AP Psychology - Mr. Duez

Chapter 9 Intelligence

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The psychologist who pioneered psycho-metrics by creating concepts like percentile rank and correlation was _____.

a. Alfred Binet                         c. Howard Gardner

b. Francis Galton                 d. Sandra Sarr

2. The statistical process that reveals common aspects among large groups of variables is known as ___.

a. the Flynn effect                  c. construct validity

b. content validity                 d. factor analysis

3. After taking the ACT and receiving a 29, Ryan decides to retake it the following month. Although he is given a different version of the test, he ends up with a score of 30. One reason his two scores are so close is that the ACT has strong ____ form reliability.

a. alternate-form reliability        c. content-predictive

b. split-half                         d. criterion-predictive

4. Charles Spearman referred to the ability of individuals to solve complex problems as ____ intelligence.

a. s factor                          c. creative

b. practical                         d. g factor

5. The SAT is designed to predict success in college, which makes the SAT a(n) _____.

a. emotional intelligence test           c. aptitude test

b. interpersonal test                 d. achievement test

6. All of the following are environmental causes of mental retardation (or cognitive disability) EXCEPT ____.

a. injuries during birth                  

b. phenylketonuria (PKU) a genetic disorder of metabolism

c. exposure to toxins          

d. fetal alcohol syndrome

7. Normal distributions of scores form ___________ curves in which the mean, median, and mode are equal and located in the center of the distribution and the percentages of scores falling between standard deviations are fixed by a formula.

a. symmetrical bell-shaped                 c. fixed distribution

b. un-even distribution                 d. asymmetrical bell-shaped

8. Principal Campbell created a math readiness test to give to eighth graders prior to entering high school. He chose a representative group of students to give the test to and compared each student's scores on odd versus even questions. He found a strong positive correlation between the odd and even scores, which gave him evidence that the test he made had _____.

a. content validity                         c. construct validity

b. inter-rater reliability                 d. split-half reliability

9. Mr. Duez asks other psychology teachers he knows on the Internet to look over the final exam that he created for his AP Psychology class to ensure that the test fairly represents the material covered during the semester. Mr. Duez is having others assist him in evaluating his exam for _____.

a. alternate form reliability                 c. content validity

b. construct validity                         d. split-half reliability

10. The psychologist famous for a landmark longitudinal study of gifted individuals was ____.

a. Terman                                 c. Gardner

b. Flynn                                 d. Binet

11. Binet created the first intelligence test and developed the concept of mental age, but Terman's revision, the _______, created a way to compute an IQ score.

a. G Factor                                 c. WAIS

b. Stanford-Binet                         d. WISC

12. Psychologists creating an assessment tool to determine if individuals would be well suited to a career in air traffic control first administer the exam to a representative sample to serve as a source of comparison and make certain that all individuals take the test under the same testing conditions. The psychologists are focused on establishing _____.

a. standardization                         c. construct validity

b. content validity                         d. test-restest reliability

13. The person who revised the first IQ test to include test items for adults and the use of the IQ formula was ____.

a. Lewis Terman                         c. Alfred Binet

b. Charles Spearman                         d. Sir Francis Galton

14. Which intelligence test includes separate verbal and performance sections and also provides an overall intelligence score?

a. WAIS                                 c. Stanford-Binet

b. Simon-Binet                                 d. Sternberg-Binet

15. Because IQ tests are based on a normal distribution in which 100 is the average and the standard deviation is 15, about ____ percentage of IQ scores fall between 70 and 115.

a. 13                                         c. 68

b. 34                                         d. 81.5

16. Comparing average IQ scores from the original Stanford-Binet test to the scores of individuals taking the current version provides support for _____.

a. multiple intelligences                 c. the Flynn effect

b. standardization                         d. factor analysis

17. All of the following are aspects of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligence theory EXCEPT

a. practical intelligence                 c. logical-mathematical intelligence

b. visual-spatial intelligence                 d. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence

18. The aspect of Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence that is typically measured by traditional IQ tests is ______ intelligence.

a. creative intelligence                         c. practical intelligence

b. analytical intelligence                 d. emotional intelligence

19. Individuals who are considered to be mildly mentally retarded are capable of reaching the level of a sixth-grade education and can often live independently. The IQ range of an individual with mild mental retardation is ____ to _____.

a. 5 to 20                                 c. 35 to 50

b. 20 to 35                                 d. 50 to 70

20. Which of the following does not belong with the others?

a. aptitude tests                         c. intelligence tests

b. personality tests                         d. achievement tests

21. If you score 75th percentile on a standardized test, this means that,

a. 75% of those who took the test scored better than you did.

b. 25% of those who took the test scored less than you did.

c. 75% of those who took the test scored the same or less than you did.

d. you answered 75% of the questions correctly.

22. In which of the following cases would you expect to find the greatest similarity in IQ?

a. between fraternal twins                 c. between two non-twin siblings

b. between identical twins                 d. between parent and child

23. Evidence indicating that upbringing affects one’s mental ability is provided by which of the following findings?

a. that identical twins are more similar in IQ than fraternal twins

b. that there is more than a chance similarity between adopted children and their biological parents

c. that siblings that are reared together are more similar in IQ than siblings reared apart

d. that identical twins reared apart are more similar in IQ than siblings reared together

24. IQ tests have proven to be good predictors of:

a. social intelligence                                 c. school performance

b. practical problem-solving intelligence                 d. all of the above

25. Currently, if you take an IQ test, your total score is compared with __________ to determine where you fall in the normal distribution.

a. the entire population                                 c. those of others your same age

b. those within your socio-economic status                   d. those within your socio-cultural heritage

26. Who would most likely have made the following statement:

“There is no escape from the conclusion that nature prevails enormously over nurture when the differences in nurture do not exceed what is commonly to be found among persons of the same rank of society and in the same country.”

a. Sir Francis Galton                                 c. Lewis Terman

b. Alfred Binet                                         d. David Wechsler

27. Recent studies in 1999 have shown a _______________. The speed of nerve conduction is related to IQ: the brains of bright people use less energy during problem solving. The brain waves of people with higher IQs show a quicker and more consistent reaction to simple triggers such as clicks.

a. environmental basis for general intelligence         c. genetic basis for general intelligence

b. biological basis for general intelligence                 d. biological basis for specific intelligence

28. If Mrs. Bates compared the scores of students on the odd-numbered questions on the test with their scores for the even-numbered questions, she would be attempting to determine if the test had

a. content validity                                c. split-half reliability

b. predictive validity                                d. test-retest reliability

29. Which of the following best describes Charles Spearman’s ‘g’ of intelligence?

a. There are many factors that determine intelligence, but genetics is the most important one.

b. The internal validity of an intelligence test is ‘g’.

c. A general intelligence that underlies success on a wide variety of tasks is ‘g’.

d. The ‘g’ is measured by the speed with which one can process information.

30. Freddie is a 10-year-old boy with a mental age of 12. According to the scoring of the Stanford-Binet test, Freddie’s intelligence quotient score is

a. 12                                c. 95

b. 83                                d. 120

31. A comparison of African-American test takers to the scores of European-American test takers on current popular intelligence tests such as Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Stanford-Binet indicates that

a. black students outperform white students on creative and practical intelligence scores.

b. the difference between the means of the scores between groups is larger than the range of the scores within groups.

c. the mean of the black students is lower than the mean of the white students.

d. there is no difference between the scores of whites and blacks.

32. During the development of standardized tests, questions that are answered correctly by almost all students and those that are missed by almost all students are eliminated. Why?

a. Only questions that are moderately difficult should be included on the test.

b. These questions fail to show individual differences in abilities.

c. These questions are poorly written.

d. This eliminates bias in administering the test.

33. Barika, who is 75, takes longer to solve problems that require abstract reasoning than she did when she was 35. This tendency indicates

a. a decrease in her overall intelligence level

b. an increase in her crystallized ability

c. a decline in her fluid intelligence

d. failing eyesight, which can be compensated for by large print being used on the test.

34. Aptitude tests are designed to measure

a. previously learned facts

b. future performance

c. previously learned skills

d. current competence

35. According to Sternberg, which of the following types of intelligence in his triarchic theory are measured by standard IQ tests?

I. analytic

II. practical

III. creative

a. I only                        b. II only

c. III only                        d. I, II, and III

36. Which of the following is not a requirement of a good test?

a. reliability                         c. standardization

b. validity                         d. reification

37. Most experts view intelligence as a person's:

a. ability to perform well on intelligence tests.

b. innate mental capacity.

c. ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations.

d. diverse skills acquired throughout life.

38. The ____ is the steady increase in performance on IQ tests over the last 80 years, possibly resulting from better nutrition, educational opportunities, and health care.

a. Cultural-familial effect                c. Flynn effect

b. Stereotype threat                        d. Fluid effect

39. Most psychologists believe that racial gaps in test scores:

a. have been exaggerated when they are, in fact, insignificant.

b. indicate that intelligence is in large measure inherited.

c. are in large measure caused by environmental factors.

d. are increasing.

40. Which of the following provides the strongest evidence of the role of heredity in determining

intelligence?

a. The IQ scores of identical twins raised separately are very similar

b. The intelligence scores of fraternal twins are more similar than those of ordinary twins.

c. The intelligence scores of identical twins raised together are more similar than those of identical twins raised apart.

d. The intelligence scores of adopted children show relatively weak correlations with scores of adoptive as well as biological parents.

Essay Questions:  Answer both of the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. It is not enough to answer the question by merely listing facts. You should present a cogent argument rooted on your critical analysis of the question posed, based in the research on the topics, using appropriate psychological terminology. Mention the psychologist who did the research!

1. Psychologists have long been interested in defining intelligence. Definitions of intelligence have had far-reaching implications on how children are educated. Discuss how the following psychologists define intelligence and the impact that definition can have on the development of a person’s intellect and potential.

2. Many colleges and universities use standardized tests as part of the admission process for incoming students. The use of these tests is controversial and psychologist research ways in which these test both help and hurt students. Provide an argument for or against the use of standardized tests in the admissions process using the following terms: