NAME_____________________________________________PD_____

AP PSYCHOLOGY - MR DUEZ - UNIT 2: Biological Bases of Behavior & Sensation/Perception - CH 3 & 4 *TEST IS DUE AT THE VERY BEGINNING OF CLASS ON:_________________________

____        101.        Glia cells

a.

release neuromodulators

b.

provide structural support for neurons

c.

release neurotransmitters

d.

form the primary components of the spinal cord

____        102.        Which of the following is not one of the main functions of neurons?

a.

generating information

b.

transmitting information

c.

receiving information

d.

integrating information

____        103.        Which of the following statements regarding neurons is true?

a.

All neurons are similar in size and complexity.

b.

Only neurons in the brain are insulated with myelin sheaths.

c.

All neurons receive, integrate, and transmit signals within the nervous system.

d.

All of these statements are true.

____        104.        The basic parts of a neuron are

a.

vesicles, terminal buttons, synapse

b.

cell body, axon, dendrites

c.

myelin, nodes, axon terminals

d.

hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain

____        105.        __________ receive information from other neurons; __________ transmit information to other neurons.

a.

Axons; synapses

b.

Dendrites; axons

c.

Synapses; dendrites

d.

Axons; dendrites

____        106.        In computers, the keyboard receives input and passes that information along to the computer's central processing unit (CPU). In comparing a computer to a neuron, the keyboard would be equivalent to

a.

the soma

b.

the axon

c.

the dendrites

d.

the terminal buttons

____        107.        The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as the

a.

soma

b.

corpus callosum

c.

myelin sheath

d.

dendritic tree

____        108.        The disease multiple sclerosis seems to be due to a breakdown of

a.

neural impulses

b.

neural inhibition

c.

dendritic trees

d.

myelin sheath

____        109.        Faster neural impulses occur in

a.

insulated or myelinated axons

b.

uninsulated or unmyelinated axons

c.

shorter axons

d.

neurons with extensive dendrites

____        110.        A neural impulse is initiated when a neuron's charge

a.

momentarily changes from positive to negative

b.

momentarily becomes less negative, or even positive

c.

suddenly becomes even more positive than it was during the resting state

d.

suddenly becomes even more negative than it was during the resting state

____        111.        Which of the following statements about the neural impulse is false?

a.

It travels faster in larger diameter fibers than in smaller fibers.

b.

It follows the all-or-none principle.

c.

It is a brief change in polarization of the cell membrane.

d.

It produces stronger neural impulses from stronger stimuli.

____        112.        A good analogy for the way in which a neurotransmitter binds to receptor sites is

a.

the opening and closing of a window

b.

a key fitting in the lock of a door

c.

the lowering of a drawbridge

d.

the pulling of the trigger of a gun

____        113.        Which of the following has been implicated in pain alleviation?

a.

dopamine

b.

endorphins

c.

acetylcholine

d.

norepinephrine

____        114.        A family of chemicals produced in the body that resemble the opiates are the

a.

endorphins

b.

dopamines

c.

biogenic amines

d.

acetylcholines

____        115.        A marathon runner may well experience a phenomenon known as "runner's high" because the pain of a long run may trigger the release of __________ in the brain.

                     a. morphine                c. placebos

                        b. endorphins                d. naloxne

____        116.        The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the

a.

central nervous system

b.

peripheral nervous system

c.

skeletal nervous system

d.

afferent nervous system

____        117.        The movement of voluntary skeletal muscles involved in doing calisthenics is under the control of the

a.

somatic nervous system

b.

parasympathetic nervous system

c.

sympathetic nervous system

d.

autonomic nervous system

____        118.        That part of the nervous system that controls digestion and flow of blood is the

a.

somatic nervous system

b.

motor nervous system

c.

sensory nervous system

d.

autonomic nervous system

____        119.        The __________ is most likely to be in control of bodily processes during periods of rest and recovery for the body.

a.

somatic nervous system

b.

sympathetic nervous system

c.

parasympathetic nervous system

d.

hypothalamus

____        120.        The structure that connects the peripheral nervous system to the brain is the

c.

pineal gland

d.

medulla

c.

pineal gland

d.

medulla

____        121.        Electrical stimulation of its lateral hypothalamus causes an animal to overeat and become obese. Therefore, we would expect that lesioning the lateral hypothalamus would produce

a.

overeating and obesity

b.

under eating and weight loss

c.

no effect on eating or body weight

d.

alternating periods of overeating and under eating

____        122.        Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is most likely to be used to study the activity of specific neurotransmitters?

a.

CT scanning

b.

PET scanning

c.

MRI scanning

d.

EEG recording

____        123.        The technique in which radioactively tagged chemicals are introduced into the brain and then equipment monitors where the chemicals appear in the brain is

a.

computerized tomography

b.

positron emission tomography

c.

magnetic resonance imaging

d.

electrographic tomography

____        124.        Which of the following structures is not part of the hindbrain?

a.

cerebellum

b.

thalamus

c.

medulla

d.

pons

____        125.        Damage to the cerebellum is most likely to result in

a.

problems with coordination of movement

b.

impairment of short-term memory

c.

difficulties in judging distance

d.

eating irregularities

____        126.        The drunken driving suspect was unable to hold his hand out to the side and bring his finger to a stop on his nose because one of the brain structures depressed first by alcohol is the

a.

cerebellum

b.

corpus callosum

c.

hypothalamus

d.

medulla

____        127.        The __________ serves as a bridge between the brainstem and the cerebellum.

a.

corpus callosum

b.

thalamus

c.

pons

d.

reticular formation

____        128.        When you hear a sudden noise behind you and you reflexively turn your head, an area in the __________ is at work.

a.

brainstem

b.

hindbrain

c.

midbrain

d.

forebrain

____        129.        The structure that begins in the hindbrain and terminates in the midbrain is the

a.

hypothalamus

b.

reticular formation

c.

pons

d.

medulla

____        130.        A person might end up in a coma if the following area of the brain is damaged

a.

reticular formation

b.

medulla

c.

hypothalamus

d.

pons

____        131.        Which area of the brain is most likely to be affected by surgical anesthesia?

a.

hypothalamus

b.

medulla

c.

pons

d.

reticular formation

____        132.        The brain structure responsible for relaying sensory information to various locations in the brain is the

a.

frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex

b.

cerebellum

c.

thalamus

d.

limbic system

____        133.        The function of the hypothalamus is to regulate

a.

hunger

b.

thirst

c.

body temperature

d.

hunger, thirst, and body temperature

____        134.        Which of the following brain structures is most closely associated with the regulation of emotion?

a.

cerebellum

b.

reticular formation

c.

brainstem

d.

limbic system

____        135.        Research by Olds and Milner (1954) identified a "pleasure center" in rat brains. Rats will press a lever thousands of times as long as a small electric current stimulates

a.

the brainstem

b.

the corpus callosum

c.

the hypothalamus

d.

the frontal lobe of the occipital cortex

____        136.        Which of the following is responsible for the human ability to engage in higher mental activity such as thinking and philosophizing?

a.

the corpus callosum

b.

the cerebrum

c.

the cerebellum

d.

the hypothalamus

____        137.        The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the

a.

corpus callosum

b.

pineal gland

c.

thalamus

d.

parietal lobe

____        138.        Which of the following is not considered a lobe of the cerebral cortex?

a.

cranial

b.

temporal

c.

occipital

d.

parietal

____        139.        The lobe of the brain with primary responsibility for processing bodily sensations is the

a.

parietal lobe

b.

occipital lobe

c.

frontal lobe

d.

thalamic lobe

____        140.        The primary processing for auditory sensations is in the __________ lobe of the cerebrum.

a.

parietal

b.

temporal

c.

frontal

d.

occipital

____        141.        Damage to the temporal lobe of the brain would probably be most harmful to the career of

a.

a musician

b.

an actor

c.

an architect

d.

a painter

____        142.        The amount of motor cortex devoted to each body area is determined by

a.

 the size of the body area                  c. the diversity of movements of the body area

 

b.

the location of the body area          d. none of these factors

____        143.        The area of the frontal lobe that plays an important role in the production of speech is called

a.

Wernicke's area

b.

Broca's area

c.

Cannon's area

d.

Sperry's area

____        144.        The production of language for most persons resides in the

a.

posterior cerebral hemisphere

b.

central cerebral hemisphere

c.

right cerebral hemisphere

d.

left cerebral hemisphere

____        145.        A split-brain person has a severed

a.

cerebral cortex

b.

cerebellum

c.

medulla

d.

corpus callosum

____        146.        Surgically disconnecting the cerebral hemispheres has its origins in the treatment of

a.

epileptics

b.

people in comas

c.

schizophrenics

d.

psychopaths

____        147.        In studies of neurologically intact people, researchers have concluded that

a.

there is no cerebral specialization in the intact brain

b.

the left hemisphere normally handles nonverbal processing

c.

the right hemisphere normally handles verbal processing

d.

none of these statements is accurate

____        148.        In both split-brain people and neurologically intact people, the left hemisphere specializes in

a.

verbal processing

b.

visual recognition

c.

spatial perception

d.

all of these things

____        149.        The endocrine system

a.

connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain

b.

secretes hormones

c.

manufactures myelin

d.

forms the basis of reflexive behaviors

____        150.        People who have hormonal imbalances have problems with their

a.

endocrine system

b.

reticular formation

c.

limbic system

d.

left brain/right brain communication

____        151.        Hormones are transported throughout the body via the

a.

nervous system

b.

limbic system

c.

bloodstream

d.

secretionary system

____        152.        The master gland of the endocrine system is the

a.

thyroid gland

b.

adrenal gland

c.

pancreas

d.

pituitary gland

____        153.        __________ are released by the pituitary gland and affect the development of external sexual organs.

a.

Acetylcholines

b.

Gonadotropins

c.

Endorphins

d.

All of these

____        154.        The interdisciplinary field that studies the influence of genetic factors and behavioral traits is

a.

ethology

b.

cross-cultural anthropology

c.

physiological psychology

d.

behavioral genetics

____        155.        The carriers of genetic information in the form of DNA are the

a.

chromosomes

b.

ribosomes

c.

nucleotides

d.

rhizomes

____        156.        When one member of a gene pair is more influential, such that its trait is expressed over the trait of the other gene, it is said to be

a.

expressive        c. phenotypic

b.

genotypic         d. dominant

____        157.        A gene that must be paired with another gene just like itself to determine the phenotype is known as a

a.

recessive gene

b.

heterozygous gene

c.

dominant gene

d.

co-dominant gene

____        158.        A person's genotype refers to his or her

a.

observable characteristics and traits

b.

being dominated by the paternal contribution to genetic makeup

c.

being dominated by the maternal contribution to genetic makeup

d.

genetic makeup

____        159.        The observable characteristics of an individual are referred to as one's

a.

phenotype

b.

zygotype

c.

genotype

d.

heritability

____        160.        It appears that most human characteristics are influenced by

a.

a single gene

b.

a single pair of genes

c.

the father's genetic endowment more than the mother's

d.

more than one pair of genes

____        161.        Skin color is determined by three to five gene pairs. This makes skin color

a.

a monogenic trait

b.

a dominant trait

c.

a polygenic trait

d.

a polymorphous trait

____        162.        Which of the following is not a method of study to determine genetic effects on human behavior?

a.

family studies

b.

adoption studies

c.

experimental longitudinal studies

d.

twin studies

____        163.        Which of the following pairs of people would have the greatest proportion of shared genes?

a.

brothers of same parents

b.

sisters of same parents

c.

fraternal twins

d.

they are all the same

____        164.        As far as we know, the only humans who have the same genotype are

a.

fraternal twins

b.

identical twins

c.

dizygotic twins

d.

no two people have the same genotype

____        165.        The genetic relatedness of identical twins is equal to

a.

25%

b.

50%

c.

75%

d.

100%

____        166.        The genetic relatedness of fraternal twins is equal to

a.

25%

b.

50%

c.

75%

d.

100%

____        167.        The research on adopted children and intelligence has found that there is a significant similarity between them and

a.

their biological parents

b.

their adoptive parents

c.

both sets of parents

d.

their adoptive siblings

____        168.        With regard to human behavior, it is fairly clear that

a.

heredity controls the vast majority of behavior

b.

the environment controls the vast majority of behavior

c.

heredity and environment interact to control the vast majority of behavior

d.

none of these statements is accurate

____        169.        It appears that schizophrenia

a.

is an inherited trait that is uninfluenced by one's environment

b.

has no relationship to one's genetic endowment and is primarily social in origin

c.

has a strong inherited predisposition that interacts with one's environment

d.

has an early age of vulnerability; if someone has a sufficient amount of stress before that age, there is a high probability schizophrenia will develop

____        170.        Which of the following statements about Charles Darwin and the theory of evolution is not accurate?

a.

He was the first person to describe the process of evolution.

b.

He identified natural selection as the mechanism that orchestrates the process of evolution.

c.

He noted that some of the characteristics of organisms are passed down from one generation to the next.

d.

He suggested that variations in hereditary traits might affect organisms' ability to obtain resources.

____        171.        Which of the following is the most common mating system in nature?

                a. monogamy           c. polyandry

                   b. homogamy             d. polygyny

____        172.        When parental investment is roughly equal for males and females, the mating system that typically results is

a.

monogamy

b.

polyandry

c.

polygyny

d.

homogamy

____        173.        Which of the following statements best reflects current thinking about the theory of evolution?

a.

Evolutionary theory is basically just speculation.

b.

The theory of evolution is well-supported by empirical evidence.

c.

There is active debate on the central hypotheses of evolutionary theory.

d.

The assertion that organisms are the product of evolutionary processes is not well-established.

____        174.        The current interest in the right brain/left brain phenomenon highlights the importance of approaching topics such as this from a(n) __________ point of view.

a.

empirical

b.

subjective

c.

anecdotal

d.

conjectural

____        175.        Which of the following statements about hemispheric control is true?

a.

The right hemisphere controls analytical and logic skills, while the left hemisphere controls spatial and musical skills.

b.

Left-handed persons' behavior is controlled almost exclusively by the left hemisphere, while right-handed persons' behavior is controlled almost exclusively by the right hemisphere.

c.

Conclusions about hemispheric dominance and control often lead to overgeneralizations concerning which hemisphere controls what activities.

d.

One can increase one's IQ by engaging in activities designed to "build up" the nondominant hemisphere.

____        176.        Research on environment and brain development indicates that, compared to rats raised in an impoverished environment, rats raised in an enriched environment

a.

had slightly heavier brains

b.

performed better on problem solving tasks

c.

had a thicker cerebral cortex in some areas of the brain

d.

All of these statements are true.

____        177.        A person's current weight and height could be said to exemplify his or her

a.

genotype

b.

phenotype

c.

both of the above

d.

none of the above

____        178.        Which of the following kinds of studies can truly demonstrate that specific traits are indeed inherited?

a.

family studies

b.

twin studies

c.

adoption studies

d.

none of the above

____        179.        The basic communication links of the nervous system are the

a.

glia

b.

bones

c.

muscles

d.

neurons

____        180.        Sensory information is carried from your eyes to your brain by way of

a.

afferent fibers

b.

autonomic fibers

c.

efferent fibers

d.

motor fibers

____        181.        When parental investment is high for males and low for females, the mating system that typically results is

a.

monogamy

b.

polyandry

c.

polygyny

d.

homogamy

Diagram Answer the following by matching the part of the brain with the letter that correspond with the diagram below. You will end up bubbling your scantron to match as well.

____        182.        Hypothalamus

____        183.        Corpus callosum

____        184.        Amygdala

____        185.        Pons

____        186.        Thalamus

Diagram Answer the following by matching the part of the brain with the letter that correspond with the diagram below. You will end up bubbling your scantron to match as well.

____        187.        Myelin sheath

____        188.        Dendrites

____        189.        Axon

____        190.        Cell body

Essay You must do one of these essay questions. It is worth 10% points on this test grade. If you do the others they will be counted as extra credit towards your test score (up to 3% per question).

        I.        Compare and contrast the nervous system and the endocrine system.

        II.        Compare and contrast lesioning and electrical stimulation of the brain.

        III.        Assume that trait X is primarily an inherited characteristic. Imagine that trait X is investigated using family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies. Briefly describe each of these three methods and indicate what information each would be expected to yield regarding trait X.

        IV.        Imagine the following scenario: Administrators at the local high school have been impressed by recent media reports of cerebral hemispheric specialization, and are considering curricular reform to achieve a better balance between "left-brained" and "right-brained" activities. You have been hired to advise them on this issue. What would your recommendation be, and why?