World History AP with Mr. Duez - Learning Targets

Unit 4: THE EARLY MODERN WORLD 1450–1750

CHAPTER 16 Religion and Science


• To explore the early modern roots of modern tension between religion and science

• To examine the Reformation movements in Europe and their significance

• To investigate the global spread of Christianity and the extent to which it syncretized with native traditions

• To expand the discussion of religious change to include religious movements in China, India, and the Islamic world

• To explore the reasons behind the Scientific Revolution in Europe, and why that movement was limited in other parts of the world

• To explore the implications of the Scientific Revolution for world societies

Big Picture Questions

1. Why did Christianity take hold in some places more than in others?

2. In what ways was the missionary message of Christianity shaped by the cultures of Asian and American peoples?

3. Compare the processes by which Christianity and Islam became world religions.

4. In what ways did the spread of Christianity, Islam, and modern science give rise to culturally based conflicts?

5. Based on Chapters 13 through 16, how does the history of Islam in the early modern era challenge a Eurocentric understanding of those centuries?

Margin Review Questions

1. In what ways did the Protestant Reformation transform European society, culture, and politics?

2. How was European imperial expansion related to the spread of Christianity?

3. In what ways was European Christianity assimilated into the Native American cultures of Spanish America?

4. Why were missionary efforts to spread Christianity so much less successful in China than in Spanish America?

5. What accounts for the continued spread of Islam in the early modern era and for the emergence of reform or renewal movements within the Islamic world?

6. In what ways did Asian cultural changes in the early modern era parallel those of Europe, and in what ways were they different?

7. Why did the Scientific Revolution occur in Europe rather than in China or the Islamic world?

8. What was revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution?

9. In what ways did the Enlightenment challenge older patterns of European thinking?

10. How did nineteenth-century developments in the sciences challenge the faith of the Enlightenment?

11. In what ways was European science received in the major civilizations of Asia in the early modern era?

Key Terms

bhakti: Hindu devotional movement that flourished in the early modern era, emphasizing music, dance, poetry, and rituals as means by which to achieve direct union with the divine. (pron. BAHK-tee)

Catholic Counter-Reformation: An internal reform of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century; thanks especially to the work of the Council of Trent (1545–1563), Catholic leaders clarified doctrine, corrected abuses and corruption, and put a new emphasis on education and accountability.

Condorcet and the idea of progress: The Marquis de Condorcet (1743–1794) was a French philosopher and political scientist who argued that human affairs were moving into an era of near-infinite improbability, with slavery, racism, tyranny, and other human trials swept away by the triumph of reason. (pron. kahn-dor-SAY)

Copernicus, Nicolaus: Polish mathematician and astronomer (1473–1543) who was the first to argue for the existence of a heliocentric cosmos.

Council of Trent: The main instrument of the Catholic Counter-Reformation (1545–1563), at which the Catholic Church clarified doctrine and corrected abuses.

Darwin, Charles: Highly influential English biologist (1809–1882) whose theory of natural selection continues to be seen by many as a threat to revealed religious truth.

deism: Belief in a divine being who created the cosmos but who does not intervene directly in human affairs.

Edict of Nantes: 1598 edict issued by French king Henry IV that granted considerable religious toleration to French Protestants and ended the French Wars of Religion. (pron. nahnt)

European Enlightenment: European intellectual movement of the eighteenth century that applied the lessons of the Scientific Revolution to human affairs and was noted for its commitment to open-mindedness and inquiry and the belief that knowledge could transform human society.

Freud, Sigmund: Austrian doctor and the father of modern psychoanalysis (1856–1939); his theories about the operation of the human mind and emotions remain influential today.

Galilei, Galileo: Italian astronomer (1564–1642) who further developed the ideas of Copernicus and whose work was eventually suppressed by the Catholic Church.

huacas: Local gods of the Andes. (pron. HWA-kaws)

Huguenots: The Protestant minority in France. (pron. HUGH-ghe-noes)

Jesuits in China: Series of Jesuit missionaries in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who, inspired by the work of Matteo Ricci, made extraordinary efforts to understand and become a part of Chinese culture in their efforts to convert the Chinese elite, although with limited success.

kaozheng: Literally, “research based on evidence”; Chinese intellectual movement whose practitioners emphasized the importance of evidence and analysis, applied especially to historical documents. (pron. kow-jung)

Luther, Martin: German priest and theologian (1483–1546) who inaugurated the Protestant Reformation movement in Europe.

Marx, Karl: German philosopher (1818–1883) whose view of human history as a class struggle formed the basis of socialism.

Mirabai: One of India’s most beloved bhakti poets (1498–1547), she helped break down the barriers of caste and tradition. (pron. MIR-ah-bye)

Nanak, Guru: The founder of Sikhism (1469–1539). (pron. NAH-nahk)

Newton, Isaac: English natural scientist (1643–1727) whose formulation of the laws of motion and mechanics is regarded as the culmination of the Scientific Revolution.

Ninety-five Theses: List of ninety-five debating points about the abuses of the Church, posted by Martin Luther on the door of a church in Wittenberg in 1517; the Church’s strong reaction eventually drove Luther to separate from Catholic Christianity.

Protestant Reformation: Massive schism within Christianity that had its formal beginning in 1517 with the German priest Martin Luther; while the leaders of the movement claimed that they sought to “reform” a Church that had fallen from biblical practice, in reality the movement was radically innovative in its challenge to Church authority and its endorsement of salvation “by faith alone.”

Ricci, Matteo: The most famous Jesuit missionary in China in the early modern period; active in China from 1582 to 1610. (pron. maht-TAY-oh REE-chee)

Scientific Revolution: Great European intellectual and cultural transformation that was based on the principles of the scientific method.

Sikhism: Religious tradition of northern India founded by Guru Nanak ca. 1500; combines elements of Hinduism and Islam and proclaims the brotherhood of all humans and the equality of men and women. (pron. SEEK-ism)

Society of Jesus: Also called “Jesuits,” this Catholic religious society was founded to encourage the renewal of Catholicism through education and preaching; it soon became a leading Catholic missionary order beyond the borders of Europe.

Taki Onqoy: Literally, “dancing sickness”; a religious revival movement in central Peru in the 1560s whose members preached the imminent destruction of Christianity and of the Europeans in favor of a renewed Andean golden age. (pron. TAH-kee OHN-koy)

Thirty Years’ War: Highly destructive war (1618–1648) that eventually included most of Europe; fought for the most part between Protestants and Catholics, the conflict ended with the Peace of Westphalia (1648).

Voltaire: Pen name of the French philosopher François-Marie Arouet (1694–1778), whose work is often taken as a model of Enlightenment questioning of traditional values and attitudes; noted for his deism and his criticism of traditional religion. (pron. vol-TARE)

Wahhabi Islam: Major Islamic movement led by the Muslim theologian Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792) that advocated an austere lifestyle and strict adherence to the sharia (Islamic law). (pron. wah-HAB-ee)

Wang Yangmin: Prominent Chinese philosopher (1472–1529) who argued that it was possible to achieve a virtuous life by introspection, without the extensive education of traditional Confucianism. (pron. wahng yahng-min)