Exam Date_________

Physics of the Earth

Final Exam Study Guide

GEOLOGY: Volcanoes and Earthquakes

(Chapters 18 and 19)

  1. What is tephra?

  1. What is pyroclastic flow? Why is it SO dangerous?

  1. List and describe the three types of volcanoes

  1. Define Lava

  1. Define Magma and list the three types of magma.

  1. What are hotspots? (Give an example)

  1. What is the difference between an active volcano and an extinct volcano?

  1. What is a vent?

  1. How do a crater and a caldera differ?

  1. Where are most volcanoes found?

  1. Describe some of the negative effects of volcanoes.

  1. What is viscosity?

  1. How do P waves move?

  1. How do S waves move?

  1. How do surface waves move?

  1. What order do seismic waves arrive at a seismograph?

  1. How many seismographs are needed to locate an epicenter?

  1. What are the steps for locating an earthquakes epicenter?

  1. List and describe the three types of faults.

  1. Describe shearing forces.

  1. Describe compression forces.

  1. Describe tension forces.

  1. What is an earthquakes epicenter?

  1. What is an earthquakes focus?

  1. What is a seismic gap?

  1. Describe three scales that are used to measure earthquakes.

  1. What is magnitude?

  1. What is stress? What is strain?

  1. What is a tsunami and how do they form?

  1. Describe what the term “pancaking” means.

  1. What are aftershocks?

Physics of the Earth

Final Exam Study Guide

ASTRONOMY PART I: Sun, Earth Moon System

1. Define Heliocentric

2. Define Geocentric

3. What are the contributions of the following astronomers:

        Ptolemy

        Galileo

        Copernicus

        Kepler

        

4. What is refraction?

5. What is reflection?

6. What is electromagnetic spectrum?

7. Define gravity

8. What is the difference between mass and weight?

9. List the phases of the moon and draw them:

10. What is a solar eclipse? What is being blocked out?

11. What order are the sun, moon and earth in during a solar eclipse?

12. What is a lunar eclipse? What is being blocked out?

13. What order are the sun, moon and earth in during a lunar eclipse?

14. Describe the three theories for the formation of the moon?

15. What is the most popular theory for the formation of the moon?

16. What are tides? What causes tides?

17. Describe a spring tide.

18. How are the sun, earth and moon aligned during a spring tide?

19. Describe a neap tide.

20. How are the sun, earth and moon aligned during a neap tide?

21. What causes the seasons?

22. Draw the earth in relation to the sun during the Summer Solstice in the NORTHERN HEMISPHERE.

23. How are the seasons different in the southern hemisphere?


Physics of the Earth

Final Exam Study Guide

ASTRONOMY PART II: Stars and the Universe

  1. Describe the life cycle of a medium size star. (Our sun)

  1. What is a neutron star?

  1. What is a supernova?

  1. What is a black hole?

  1. Describe the life cycle of a massive star.

  1. What is a nebula?

  1. Describe how our solar system formed.
  2. How many planets are there in our solar system?

  1. Describe sunspots.

  1. Describe solar flares

  1. List the three layers of the sun’s atmosphere

  1. What are meteoroids?

  1. What are meteors?

  1. What are meteorites?

  1. What are asteroids?

  1. Where are most asteroids located?

  1. What are comets? Where can we find them?

  1. What is special about a comets tail?

  1. Define Cosmology.

  1. Describe the Big Bang theory.

  1. What is happening to the expansion of the universe?

  1. How is energy produced in the sun? Describe the process.

  1. How is energy transported from the core of the sun to its surface?


Physics of the Earth

Study Guide

OCEANOGRAPHY:

1. Define oceanography

2. Define wave

3. What three factors affect wave height?

4. What is the crest of a wave?

5. What is trough of a wave?

6. How do waves break?

7. Draw a wave and label the 4 parts of the wave.

8. How much of the Earth is covered in water?

9. How much of the Earth’s fresh water is located in glaciers?

10. Which is more dense: Saltwater or freshwater?

11. Which is more dense: Hot water or cold water?

12. Explain the two possible ways the ocean formed.

13. What is a density current?

14. What is a surface current?

15. Using the formula:  distance = velocity * time answer the following question:

If the total round trip of a sound wave to the bottom of the ocean back to the boat is 20 seconds and the its moves at 1500 m/s, how far is the bottom of the ocean floor at that point?

 

16. What is salinity? What unit is used to express salinity?

17. Describe two ways dissolved salt is added to water.

18. How is salt removed from water? (Natural processes)

19. What is desalinization?

20. Describe two processes that can desalinize saltwater.

21. Describe how sonar is used to map the ocean floor.  (Include side scan sonar)

22.  Why is it difficult to study the ocean floor?

23. What is the continental margin? What areas does it include?

24. Describe the continental shelf.

25. Describe the continental slope

26. Describe the continental rise

27. What is the abyssal plain?

28. What are seamounts? Guyots?

29. What are turbidity currents? Where are they located and why are they special?