“Reacting Robots ”

Overview
                In this unit, students will create robots that react to different types of inputs, including light and proximity, and in different context situations.  Students will develop a need for more advanced construction and programming techniques in order to create robots that effectively react to changing light intensity and distances.

BIG Idea
        “Robots are capable of interacting with their environment using both light and distance sensors.”

Standards
Technology: Standards for Technological Literacy
*Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and scope of technology.
 (ITEA/STL 1)

- New products and systems can be developed to solve problems or to help do

things that could not be done without the help of technology. (1F)

- The development of technology is a human activity and is the result of individual or

collective needs and the ability to be creative. (1G)

*Students will develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology.
(ITEA/STL 2)

- Some systems are found in nature and some are made by humans. (2A)

- Systems have parts or components that work together to accomplish a goal. (2B)

- A subsystem is a system that operates as part of another system. (2F)

- When parts of a system are missing or malfunctioning, the system may not work

properly. (2G)

- Technology systems include input, process, output and, at times, feedback. (2M)

- Systems thinking involves considering how every part relates to another. (2N)

- An open-loop system has no feedback path and requires human intervention; while

a closed-loop system uses feedback. (2O)

- Technological systems can be connected to one another. (2P)

- Requirements are the parameters placed on the development of a product or

system. (2R)

*Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and

development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.

(ITEA/STL 10)


Science: Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993)
*Design and Systems (AAAS, 3B, Grades 6–8)

- Almost all control systems have inputs, outputs, and feedback. The essence of

control is comparing information about what is happening to what people want to

happen and then making appropriate adjustments. This procedure requires sensing

information, processing it, and making changes. In almost all modern machines,

microprocessors serve as centers of performance control.

Core State Standards

*English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

-Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

        9. Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems;

historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

-Craft and Structure

5. Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

6. Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

-Production and Distribution of Writing

4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

Teacher Planning

The classroom should provide a flexible, resource-rich learning environment that includes

areas for lecture and demonstrations, small-group meetings, and research activities. The

teacher adapts the learning environment based on the requirements of the unit or lesson. For

this lesson, areas for lecture and demonstration, design, small-group meetings, and fabrication

activities should be readied.

Tools/Materials/Equipment

Classroom Safety and Conduct

  1. Students use tools and equipment in a safe manner and assume responsibility for their safety as well as for the safety of others.
  2. Students demonstrate courtesy in regard to the ideas expressed by classmates and show appreciation for the efforts of others.

Lesson 1:  “Interactive Art”

Duration: 4-6 Hours

Highlights
Engagement: Students will discuss different types of open and closed looped systems.  Some examples are applying the acceleration pedal in your car and the thermostat in your home.
Exploration: Students review several examples of interactive art.
Explanation:  Students create an interactive art utilizing an IR proximity sensor.  Students will present their art by hanging it on the wall.
Extension: Students will write a narrative explaining the different “states” of their interactive art.
Evaluation: Students will present their story and robot at a mock art show.

Objectives
Students will learn to:

-Create basic storyboards to explain different states..

-Utilize technological and creative design to create interactive art.

-Apply measuring techniques to modify a desired outcome via servo motors.

-Explain why the development of technology is a human activity and is the result of

individual or collective needs and the ability to be creative.

-Compare and contrast natural and human-made systems.

-Describe how parts or components of a system work together to accomplish a goal.

-Make a two-dimensional representation of a technological system.

-Make a three-dimensional representation of a technological system.

-Disassemble a common product and identify the common systems and subsystems                 found inside.

-Analyze precision, accuracy, and approximate error in measurement situations.

-Identify requirements that are placed on the development of a system.


Lesson Plan

Engagement:

  1. Lead a discussion on the basics of closed and open looped systems.  An open looped system is dependant upon human or outside interaction.  For example, you press the acceleration pedal on your car to go faster.  An open loop system follows the pattern of input-process-output.  A closed system is autonomous with the addition of feedback.  For example, a thermostat is set to a certain temperature and then is autonomous to maintain the temperature by regulating itself through feedback.  A closed looped system follows the repeating pattern input-process-output-feedback.  Feedback is usually experienced through a sensor or timer.
  1. Open Looped Systems
  1. Car brakes, acceleration
  2. Lights in a room
  3. Typing on a computer
  1. Closed Looped Systems
  1. Thermostat
  2. Motion sensing lights
  3. Dusk to Dawn lights.


Exploration:

  1. Students are to select a closed system and write a brief description of the inputs, processes, outputs and feedback of the system.  This activity can be done as a homework assignment or a research activity in class.
  2. Students are to present their system to the class.  PowerPoint or other presentation software should be utilized.
  3. Instructor should give a presentation on interactive art as an example of a closed looped system. Art that changes with light, sound, or distance of the observer follows the same pattern as a closed system.
  4. Ask the students how they would utilize sensors to create interactive art.  Students should record examples and explore possibilities for their own interactive art.


Explanation:

  1. Review the basics of a servo motor and light emitting diodes (LEDs).  Explain common uses and limitations.  
  2. Give a brief explanation of the Hummingbird control board.  
  3. Demonstrate appropriate connecting and procedures.  Explain the basics of the programming software, such as modifying values and saving expressions.
  4. Introduce the IR proximity sensor as the feedback component in their interactive art system.  Student are to create art that changes based on the position of the observer.
  5. Students are to brainstorm several natural systems that they may have learned about in science class.  Lead a discussion on possible systems:
  1. Water Cycle
  2. Changing of the seasons
  3. Gecko changes color to blend in to its surroundings
  4. Food Chain
  5. Life Cycle
  6. Night/Day
  1. Students are to create an interactive art that mimics a natural system.  Show students examples via the Internet.  Constraints:
  1. Must be a natural system.
  2. Must be able to hang on a wall.
  3. Utilize the IR Sensor.


Extension:

  1. Artwork is often accompanied by a narrative explaining the artwork and giving insight to the artistic inspiration.  Students are to create a narrative explaining their system.  Narrative should be creative in nature and possibly include poems, or quotes.


Evaluation:

  1. Students’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes are assessed using selected response items and rubrics for brief constructed responses and class participation. The rubrics are presented in advance of the activities to familiarize students with the expectations and performance criteria, and they are also reviewed during the activities to guide students in the completion of assignments.

Lesson 2:  “Robotic Haunting”

Duration: 3-5 Hours

Highlights
Engagement:  Students will view websites on negative effects of technology.
Exploration: Students will research other possible negative effects of technology in one of three areas: environment, personal health, or public safety.
Explanation:  Students will create a Halloween Monster Robot that reflects a negative technological impact.  Robot will react to either a proximity or light sensor.
Extension: Student will create a lesson-to-be-learned narrative to accompany their robot in the classroom haunted house.
Evaluation: Students will create a classroom haunted house for younger student to walk through and experience.


Objectives
Students will learn to:

-Debate the positive benefits as well as negative impacts of technology.

-Model a narrative through robotic programming and motions.

-Explain why the development of technology is a human activity and is the result of

individual or collective needs and the ability to be creative.

-Describe systems in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, and at times, feedback.

-Describe how parts or components of a system work together to accomplish a goal.

-Make a two-dimensional representation of a technological system.

-Make a three-dimensional representation of a technological system.

-Analyze precision, accuracy, and approximate error in measurement situations.

-Identify requirements that are placed on the development of a system.

-Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others,                 and focusing on the task.


Lesson Plan
Engagement:

  1. Teacher and students are to view the following website and discuss the use of technology in each situation.  
  1. http://ec.europa.eu/health/opinions2/en/electromagnetic-fields/index.htm
  2. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/chernobyl/inf07.htm
  1. Leading questions to guide discussion:
  1. Is technology good or bad?
  2. Why are some technologies invented if there are known negative consequences?
  3. What is a trade-off?


Exploration:

  1. Teacher is to explain the fact that technology is not good or bad.  Technology is a tool that may be used in many ways.  There are expected positive and negative impacts of any technology as well as unexpected positive and negative impacts.  Also, explain that while technologies are being developed, the inventor must weigh that positives and negatives.  This is a process of deciding on Trade-Offs.
  2. Lead a discussion and provide examples of all four categories for a given technology.
  3. Nuclear Fission
  1. Expected/Positive
  1. Powerful Weapon
  1. Expected/Negative
  1. Dangerous radiation
  1. Unexpected/Positive
  1. Cheap, reliable energy source
  1. Unexpected/Negative
  1. Power Plant disasters
  2. Waste Storage
  1. Write examples on the board.
  2. Students are to research technological impacts on one of three main areas:  environment, personal health, or public safety.
  1. Student are to identify the key technological advancement that lead to the negative impact.
  2. Students will give a small presentation to the class outlining their impact.

Explanation:

  1. Students will develop a Robotic Monster that is based on a negative impact of their researched technology.  Students are to begin basic sketching and design.  Their monster must react to either the presence of light or motion.
  2. Review the basics of a servo motor and light emitting diodes (LEDs).  Explain common uses and limitations.  
  3. Give a brief explanation of the Hummingbird control board.  Demonstrate appropriate connecting and procedures.  
  4. Explain the basics of the programming software, such as modifying values and saving expressions.
  5. Review the IR proximity sensor and the light sensor as the feedback component in their Robot Monster.
  6. Students are to construct their robot monsters.  Robots are to remain silent/hidden until triggered by one of the sensors.  The robots will be in a dark room, so have students brainstorm some basic designs for scaring the visitors of the classroom haunted house.
  1. Flashing Lights
  2. Loud Noises
  3. Moving arms, teeth, etc.


Extension:

  1. Students are to complete a narrative to accompany their robot monster explaining their technological impact inspiration.  Narrative should be written so that a young child would understand the importance of effectively evaluating technology.  Target age range is K-3.


Evaluation:

  1. Set up Haunted Robotic Classroom.
  2. Students’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes are assessed using selected response items and rubrics for brief constructed responses and class participation. The rubrics are presented in advance of the activities to familiarize students with the expectations and performance criteria, and they are also reviewed during the activities to guide students in the completion of assignments.