilavy,  Ray Peat and Google search

Sixty-six Brazilian obese adolescents receiving a multidisciplinary lifestyle program including medical, dietary, exercise and psychological programs showed significant improvement in controlling psychological aspects and quality of life.  Lofrano-Prado MC et als. 2009

PAIN: Chronic pain often leads to addiction to painkillers. Depression and anxiety are associated with lowered threshold to pain and these may be symptoms of hypoglycemia.

““When you are tense and anxious, even a minor stimulus can produce intense pain” “People who are in poor health, tired, depressed or otherwise out of sorts are also likely to have a low tolerance for pain” Reader’s Digest page 17.

“In addition, patients without headache and with diffuse pain reported more depression (78.2% vs. 45.8%) and anxiety (70.0% vs. 39.1%) than patients with headache. Quality of life measures were significantly reduced in patients with either nonheadache focal or diffuse conditions compared to patients with headache.”Marcus DA. 2003.

“The relationship between pain and anxiety is complex and bidirectional, with interactions occurring on physiologic and psychologic levels. There are a variety of psychopharmacologic, psychotherapeutic, and complementary/alternative treatments available.” Thielking PD. 2003.

“Ratings of depression and anxiety were greater in patients than in controls, and patients reported more cold-induced pain during a cold pressor test. Within the patient sample, anxious subjects gave the highest ratings of cold-induced pain. Those with the longest history of pain gave the highest ratings of whiplash injury pain, and were most depressed. Most of these patients were involved in litigation. The findings demonstrate that, like most patients with chronic pain, whiplash injury sufferers are anxious and depressed.” Lee J, Giles K, el al. 1993. See also Migraines

Management of Chronic Pain by jur Plesman

PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE: See also Diabetic Retinopathy.

POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME (PCOS): associated with insulin resistance (hypoglycemia) Pubmed references See also PCOS

POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD): “Post-traumatic syndrome differs from the majority of other diagnostic categories as it includes in its criteria the presumptive cause of the trauma (criterion A).” but authors discuss the wider meaning of PTSD that may exclude an identifiable ‘trauma’. Waddington A, et als. 2003,

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder patient respond well to RCBT.

“Our findings indicate that stress hormones influence the development of PTSD through complex and simultaneous interactions on memory formation and retrieval.” Schelling G 2002,

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Hypoglycemia by Jur Plesman

PRICKLE-PEAR CACTUS (Opuntis ficus indica): “This study shows that the stems of the herb Prickle-pear cactus O. streptacantha Lem. cause a hypoglycemic effect in patients with NIDDM. The mechanism of this effect is unknown, but an increased insulin sensitivity is suggested.” Frati-Munari AC,, 1988,

PRISON STUDIES: Antisocial behaviour in prisons, including violence, are reduced by vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids with similar implications for those eating poor diets in the community.

Results Compared with placebos, those receiving the active capsules committed an average of 26.3% (95% CI 8.3-44.33%) fewer offences (P=0.03, two-tailed). Compared to baseline, the effect on those taking active supplements for a minimum of 2 weeks (n=172) was an average 35.1% (95% CI 16.3-53.9%) reduction of offences (P<0.001, two-tailed), whereas placebos remained within standard error. Sarah E Hampson (2002),  BBC News Feb 2003

Recent prison experiences have shown that dietary change or nutrition education programs have successfully reduced disciplinary problems and improved morale. Studies of alcohol abusers and heroin addicts have shown a connection between poor eating habits and psychological problems. Diet, Crime and Delinquency, by A Schauss See also he Effects of Diet on Behavior: Implications for Criminology and Corrections by Diana Fishbein and Susan Pease

Prisoners with higher than normal levels of testosterone were found to be more aggressive. Joel Ehrenkranz et als. (1974)

Prison study to investigate link between diet and behaviour. Bio-Medicine 29/1/2008

See also Diet-Vitamin Program for Jail Inmates, B D’Asaro (1975)



PROBIOTICS: Several thousand billions of friendly bacteria most of them living in the digestive tract which help to maintain good health. Such bacteria, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, reduce the levels of harmful bacteria and yeasts, produce lactase an enzyme important in the digestion of milk and also involves in the production of B vitamins, such as niacin, folic acid, pyridoxine. Bifidobacterium bifidum and B. Longum in the large intestine protects against harmful bacteria and yeasts, manufactures B vitamins and helps to detoxify bile. Streptococcus thermophilus and L. bulgaricus found in yoghurt produces lactic acid, which encourages growth of friendly bacteria and bacteriocins (natural anti-biotic) that kill harmful bacteria. Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Streptococci are most commonly found in probiotic supplements. Goldberg 35.

PROCYANIDOLIC OLIGOMERS (PCO): also known as leukocyanidins or pycnogenols or proanthocyanidins, are complexes of flavonoids (polyphenols). Most commercial preparation us PCO extracts from grape seed skin (Vitis vinifera), although PCOs can also be extracted from the bark of Landes pine, the bracts of the lime tree, and the leaves of hazel-nut tree. The standard therapeutic dose is 150 – 300 mg per day. They have a similar action as Bilberries and are used in the treatment of

Peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy, and vascular fragility. See Diabetic Retinopathy.


PSEUDOHYPOGLYCEMIA: Elks ML 1990, Here we have an example of a study that claims to show that symptoms are not due to ‘hypoglycemia’. Blood sugar levels were measured intermittently at time of ‘episodes’. Measurements of blood sugar levels over time were ignored. See Samra for proper test. Patients are then classed as ‘psychiatric’ patients. Thus we see a conflict of meanings of ‘hypoglycemia’ used by patients and doctors. This study ignores the fact that “ Normal blood level is 0.06µg/L but when an animal is aroused and galvanized into readiness to fight or flee, adrenaline concentration in blood may increase to almost thousandfold in seconds or minutes.” see: Adrenaline, hence by the time you measure the BSL it is already raised. The sudden descent from high to low should have been measured.

“Two patients with complaints of hypoglycemia came for evaluation, and both complained of intermittent episodes of mental dullness, disorientation, confusion, and palpitations relieved by eating. Recognition of this connection did not decrease the frequency of episodes. Both persistently refer to the episodes as “hypoglycemia” despite recognition that no glucose level below 70 mg/dL has been recorded during an episode. Recurrent episodes of derealization and depersonalization in both patients appear to be sequelae of adolescent incest experiences, but these patients cling to the label “hypoglycemia,” perhaps in part because they are unwilling to accept a psychiatric diagnosis for their episodes.” —> Psychiatric diagnosis & Hypoglycemia

PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSIS & HYPOGLYCEMIA: “It is a common assumption in our medicalized society that diagnostic labels simply describe facts, rather than express the diagnostician’s own concepts of anomaly and dysfunction. Variability among physicians in diagnosing reactive hypoglycemia illustrates some fundamental problems of reifying the concept of disease.etc etc” Hunt LM, 1985, —> Pseudohypoglycemia

PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS & HYPOGLYCEMIA: In diabetes “Psychological factors such as elevated anxiety levels (“negative affectivity”) can influence blood glucose estimation and symptom detection in adolescents and young adults and may explain why some individuals are more adept than others at reducing their risk of severe hypoglycemia after participation in a formal blood glucose awareness training program.”  Ryan CM, et als. 2002,

RATIONAL COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY (RCBT): Cognitive behaviour therapy is a potentially useful adjunct treatment in the management of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Tarrier N 1998,

“Patients who received CBT reported less intense PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) symptoms, and particularly less frequent and less avoidance symptoms, than patients who received SC. These findings suggest that early provision of CBT in the initial month after trauma has long-term benefits for people who are at risk of developing PTSD.” Bryant RA, et als. 2003,

“ In patients showing only partial response to antidepressants, the addition of CT produced modest improvements in social and psychological functioning. The implications for research on the mechanisms of action of CT are discussed.” Scott J, et als. 2000, Full Text,

Also see: Assumptions in Psychotherapy by Jur Plesman

REACTIVE HYPOGLYCEMIA: associated with alcoholism, violent offences, fire setters, impulsive behaviour  15 Pubmed Studies

RECIDIVISM IN CRIME: Recidivism is explained in the article “The Forgotten Factor…”

RELIGION: Religiosity may be protective against substance abuse. Wills TA et als., 2003,


RESTLESS LEG SYNDROME: 8 per cent associated with Reactive Hypoglycemia. ( J Am Geriatr Soc 1965;13:602–8.)  Other studies. Pubmed Norma G. Cuella, Treatment. Treatment of Restless leg Syndrome see: Dr Jacob Teitelbaum

SARDINE OIL: rich in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E may increase Red Cell membrane (RBC) fluidity and potentially reduce diabetic symptoms due to impaired cell deformability such as intermittent claudication. Werbach, 1987, 181 and Kamada T, 1986,

SCHIZOPHRENIA: Several authors see schizophrenia as a “diabetic brain’, “cerebral diabetes’. This come close to Dr George Samra’s definition of ‘ Cerebral hypoglycia’ as low intracellular glucose availability to the brain Holden RJ(1), Holden RJ (2) Holden RJ (3) —> Diabetic Gene in schizophrenics.

“The Nutritional Aspects of Schizophrenia” by Plesman, J go to page 7 of Newsletter

Schizophrenics can benefit from glycine supplements Heresco-Levy U,1996

For a fuller report on glycine see Glycine and its use in schizophrenia.

Influence of the —> DIABETIC GENE on schizophrenia. —> Zinc below.

“This model is supported by a variety of evidence, including a significant effect of gluten or its absence on relapsed schizophrenic patients, the high correlation of changes in first admission rates for schizophrenia with changes in grain consumption rates, and the rarity of cases of schizophrenia where grains and milk are rare.”Dohan FC. 1988,

“More than 15% of the drug-naive, first-episode patients with schizophrenia had impaired fasting glucose tolerance, compared to none of the healthy volunteers. ” Am.J.Psychiatry, 2003 Feb 160(2):284 and more

See also “Leaky Gut Syndrome

SCIENTIFIC METHOD: Scientific knowledge may have no more persuasive power in changing people’s beliefs and behaviour than religious faith or money , but at least its philosophy can be shared by all. I have attempted to explain scientific method in an article in one of our Newsletters at page 5. See Max Planck.

See also Scientific method at:

SELF-HARMING: depression is associated with suicidality and deliberate self-harm, See 11 studies. There is a close association between depression and self-harm or self-mutilation. See here.

SEROTONIN & CARBOHYDRATES: “Administration of a small carbohydrate-rich meal increases the level of serotonin in the brain, and this in turn increases the amount of protein in relation to carbohydrate eaten at the subsequent meal. If tryptophan is given before a meal a similar result may be anticipated since serotonin levels will rise and reduce calorie intake, via higher protein, lower carbohydrate meal, will result. voluntarily. The phenomenon of carbohydrate craving [sugar addition], found in many people on a reducing diet based on a high protein diet, may therefore be the result of reduced serotonin, due to high protein intake.” Chaitow 64,

“Should there be a a deficiency, or insufficency, of B6 then upon the oral intake of tryptophan there would occur a urinary spill of the tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid” Chaitow 68,

[Violence]“For dogs with dominance aggression, the addition of tryptophan to high-protein diets or change to a low-protein diet may reduce aggression. For dogs with territorial aggression, tryptophan supplementation of a low-protein diet may be helpful in reducing aggression.” DeNapoli JS, et als. 2000,

“Therapeutic administration of 5-HTP has been shown to be effective in treating a wide variety of conditions, including depression, fibromyalgia, binge eating associated with obesity, chronic headaches, and insomnia.” [5-HTP or 5-hydroxytryptophan is the immediate precursor to serotonin and unlike L-tryptophan does not need to be take away from other food] [Pain] Birdsall TC 1998,

“These results indicate that tryptophan and some of its metabolites possess analgesic properties.” Heyliger SO, et als. 1998,

“Serotonin substrate supplementation, via L-tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), has been shown to improve symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia and somatic pains [fibromyalgia] in a variety of patient cohorts. Identification of low serum tryptophan and serotonin levels may be a simple way to identify persons who will respond well to this approach.” Juhl JH. 1998,

“The evidence is reviewed that violent and suicidal behavior is associated with a deficiency of the serotonin system and that individuals with poor impulse control tend to become hypoglycemic during an oral glucose tolerance test, and have low levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid. It is postulated that serotonergic deficits may predispose individuals to poor impulse control, disturbance of glucose metabolism, alcohol abuse, violent behavior and suicide.” Roy A, Virkkunen M, Linnoila M. 1988. See also: Tyrosine.

SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER (SAD): Full spectrum sunlight is a major source of Vitamin D3, necessary in the production of serotonin, lack of which may be responsible for depression, anxiety, insomnia (or hypersomnia or sleepiness), sugar cravings, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), lymph node pain, or enlargement, irritability, cognitive disturbances. It seems conceivable that annually recurring cycles of low vitamin D and mild secondary hyperparathyroidism during the winter months contributes, at least in part and over many years, to age-related bone loss. Supplementation with low-dose oral vitamin D3 and calcium during winter may be an efficient and inexpensive strategy for the primary prevention of bone loss in northern latitudes. Vitamin D3 is synthesized in skin by exposure to sunlight (ultraviolet radiation) and obtained in the diet chiefly in fish liver oils and egg yolks. Inadequate exposure to sunlight may cause vitamin D deficiency. Deficiency impairs bone mineralization, causing rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and may contribute to osteoporosis. Light therapy may provide patients with CFS an effective treatment alternative or adjunct to antidepressant drugs. Sources: (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)

SEROTONIN synthesis and zinc: see—> Zinc

SHOPLIFTING & STEALING: “Clinical evidence of depression present for some months before an episode of shoplifting without criminal intent was found in all 17 patients interviewed after the offence. The person at risk would appear to be a depressed middle-aged woman with a passive-dependent personality, married to an ineffectual rejecting husband who is unable to meet her dependency in times of crisis. Recognition of her depression and appropriate intervention are essential if a criminal deed is to be avoided.” Davis H. 1979,

“However, in this case kleptomania was in fact risk-taking behavior in response to depression. Psychodynamically, risk-taking behavior may be important in kleptomania.” Fishbain DA, 1987,

“This paper compares two groups of adult female offenders involved in shoplifting and fraudulent behaviour. Twenty women were studied whose first offenses occurred in their mid-life period. The major findings conclude that an unresolved mourning or loss in the context of high stress and depression is one of the commonalities in the two groups. Another commonality is that a defined classical role for these women is conflictual and the relationship established with their spouses is a repetition of their relationship with their father.” Fugere R, et als. 1995,

“The authors suggest 2 categories of shoplifters: those who shoplift through rational choice; and those for whom shoplifting is a response to depression or leads to the fulfillment of some psychological needs.”Lamontagne Y, et als. 2000,

“Across all 3 groups, current shoplifting was associated with low self-esteem, elevated depression, and purging behaviours at the time of the assessment.” Goldner EM, et als. 2000,

“Female offenders report most of their income as coming from drugs sales, shoplifting, and larceny. For all of the women addicted to heroin, reselling drugs and prostitution were the usual means of support.” James J, et als. 1979,

SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS: If you want to know what foods are rich in certain nutrients go to Rich Sources of Nutrients

If you want to know the food content of a food item go to USDA, National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, enter Keyword in Search Engine and click ENTER/RETURN.

If you want to know what food items contains a nutrient sorted alphabetically or by nutrient content go toNutrient Lists. For example, what food item contains the most zinc??

Another excellent and useful link to sources of nutrients and composition of food can be found at  USDA Nutritient Data Laboratory.  In this web site “Use ND’s Nutrient Search Tool to find the foods that are lowest in carbohydrates, highest in protein, or that match any other dietary restrictions or goals.”

SSRIs: Although antidepressant medication is widely regarded as effective, a recent meta-analysis of published clinical trials indicates that 75 percent of the response to antidepressants is duplicated by placebo.Irving Kirsch.  For a critical view on studies with SSRIs see CL Whitfield.   An extensive survey of conventional treatment for mood disorders centering around drug therapy and/or psychotherapy has shown that about 40 percent may have some benefit, leaving about 60 per cent with treatment resistant depression. See Beyond Efficacy: The STAR*D Trial, Am J Psychiatry 163:5-7, January 2006 by Insel Tr (2006) and here. “The fact that 60–70% of all patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) meet criteria for treatment resistant depression (TRD) underscores the need for systematic development of innovative treatments for TRD.”hereAntidepressants work for 35 to 45% of the depressed population, while more recent figures suggest as low as 30%. Source. For more studies of doubtful outcomes of treatment with medication and/or psychotherapy seehere. See also: Asarnow JP et als. (2009) showing that a combined treatment of drugs and CBT is slightly more beneficial under certain circumstances.

If drug and placebo effects are additive, the pharmacological effects of antidepressants are clinically negligible.Krirsch I et als (2002) Prevention and Treatment Vol 5(1) Jul 2002

“Meta-analyses of antidepressant medications have reported only modest benefits over placebo treatment, and when unpublished trial data are included, the benefit falls below accepted criteria for clinical significance.” Irving Kirsch et als (2008)

“Anti-depressants’ ‘little effect’” at BBCNews


CONCLUSIONS: For adolescents with moderate to severe major depression there is no evidence that the combination of CBT plus an SSRI in the presence of routine clinical care contributes to an improved outcome by 28 weeks compared with the provision of routine clinical care plus an SSRI alone. “ Goodyer, I et als (2007)See also:  Standard Treatment Inadequate

Conclusions: The magnitude of benefit of antidepressant medication compared to placebo increases with severity of depression symptoms an may be minimal or nonexistent, on average, in patients with mild or moderate symptoms. For patients with severe depression the benefit of medication over placebo is substantial.Jay C Fournier et als 2010.  For more studies see here and here.


STEVIA: Stevia is not only a safe alternative sweetener, but it also improves glucose tolerance. Curi R, 1986, Stevia can reduce blood pressure. Melis 1995, Stevioside at 1000 mg/kg/d from day 6-15 of pregnant rats showed no toxic signs [Article in Japanese] ,as reported in "Alternative Sweeteners" by Lyn O'Brien-Nabors

How to grow Stevia. Stevia Company in Brazil, and more. See also How to grow Stevia in Hypo Newsletter Sept 2000 at page 4.

STRESS (—> CORTISOL) causes metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, diabetes etc. Bjorntorp P, 1999, can cause obesity, Bjorntorp P, 1995, Relation between psychological risk factors and ‘metabolic syndrome’ Raikkonen K et als. 2002,

“The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease Survey estimates that mental disease, including stress-related disorders, will be the second leading cause of disabilities by the year 2020. Although the term “stress” is used in a wide variety of contexts, it has consistently been demonstrated that individuals with stress and related disorders experience impaired physical and mental functioning, more work days lost, increased impairment at work, and a high use of health care services.” Kalia M. 2002,

Stress reduction techniques such as meditation, yoga, exercises, walking meditation, religion, praying, listening to classical music and others on a regular basis have this in common that they appear to calm the person and prevents to secretion of excess stress hormones (cortisol, adrenaline, HPA hormones) that interfere with the synthesis of serotonin. Thus these techniques seem to facilitate serotonin production – the hormone of satisfaction. Jorm AF, et als. 2002,  Tyni-Lenne R, et als. 2002,  Yung P, et als. 2001, and –> Religion.

“ After the exposure to immobilization stress for 16 hr per day for 2 consecutive days, the adrenal glands of the mice hypertrophied, and their serum glucose level and corticosterone secretion became elevated, but insulin secretion did not change.” Kasuga S et als. 1999,


“Chronic stress for two weeks increased the voluntary alcohol consumption and total caloric intake. Food intake alone seemed insufficient to provide the extra demand of energy due to prolonged stress and hence, the rats may be drinking increasing amounts of alcohol (when provided) to supply the extra energy required to combat stress.” Nagaraja HS, Jeganathan PS. 2002, This supports the hypothesis in Serotonin Connection, that in psychological stress a person will consume greater amounts of refined carbohydrates to provide extra energy to deal with stress, and incidentally speed up the absorption of tryptophan for conversion to serotonin.

STRESS & THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Stress affects the immune system. Sheridan JF et als. 1994, O’Leary A. 1990,

“Cognitive states such as perceived control, views of the self, and views of the future have been associated with immune parameters and health in some studies. Very few controlled clinical trials have been conducted to determine if psychosocial interventions can impact the immune system and the progression of medical conditions. There is suggestive evidence for the health benefits of relaxation training, cognitive-behavioral stress management, and support groups.”Kemeny ME at al., 1999

“The old concept that stress depresses immunity must be qualified. There is now evidence that in the same way that different perceptions of stress have different physiological consequences,”Dantzer R. 1997,

“Stress-induced modulation of innate secretory immunity may be a contributing factor in the observed relationship between stress and susceptibility to infectious diseases. We further propose a more differentiated approach to acute stress by distinguishing among stressors with distinct autonomic nervous system effects.”Bosch JA, et als. 2003,

Comment: If stress undermines the immune system in humans it would also in animals. One wonders how much our treatment of animals under stress contribute to the emergence of new opportunistic viruses such as SARS. There is very little research into the biochemical effects on humans by human-imposed stress hormones in animals.

STROKE: “Acute hyperglycemia predicts increased risk of in-hospital mortality after ischemic stroke in nondiabetic patients and increased risk of poor functional recovery in nondiabetic stroke survivors.” Capes SE, et als. 2001,

“Hyperglycemia is common and involves up to 50% of the acute stroke patients. Several clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia is associated with a poor outcome in terms of mortality and neurological recovery. The results obtained from experimental studies have shown that hyperglycemia exacerbates the ischemic lesions and is associated with an increase of the edema and size of the infarct, as well as a decrease in the cerebral blood flow. Elevated plasma glucose levels (glycemia > 8 mmol/L) predict poor prognosis, irrespective of age, severity, or stroke sub-type. The benefit to treat a glycemia >=11 mmol/l has been established in terms of mortality for patients with myocardial infarction. Although the clinical benefit of plasma glucose lowering therapy remains unknown regarding acute stroke, based on current evidence, we recommend to treat moderate to mild hyperglycemia with glucose potassium insulin infusions.” Mazighi M, et al. 2001,

“Thus, the trial suggests that sublingual application of 1.0-2. 0 g/day glycine started within 6 h after the onset of acute ischaemic stroke in the carotid artery territory is safe and can exert favourable clinical effects. These results will be verified in further trials with a larger number of patients”. Gusev EI et als. 2000,

SUGAR: Avoid sugar in immunodepression, wound healing, burn victims, skin grafts, bacterial infections —>Immunodepression , SUGAR can turn off sex drive: (impotence) Glucose and fructose are metabolized in the liver. When there’s too much sugar in the diet, the liver converts it to lipid. Using a mouse model and human liver cell cultures, the scientists discovered that the increased production of lipid shut down a gene called SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin), reducing the amount of SHBG protein in the blood. SHBG protein plays a key role in controlling the amount of testosterone and estrogen that’s available throughout the body. Source: Child & Family Research Institute, 2007

SUGAR CONSUMPTION: Conclusions. High consumption levels of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental health problems among adolescents even after adjustment for possible confounders.Lars Lien MD MSc et als (2006)

For the six countries with available data for the primary analysis, there was a highly significant correlation between sugar consumption and the annual rate of depression (Pearson correlation 0.948, P=0.004). Westove AN at al.(2002).

TARDIVE DYSKINESIA (TD) is a syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements that may develop in patients who have been treated with antipsychotic medications (chlorpromazine (Thorazine®), thioridazine (Mellaril®), and trifluoperazine (Stelazine®).) (for example phenothiazines) longer-term. Other drugs known to cause tardive dyskinesia include: tricyclic antidepressants, selegiline, clozapine, levamisole and metoclopramide. People with TD suffer from repetitive and uncontrollable repetitive movements that can interfere greatly with their quality of life.

The supplementation of vitamin E, choline, Lecithin, dimethylanimoethanol (DMAE), manganese, Evening Primerose Oil (EPO). Some reports show that people with TD have higher levels of the amino acid phenylalanine.

Supplementing with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), including valine, isoleucine, and leucine, could reduce excess phenylalanine in people with this disorder. See Rich Sources of Nutrients.

Some studies have shown that megavitamin regimen that included vitamin C (up to 4 grams per day), vitamin B3—either as niacin or niacinamide—(up to 4 grams per day), vitamin B6 (up to 800 mg per day), and vitamin E (up to 1,200 IU per day) have been show to prevent TD altogether. Source, deliciousliving.

“OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the effect of chronic quercetin treatment on haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia. The results of the present study clearly indicate that quercetin has a protective role against haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia. Consequently, the use of quercetin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia should be considered.” Naidu PS, et als. 2003,

“Five studies have reported that a low selenium intake was associated with poorer mood. Although there is evidence that supplementation with anti-oxidant vitamins shown some promise with Alzheimer’s patients, and in preventing the development of tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenics taking neuroleptics, a role for selenium has been little considered.” Benton D. 2002,

“Withania somnifera glycowithanolides (WSG) were investigated for their preventive effect on the animal model of tardive dyskinesia (TD), induced by once daily administration of the neuroleptic, haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.), for 28 days. The results indicate that the reported antioxidant effect of WSG, rather than its GABA-mimetic action, may be responsible for the prevention of haloperidol-induced TD.” Bhattacharya SK et als. 2002,

“In a single inpatient case study, a schizophrenic patient with tardive dyskinesia after prolonged treatment with typical neuroleptics was treated with the new atypical neuroleptic quetiapine, a dibenzothiazepin-derivative. Within 2 weeks of treatment with quetiapine, symptoms of tardive dyskinesia improved; 10 weeks after starting treatment tardive dyskinesia stopped completely. Over the same period, dopamine D2 receptor occupancy decreased substantially, as measured by IBZM-SPECT after 14 and 77 days of treatment.” Vesely C, at als. 2000,

“We have found that schizophrenic patients who eat more (n-3) fatty acids in their normal diet have less severe symptoms. In a pilot study of (n-3) fatty acid supplementation we observed significant improvement in both schizophrenic symptoms and tardive dyskinesia over a 6 week period.” Peet M, et als. 1996,

“The incidence of Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) was significantly higher in groups of patients in which alcohol alone (25.4%) or in combination with cannabis (26.7%) was the drug of abuse than in those groups in which alcohol was either absent or used in combination with sedatives, opioids, or stimulants. It is concluded that chronic use of alcohol by mental patients undergoing pharmacotherapy with neuroleptics enhances the vulnerability of these patients to TD.”

Olivera AA, et als. 1990,

“Although early studies of pyridoxine in tardive dyskinesia have not been encouraging, the results of the present study suggest that high doses of pyridoxine may reduce the frequency and severity of involuntary movements in tardive dyskinesia.” DeVeaugh-Geiss J, et al.1978,


THIAMINE DEFICIENCY associated with violent behaviour. “Although in many of the cases the etiology appeared to be associated with heavy consumption of “junk” foods, carbonated or sweet beverages, and candy, this was not so in all of them and the etiology in these cases remains obscure.”..”all were clinically improved by the administration of thiamin” Lonsdale D, Shamberger RJ 1980


Trimethylglycine, also known as TMG, originally named betaine after its discovery in sugar beets. Is used to treat high homocysteine levels associated with the clogging of arteries in cardiovascular diseases. Betaine hydrochloride (betaine HCL) is a methyl donor. Food items with the highest content of betaine are wheat, spinach, shellfish and sugar beets. The conversion of choline to betaine is a two-step enzymic process, which occurs in the liver and kidney. Choline is first oxidised to betaine aldehyde, a reaction catalysed by the mitochondrial choline oxidase (choline dehydrogenase, EC In a subsequent step, betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria or cytoplasm to betaine by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

TRYPTOPHAN: —> serotonin


TYROSINE: Supplementation may be beneficial in depression. Source

ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION: For the benefits and harmful effects and types of ultraviolet radiation. Ohnaka T. 1993, Deeg HJ 1988, Neer RM. 1975,

VANADIUM has an insulin-like effect. Vanadium treatment of diabetic animals does not restore plasma insulin levels but may spare pancreatic insulin. Orvig C et als.1995,

Elevated vanadium has been reported in the plasma of patients with mania and depression and in the hair of patients with mania. “The mean vanadium content of the hair of the manic group was significantly higher than that of the control group and that of the group of recovered manics.” Naylor GJ 1984,

“Manic patients responded significantly better to lithium than to ascorbic acid and EDTA. These results are in keeping with the suggestion that vanadium may be of aetiological importance in depressive psychosis, but do not support such a suggestion for mania.” Kay DS, 1984

For article on Vanadium.

Vitamin C may possibly reduce symptoms of bipolar disorder due to its ability to the detrimental effects on vanadium on Red Blood cell Ca+ -k+ -ATPase activity by reducing vanadate (+5)to the vandyl ion (+4), the latter being much less effective inhibitor of Na+ -K+-ATPase activity than the former. Werbach 1991, 84.

“The effect of Vitamin C in manic-depressive psychosis was assessed by a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Both manic and depressed patients were significantly better following a single 3 g dose of Vitamin C than following a placebo.” Naylor GJ, et al. 1981,

VIOLENCE & AGGRESSION: High copper levels indicate a zinc deficiency. There may be a high copper/zinc ratio among assaultive people. Walsh WJ et al,1997

This supports the notion that less physical affection (or more physical neglect) can contribute to greater aggression. Massage therapy beneficial, Field T, 2002

Violent offenders may have hypoglycemia. Roy A et al, 1988 Virkkunen M et al. 1982 Virkkunen M. 1982 ,Virkkunen M, et als 1994,

Overly aggressive behaviour may be associated with an elevated sugar intake. Schauss 1980, 22-26,

Reduction in sugar intake may improve aggressive/delinquent behaviour. Werbach 1991, 3,

“Habitual sugar consumption and behavior following challenge by sugar and aspartame were studied in 30 preschool boys. The 18 subjects whose parents considered them sugar reactive had more disruptive behavior problems at baseline than the other 12 subjects. Habitual sugar consumption correlated only with duration of aggression against property in alleged responders.” No differences with aspartame. Kruesi MJ, et als, 1987,

“Nutritional Influences on Aggressive Behavior” Werbach MR (1995)


Regarding aggressive dogs see here.

18 studies connecting violence/aggressioin with metabolic problems

See also violent behaviour.


Self-report questionnaires indicate that reduced sugar consumption among  prison inmates improve morale, mood, and self-motivated behavior. D’Asaro, et als 1975.

Studies show that 69 percent of participants who were violent at the age of 34 had eaten sweets and chocolate nearly every day during childhood, compared to to 42 percent of those who were non-violent.Mercola

See also Prison Studies.

See also studies about connection between violence and hypoglycemia Ariane Raine page 209

VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXINE): (50mg per day but dosage should be determined by Health Practitioner) Required in conversion of tryptophan to serotonin. Deficiency may be responsible for depression and anxiety.Werbach 1991, 51, Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with lack of dream recall. Ebben M et als, (2002)

VITAMIN C: (ASCORBIC ACID), Addicts can tolerate high doses of vitamin C which is used in ethanol detoxification. Excess vitamin C may result in diarrhea and dosage should be 1,000 mg below tolerance level. In one study 91% of 35 patients with alcohol-related illness were found to be vitamin C deficient. (Baines M. Detection and incidence of B and C vitamin deficiency in alcohol-related illness. Ann Clin Biochem. 1978 Nov;15(6): 307-12. PMID: 32828)


VITAMIN D: Both depressive symptoms and vitamin D insufficiency are common during winter. “Recent findings from a randomized trial suggest that high doses of supplemental vitamin D may improve mild depressive symptoms, but important questions persist concerning how vitamin D may affect monoamine function and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress, whether vitamin D supplementation can improve mood in individuals with moderate-to-severe depression, and whether vitamin D sufficiency is protective against incident depression and recurrence.” Bertone-Johnsom ER (2009),

Vitamin D deficiency associated with low mood and worse cognitive performance in older Adults, Wilkins, Consuelo H et als. (2006) Eight studies showing an association between depression and vitamin D deficiencyhere.  Vitamin D supplementation in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day reduced the risk of falling among the elderly by 19% BMJ 2009;339:b3692. Vitamin D supplementation is also reported to play a role in the treatment of the Pandemic Flu as winter approaches. See: Nutrition against the Pandemic Flu

Dosage: Reasonable dietary levels:  200 IUs, Pharmacologic Dosage range 400- 1000 IU. The best source isfrom the sun.

Notes on Vitamin D

XYLITOL: “Xylitol is not only a safe, natural sweetener without the bad side-effects of sugar and artificial substitutes, it’s also good for your teeth, stabilises insulin and hormone levels and promotes good health”. But it is too expensive for ordinary folks. Sherill Sellman, and Dr KK Makinen, and Sweetlife Australia Pty Ltd, Also

ZINC: Over 80 enzymes are known to require zinc as part of their prosthetic groups. These include alcohol dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase, DNA and RNA polymerases, and carboxypeptidase. Zinc is found in high concentrations in the prostate gland, sperm cells and the eyes, where it presumably plays an important but unknown function.

When phytate contained in certain breads used by some village populations in Iran combines with zinc, it prevents its absorption, which may cause an endemic zinc deficiency. 15mg/day is required by adults, pregnant and lactating women require more. Lehninger 783

It has been suggested that Zinc deficiency during the gestational period may be related to development of schizophrenia. Andrew RC 1990, Andrew RC 1992,

Zinc required in alcohol dehydrogenase in alcohol metabolism. Lehninger, 209,

If zinc/copper ratio is greater than 2.5/1 copper absorption is decreased. Zinc toxicity: Daily ingestion of 150 mg zinc produced overt copper depletion with anemia in some patients. Werbach, 1987, 479,

Pharmacologic doses of zinc (100-300 mg daily) for several weeks can impair immune response, and could lower HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol), Werbach 1991, 284-5,

Zinc RDL male 15mg, female 12 mg, Pharmacologic Dosage range, 20-100mg, Werbach 1991, 287

For more information about zinc see: Linus Paulng Institute.

ZINC ABSORPTION: “In humans and animals, the quantity of zinc transported across the absorptive cells of the intestines is directly related to the availability of picolinic acid. Picolinic acid is synthesised in our bodies from the amino acid tryptophan. Vitamin B6 is needed for this reaction to occur.” Murray M et al., p.482


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