Asopa, R.K. 1950. Marwari Vyakaran. Jaipur: Popular Prakashan

MARWARI GRAMMAR

        

1.         To make somebody understand, everything which we speak out by mouth is

            called the tongue means language.

2.        In ‘Marwar’ the tongue which used is called “Marwari”.

Note:  There is a little difference in tongue, in different provinces so here when we say it Marwari language, Understand it as the tongue of the capital.

3.         Language is of two types: (1) Pure (right) (2) Impure (wrong).

4.         From which we know how to speak and write correct Marwari language, is

Marwari Grammar.

Note:1 To know grammar in every language is very important, the reason is, without

knowing grammar one cannot speak and write correctly.

Note:2 Language formed by sentences, sentences formed by words and words are

formed by letters. There are three main subjects in grammar. Which are related

with letters, words and sentences.

5.        In Marwari Grammar there are three main subjects:

1.         Character/ letter Ideas

2.         Word Ideas

3.         Sentence Ideas

6.        In Character/ letter Idea the shape (turn) of alphabetic characters, pronunciation

and manner of combining is given.

7.        In word idea word distinction and inflect is described.

8.        In sentence idea the way of making sentences by words is prescribed.

                                     Character / letter Ideas 

9.        The letters which are written in Marwar, known as Marwari characters.

10.        Letter is the name of the part of the word which can not be divided.

11.         There are 52 letters in Marwari language. These are of two types:

1.        Vowels

2.        Consonants

Note: In Marwari Vowels are called as ‘BILTI’ and Consonants are called as ‘KAKKO’.

                                    Vowels 13

अ   आ    इ    ई    उ  ऊ    [ ऋ    ऋ    लृ        लध्‍  ]       ए     ऐ   ओ    औ    अं     अ:

A      AA     I     EE   U            RI    REE   LREE                    E     AI    O     AU   AN    AH

                                       

                            Consonants 36

क        ख       (ष)      ग        घ          ड़

K        KH                   G             GH      NG

च          छ         ज       झ       ञ

CH      CHH     J        JH       N

ट          ठ        ड        ढ       ण

T         TH      D      DH      An  

त          थ        द       ध       न

T          TH      D      DH     N

प          फ        ब        भ      म

P          PH      B       BH     M

य          र         ल        व

Y          R        L         V

श         ष         स       स़        ह

SH       SH      S        H        H

ड़          ळ        व़

12        The letters which are spoken itself without any other letter’s help, called Vowels

and gives help to speak consonant.

                                        as - “अ”(A)

The pronunciation of this letter is itself and to speak this no other letters help is

required. Just like this know other vowels.

13.        Consonants are the letters which only can speak with the help of vowel.

                                        as - “क” (K)

        In the pronunciation of this consonant one have to use “अ” (A) or one have to

speak any other vowel, without this help the pronunciation of “K” (“क”) is not

possible.

Whether put vowel before or after ‘क’ (K). “अक” here ‘अ’ vowel is putted before

‘क’ consonant for the pronunciation of ‘क’. “क” here ‘अ’ vowel is coming after ‘क’ for the pronunciation of ‘क’. It means that without the use of vowel, consonant can’t be pronounced.

14.        It is called ‘hal’ if there is no vowel in consonants like  ‘K’ (क) etc.

                                   as K, CH, P etc.

        To recognise ‘hal’, the sign ‘्’ marked down.

15.        A dot on the vowel is called ‘ Anuswar’.

                         as kans (कंस), hans (हंस) etc.

16.         A half dot like the moon on the vowel is called ‘Anunasik’ (Nasal).

as हाँस, बाँस, धाँस etc.

17.         The two dots in front of the vowel is called ‘Visarg’.

                        as प्राय: etc

                        Vowel formulation

18.        There are five basic vowels. as अ, इ, उ, ऋ, लृ.

19.        Four joint-letters are made by the formation of vowels.

as ए, ऐ, ओ, औ

Note: These four joint-letters are called Diphthong. Because these are made by two joint letters.

as -  अ + इ =ए. अ + ए = ऐ. अ + उ = ओ. अ +ओ =औ.

20.        In addition to these nine there are five vowels more

              आ. ई. ऊ. ऋ. लृ.

Note 1 These five are homogeneous to all basic vowels means these are cognate and pronunciation of   these five is a bit long from basic vowels so that these are called prolonged(long) vowels.

Note 2 All the sixteen vowels are - basic vowels- 5- अ. इ. उ. ऋ. लृ ,  Joint vowels- 4- ए. ऐ. ओ. औ, homogeneous 5- आ. ई. ऊ. ऋ.लृ , Anuswar- 1, Visarg- 2.

21. There are three types of vowels- 1 Hraswa (short), 2 Deergha (long) 3 Plut

22. In the pronunciation when it takes the time of about a eye blink, it called as Hraswa (short) vowel.                        as    अ. इ. उ. ऋ. लृ

23. In the pronunciation when it takes the time of about two eye blinks, it called as Deergha (long) vowel.                         as    आ. ई. ऊ. ऋ. लृ. ए. ऐ.ओ. औ. अं. अ:

24.  In the pronunciation when it takes the time of about three eye blinks, it called as Plut

vowel.                                   as     अ3. इ3. उ3. ऋ3. लृ3. ए3. ऐ3. ओ3. औ3 

25. Generally Plut vowel is used for calling.

 As    रे 3. गवाळिया 3 गाय चरा (O 3. shepherd 3 graze cows).

To recognise Plut vowel there is a tradition to put digit '3' before it.

रे 3. गवाळिया 3 गाय चरा here before रे and  या digit of 3 is there, so the inner ‘ए’ in  रे and the inner    

      ‘आ’ in या is known as Plut.

26. There are two more types of vowels, 1. Nasal 2. Non-nasal.

27. The vowels which pronounced by mouth and nose both are called Nasal.

      as अँ, इँ etc.

28. The vowels which pronounced only by mouth are called Non-nasa.

      as अ,  इ etc.

29. There are three more types of vowels. 1. Lower throat (अनुदात्त) 2. Upper throat (उदात्त)  

      3.  स्‍वरित

30. The vowels which are pronounced from the lower throat is called Anudaat(अनुदात्‍त).

      as - बारै(मांय नहीं) खातो (व़ही)

      Here the pronunciation of "आ" is from the lower throat so that in both places/words "आ" it is    

      Anudaat(अनुदात्‍त).

31. The vowels which are pronounced from the upper throat is called Udaat (उदात्त).

      Its sign ( __ ) is always put under the vowel.

      as बारै (number 12) खातो (in a hurry).

       Here the pronunciation of "आ" is from the upper throat so that in both places/words "आ"

      is Udaat(अनुदात्‍त).

      अनुदात्त                                उदात्त

Height कद                                when कद 

All सारो                                 Support सारो 

जिल्ले                                                  Flash जिल्ले

God of Muslims पीर                         Father’s house पीर 

Borrower धुर                                      disrespect     धुर 

Famous गूंद                                  knead the flour गूंद 

Take लेव                                 Specific organism लेवो

low quality मोळी                         Five-color yarn मोळी

Dig खोदो                                    Bull खोदो

32.   The vowel which is made by the formulation of Anudaat and Udaat and pronounced with

        tone from the throat is called Swarit.

         Its sign (٧)  is always put under the vowel. as

         

        Anudaat                         Udaat                                Swarit

All सारो                         Support सारो                  सारो ٧ {(Future and the question)

(The third part of Paisa)}पाई        of thorn पाई                 पाई ٧                 “

(Past verb)}धोई              (दुर्जर वस्‍तु)} धोई                     धोई ٧                “

Dig (विधि क्रिया)                 Bull     खोदो                    खोदौ ٧        “         “

33.  There are two more types of Ekar (एकार) and Dokar (दोकार) besides other vowels. 1.    

       Expressed व्‍यक्त 2. latent अव्‍यक्त

34.   Of which the pronunciation is clear is called expressed

Note- In Sanskrit the pronunciation of "ऐ, औ" is expressed.

as - मैनाक। ऐश्‍वर्य, grandson , amusement.

Here the pronunciation of "ऐ, औ" is clear so that "ऐ, औ" both are expressed.

35.   Of which the pronunciation is not clear is called Latent.

        Note- In Marwari the pronunciation of "ऐ, औ" is often latent.

        as Demerit ऐब (ओगण), Buffalo भैंस, कैर , last year पौर (गतवर्ष), backमौर (पीठ), here "ऐ,        

        औ" both are latent.

                                              Examples for practice

Anudaat latent                                Udaat latent

Dirt मैल [गलीच]                                easy सैल [सुगम]

Riot फैल [दंगो]                                Palace मैल [राजारो]

Demerit ऐब [ओगण]                                canal नैर [नाळो]

गैर [निदां]                                        chance लै [अवसर]

Buffalo भैंस [पशु]                                        तै [ पुड़]

सैंणो [समजदार]                                कैलु [थेपड़ा]

Meena मैंणो [a cast]                                गैणो [ Ornaments]

पौर [Last year]                                        सैर [City]

मौर [Back]                                        मौरु [ सोनारी]

Note: When Akaar (alphabetical) (अकार) used without adding in any consonant than it is called vowel, and used in that same method in which the vowels are written.

as अ. इ. etc.

36.    When Akaar (alphabetical) (अकार) vowels added in consonants than their format changed

ने मात्रा कवण में आवै है.

                                     

                                     Format of ‘Matra’ as-

                                     ‘Matra’ (Barakhadi)

ि

का

की

की

कु

कू

कृ

कृृ

लृ

लृ्

अं

अ:

:

के

कै

को

कौ

कं

क:

                                

                   Consonant formulation 

37. There are seven categories of consonants. 1. Kawarg (कवर्ग) 2. Chwarg (चवर्ग) 3. Tawarg (टवर्ग) 4. Tawarg (तवर्ग) 5. Pawarg (पवर्ग) 6. (अंत:स्‍थ) 7. (ऊष्‍म)

The matra of consonant is half.

In Marwari ड, ळ, व, ढ़, ध, ऐ these five consonants are more, of which the pronunciation is shown different.

खोडो [Grain storage space] खोड़ो [Lame].

माल [money]                        माळ [rope to pull up water from traditional well]

वार [turn] बार [ main gate] व़ार [to chase the theif]

The pronunciation of “ढ" and "ध़" is stupendous than "ढ़" and "ध" because at the time of pronouncing "ढ़" one have to move the tongue little bit upper, inner side from the pronunciation place of "ढ"

as

ढ़- ढ़ेढ़(lower cast), ढ़ांढ़ो (animal), ढ़ंढ                                ढ- ढील( looseness), ढोल (drum)

To pronounce “ध़" one have to move the tongue little bit upper, inner side from the pronunciation place of "ध"

as-

ध़- ध़ँणी (owner), ध़ंध़ो(business), ध़ाध़ल.                                ध- धन(money), धान( grain)

  क        ख           ग        घ          ड़

कवर्ग    

च          छ         ज       झ       ञ

चवर्ग

ट          ठ        ड        ढ       ण                     ड़

टवर्ग

त          थ        द       ध       न

तवर्ग

प          फ        ब        भ      म

पवर्ग

य          र         ल        व      थ़                  ळ

अंत:स्‍थ

श         ष         स        ह                           स़

ऊष्‍म

 

                                      United Consonant

38. The combination of two initial consonants is called conjugation.

      as व्‍याव (marriage), स्‍त्री (woman) etc.

     Here व्‍याव is the conjugation of both consonants व् + य् .

     Here स्‍त्री  is the conjugation of all three consonants स् + त्+र.

Note: In writing form often consonants of conjugation looks different.

 But क्ष. त्र. ज् in these joint letters the form of those consonants does not seen so many people teach in alphabets क् + = क्ष,  त् +=त्र, ज् += ज्ञ.

39. In conjugation the letter which comes before in speaking is first and written half.

     The letter which comes after is written after.

     as रस्‍सी, सत्य, धन्य etc.

40. But these ङ, छ, ट, ठ,  ड, ढ, these six consonants are written in full in before conjugation.

     as अङ्कुर, ऊछ्वास, गट्टी, बठ्ठर, गड्डी, ढढ्ढा etc.

41. Joint ‘र’ is written in before consonants upper side and known as ‘Ref’.

    as धर्म, कर्म etc.

42. But if ‘र’ comes before the consonant then it written in the legs.

    as प्रजा, मित्र etc.  

                                   The pronunciation places of letters

अ, आ,क, ख, ग, घ, ङ, ह, विसर्ग

Throat (कंठ)

इ, ई, च, छ, ज, झ, ञ, य, श,

Palate (ताळवो)

उ, ऊ, प, फ, ब, भ, म

Lips (होठ)

ऋ, ऋ, ट, ठ, ड, ढ, ण, र, ष, ड़,

Head (मस्‍तक)

लृ, लृ, त, थ, द, ध, न, ल, स, ळ

Teeth (दांत)

ङ, ञ, ण, न, म,  Anuswar  nasal

Nose (नाक)

ए, ऐ.

Throat-palate (कंठतालु)

ओ, औ.

Throat-lips (कंठ होठ)

व, व़.

Teeth-lips (दांत होठ)

43. The letter which pronounced by throat is ‘Kanthya’, pronounced by Palate is ‘ Talavya’, pronounced by lips is ‘Oasshth’, pronounced by the upper palate is ‘Moordhanya’, pronounced by teeth is ‘Dantya’ and pronounced by nose is called ‘Nasal’ (Anunasik).

                                      Word discussion

44. The sound which heard is ‘Word’.

45. The types of word are 1. Phonetic 2. Descriptive.

46. The sound of Drum, Nagara is called Phonetic.

47. Pronounced from mouth are called Descriptive.

48. Descriptive words are of two types, 1 Without meaning 2. Signifying.

49. Word which is having no meaning is called without meaning (Apshabd).

      as    चूं (chun),  चां (chan) etc.

50. Word which is having some meaning is called signifying.

     as   Ram, Jodhpur etc.

51. There are three types of signifying words: 1. Noun 2. Verb 3 Indeclinable.

52.  The name of a thing is called ‘Noun’.

     as   Cow, Jodhpur etc.

     Cow is the name of a four leg animal, Jodhpur is the name of a city.

53. In which ‘do’, ‘be’ works are found is called ‘Verb’.

     as   Learning, playing etc.

54. In which gender, number, factor is not found is called indeclinable.

     Note: Means the nature is not changed by gender etc or any other reason is  

    indeclinable.

     as  quick, or, when etc.

                                Noun Formulation

55. There are three types of first noun. 1. Rudh 2. Compound 3. Yogrudh.

56. Not a single section (part) is not meaningful is called Rudh noun.

      as  Cow (गाय), Buffalo (भैंस)

 Here in गाय first section is ‘गा’ and second section is ‘य’ but these both separately are not meaningful so this noun is Rudh. In this way understand all the rudh nouns.

57. Which made by two words or by term and suffix is called compound noun.

    as  जीवधारी, जोधपर, कालज्ञान, बोलणवाळो, कारक etc. In जीवधारी word there is the  addition of ‘जीव’ and ‘धारी’. By which the word जीवधारी is compound. In same way जोधपुर, is the addition of two words ‘जोध’ and ‘पुर’. In कालज्ञान here is the addition of two words ‘काल’ and ‘ज्ञान’. In बोलणवाळो here first ‘बोलण’ and then suffix ‘वाळौ’ is added so that this word is compound. In कारक the addition of  "कार" and  "अक" is there.

58. Yogrudh noun is that which is made by the addition of two words but shows only Connotations not the conjunction meaning.

   as अंगरखी, पंकज, गिरधारी etc.

 अंगरखी word is made by two words ‘अंग’ and ‘रखी’ but showing only the connotations and not the conjunction meaning so here अंगरखी is Yogrudh noun.

59. There are more five types of noun 1. Common noun (जातिवाचक) 2. Proper noun (व्‍यक्तिवाचक) 3. Attributive noun (गुणवाचक) 4. Abstract noun (भाववाचक) 5. Pronoun (सर्वनाम)।

60. Which shows about a class is called Common noun.

     as   आदमी (man), गाय (cow), रुंख (tree) etc.

61. Which shows the name of only one thing is called Proper noun.

    as  राम (Ram), जोधपुर (Jodhpur), भोमसेन (Bhomsen (a name) etc.

62. Which shows about the quality is known as Attributive noun or adjective.

     as  काळो(black), लंबो(long), चोखो (good) etc.

63.  By which the nature of term prescribed or shows the sense of business is called as Abstract noun.

     as  मिठास (sweetness), धीरज (patience), समज (sense) etc.

64. The word which came in exchange of noun is called Pronoun.

     as    तूं (you), हूं (I), वो( He) etc.

      The purpose of this is not using the noun many times.

   

                        Adjective

65. Adjective is of two types 1. Quality explanatory 2. Quantity explanatory.

66. By which one can recognise about less, much, good, bad is known as Quality explanatory adjective.

      as  थोड़ो(less) , घणो (much), ऊजळो (bright), मैलो (dirty) etc.

67. Quantity explanatory shows the count.

68. There are two types of quantity explanatory 1. Differential Quantity explanatory

      2. General Quantity explanatory.

69. Differential Quantity explanatory is that which refers to the number assigned.        

        as  पैलो (first), दूजो (second), तीजो(third), चोथो(forth), पांचवों (fifth) etc.

70.  General Quantity explanatory is that which shows the count in a general way.

        as   एक(one), दोय(two), तीन(three), च्‍यार(four), पांच(five).

                        Abstract

71. Abstract is of three types.

        1. Nature  explanatory

        2. Behavior  explanatory

3. Work explanatory

72. Which refers about the nature of the substance is Nature explanatory.

       as  खटाई (sourness), पीळास (yellowish), चुतराई (cleverness) etc.

73. Which refers the Behavior is Behavior explanatory.

       as   भय (fear), धीरज(Patience), लाज (shyness), भूख (appetite), तिरस (thirst) etc.

74. Which shows the work of the verb is called work explanatory.

      as  विचार (Thought), लैणदैण (Trading), घटाव(Shortage), मिलाप (Get together) etc.

                        

                                Pronoun

75. Pronoun is of eight types:

        1. Personal/Masculine descriptive

        2. Definite

        3. Indefinite

        4. Interrogative pronoun/ Question descriptive

        5. Relative/ Ablative descriptive

        6. Respect explanatory

        7. Quantitive

        8. Distributive pronoun/ Genre descriptive

76. Masculine descriptive pronoun is of three types:

        1. First person

        2. Second person

        3. Third person

77. The speaker is first person.

      as    म्‍हैं, हूं, म्‍हे (I).

78. The person who is hearing is second person.

      as   तूं, थै (You).

79. The person/persons for whom the converse is the third person.

       as   वो, वै (He, they).

80. By saying something decision is called definite pronoun.

       as  ओ, वो(this, that).

Note: For nearby ओ (this) and for distance वो (that) is used.

81. By saying something no decision is called indefinite pronoun.

       as  कोई (someone).

82. Which shows the question is interrogative pronoun.

     as  कुण(who), कांई (what), किसो(which).

83. Which shows the mutual relation with sentence is Relative pronoun.

     as   जो (That), सो (so that).

84. Which shows respect is called  Respect explanatory.

     as   आप (you), राज.

85. By which we know about the quantity means idea is called Quantitive.

    as   कित्तो(How),इत्तो(This much), उत्तो(that much), कित्तोक(how much) , कित्तोसोक(how much).

86. By which we know about the formation/quality is called Distributive pronoun/ Genre descriptive.

   as   कैड़ो , किसो, ऐड़ो, इसो, जैड़ो, जिसो, कैड़ोक, कैड़ोसोक. (how is, That type).

87. Gender, number, factor are there in noun.

                                                       

                                    Gender

88. In Marwari language there are two genders.

        1.  Masculine

        2.  Feminine

89.  Men cognitive noun is masculine.

       as   घोड़ो (horse), आदमी (man), भाकर (mountain), भारो (bundle, भँवरो (bumble-bee).

90.   Women cognitive noun is feminine.

       as    घोड़ी (mare), हतणी (female elephant),लुगाई (lady), भींत (wall), भेट (gift), भूंडण (criticism).

91. It is not difficult to know the gender of the words which are in pair.

       as   घोड़ो (horse), घोड़ी(mare), हाती(elephant), हतणी (female elephant), मर्द (man), लुगाई

(woman).

92. But that words which are not paired are identify like this:

      most of takarant and ikarant words are feminine.

      as    व़ात (story), रात (night), भींत (wall), गरणी, मोरी, मोळी etc.

93. Many feminine words are different from masculine words. as              

                        Masculine          feminine

Camel(ऊंठ)        Female camel(सांड)

Bull (सांड/बळद) cow(गाय)

सिकरो                Hawk (बाज)        

King (राजा)        queen        (रांणी)

भाई(brother)        sister(बैन)

मोर(peacock)        ढेलड़ी [मोरनी]

सूर                भूंडण . इत्यादि

Father(पिता)    Mother(माता)

Male (पुरुष)        Female(स्‍त्री)

94. Many creature signifying paired words only pronounced in feminine. as

    cuckoo(कोयल)            spider(मकड़ी)

starling(मैना)              bat(चमचेड़)

Louse (जूं)                 लट

duck (बतक)                 ईली

Eagle (चील)                 सुळसुळी

squirrel(टीलोड़ी)         nit(लीख)

95. Many creature signifying paired words only pronounced in masculine as

moth(पतंगियो)             craneसारस        

पपैयो                        mosquitoमाछर

आगियो                        कंसळाप

ममोलियो                खापरियो

96. Many words used in both masculine and feminine, as

parents(माईत)                children(टाबर)

                     Number

97. In Marwari language there are two types of numbers: 1. Singular 2. Plural

98. Singular number shows a thing.

    as  water-pot (घड़ौ), horse (घोड़ौ) etc.

99. Plural number shows many things.

    as  water-pots (घड़ा), horses (घोड़ा) etc.

100. After noun joining word ‘people’(using s or es) is shows many.

    as  Kings (राजालोग), saints(संतलोग), moneylenders(महाजनलोग)।

                        Case

101. Which shows the relation of word with verb is called case.

     as  Ram is giving book.

here Ram's relation with action ‘giving’ and book’s relation with action ‘given’ is shown so Ram and Book is their case noun.

102. Case is of eight types:

1. Nominative case (कर्त्ता)

2.Vocative case(कर्म)

3. Accusative case (करण)

4.Instrumental  case(सम्‍प्रदान)

5.Dative case  (अपादान)

6.Ablative case (सम्‍बन्‍ध)

7.Genitive case (अधिकरण)

8.Locative case (सम्‍बोधन)

103. The signs of case is called modulation, as

 1. Nominative case (कर्त्ता)           “

2.Vocative case(कर्म)                नैं

3. Accusative case (करण)                सूं. ऊं.

4.Instrumental  case(सम्‍प्रदान)        {नै. वास्‍ते. रैवास्‍ते.१ रैतांई१}

5.Dative case  (अपादान)        सू. ऊं.

6.Ablative case (सम्‍बन्‍ध)        रा.१ री. रै. रो.

7.Genitive case (अधिकरण)        में

8.Locative  case (सम्‍बोधन)        हे, अरे, रे.

104. Working object is called Nominative case (कर्त्ता).

     as  Horse is running.

Horse is doing the work of running so here horse is nominative case.

105. Nominative case is of two types:

        1. Head

        2. Secondary

106. The gender, number which is according to verb is called Head case.

     as Horse is kicking.

‘Kicking’ is verb, masculine singular and ‘horse’ is nominative case masculine singular so here ‘horse’ is head case.

     107.Where the gender, number are not according to nominative case is Secondary.

     as  The book is being written by Ram.

“Being written” is verb, feminine and singular and ”Ram” is nominative case, masculine singular, not according to verb so that “Ram” is secondary case.

     108.Thing done is work ; means in which the resultant of transitive verb remains.

     as Horse is jumping dung.

    “dung” is jumped so it is Vocative case here.

      109. The source to done a action is Accusative case.

      as Rider is hitting the horse with a whip.

  In hitting the source is “whip” so whip is Accusative case.

110. To whom, someone gives a thing or for someone a work is done that is Instrumental  case.

    as The book gave to Ram, this book is for Ram, write this book for Ram.

   Here giving, for and writing is for Ram, so that Ram is Instrumental .

111. By which an object is separated or fear, fall down or by which someone bring a thing is Apadan.

   as Rider is falling down from horse. Son is fearing from father. Student is learning from teacher, servant is taking salary from proprietor.

Rider is separated from horse so the horse is apadan. The son is fearing from father so father is apadan. Student is learning by teacher so teacher is apadan. Servant is taking salary from the proprietor so proprietor is apadan.

112. Which shows the relation is Ablative case.

Note-  Ablative case is of many types: birth related Ablative case, Sense of self ownership Ablative case, work-reason Ablative case, body part sense of Ablative case etc.

Son of Ram, servant of king, pot of clay, hand of Ram.

son is who born and Ram is the parent. The son of Ram is here birth related Ablative case.

Servant is self and the king is the owner so that the servant of the king is here sense of self ownership Ablative case. The pot is the work and clay is the reason so that here pot of clay is  work-reason Ablative case.  Hand is the part and Ram is the man so that hand of Ram is here body part sense of Ablative case.

113. In the basis of something remains is Adhi Accusative case.

         as Ink is in the ink pot.

Ink is remaining because of the basis of ink pot so that ink pot is

114. Address by calling someone is vocative case.

        as Oh, Ram !,     You fool !

By calling Ram making him in front so that here Ram is vocative case.

Accidence

                                     Masculine

115. Singular,  masculine halant (half) word it remains as it is. In the end of the word “aan” is used in plural. But in Nominate and Object optionally “aan” is used.

                        

Halant masculine word “farm” (खेत)

         case                                Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                farm (खेत)                        farm (खेत), farms (खेतां)

Vocative case  (कर्म)                खेत, To farm (खेतनै)                खेत,  To farms (खेतांनै)

 Accusative case         (करण)                From farm (खेतसूं, खेतऊं)        From farm(खेतासूं, खेताऊं)

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)        For the farm (खेतरै वास्‍तै, नैं)        For the farm(खेतांरै वास्‍तै, नैं)

Dative case     अपादान        From farm (खेतसूं, खेतऊं)        From the farms(खेतासूं, खेताऊं)

Ablative caseसम्‍बन्‍ध        Of the farm (खेतरा, री, रै, रो)        Of the farms(खेतांरा, री, रै, रो)

Genitive case अधिकरण        In farm (खेतमें)                        In the farms (खेतां में)

Locative case   संबोधन                Oh farm ! (हे खेत)                Oh farms (हे खेतां)

                        Examples of cases

Notes 1 : Nominative case-- This is my farm, These are my farms, My farms done help.Vocative case-- he went to his farm, What do you do with farm? You cultivate in your farm.What do you do with farms?

Karan-- Farms make us respectful. Farms makes big. Instrumental -- craving for farms, Apadan-- come from farm, brought wood from farms, Ablative case-- grain of farm, the cucumber of this farm is sweet, Make the boundary of farms.Genitive -- He is standing in the farm. Cows are there in those farms. Vocative case--Farm! you make me troubled.

Notes 2: Somewhere in second line “नै” sign not used, and somewhere used in option.

as  Ram is eating food. Ram is writing letter. Here “नै” sign not used.

You saw Kite? You saw the Kite? Here “नै” is used optionally.

116. In halant masculine word House (घर) etc, there is some difference so it is describing--

case                                Singular                                Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                         House(घर)                                            House, Houses(घर, घरां)

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   House, to House(घर, घरे, घरां, घरनैं)Houses, to Houses (घर, घरांनैं)

 Accusative case         (करण)                From house (घरसूं, ऊं)                From houses (घरांसूं, ऊं)

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)        For the house(घर रै वास्‍तै, नैं)                For the Houses(घरांरै वास्‍तै, नैं)

Dative case     (अपादान)        From the house(घरसूं, ऊं)                From the houses (घरांसूं, ऊं)

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of house (घररा, री, रे, रो)                Of the houses(घरांरा, री, रै, रो

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        in the house (घरमें, घरे)                        in the houses (घरांमें)                

Locative case   (संबोधन)        Oh house ! (हे घर!)                        Oh houses ! (हे घरां)        

                        Important examples of cases

Note : Nominative case-- This is my house. These are my houses. Many houses rejected my invitation. Vocative case-- Are you destroying my house? Go house. Go to houses. Go and watch the house? You all check your houses? Why we check our houses? Genitive case-- He is in house. What is in house? No money in houses.

117. The masculine aakarant word is remaining as it is in singular form but in plural form “वां” is used before “आ”. But in nominative case and Vocative case “वां” is used optionally.

                        Aakarant masculine (राजा) King word

 case                                Singular                                Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                 King (राजा)                                 King, Kings  (राजा)

Vocative case  (कर्म)               To King (राजा नै)                        To kings (राजावां नै)

 Accusative case         (करण)                From King (राजा सूं)                From Kings (राजावां सूं)

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)     For King (राजा रै वास्‍तै)                For Kings (राजावां रै वास्‍तै)

Dative case     (अपादान)     From King (राजा सूं)                From Kings (राजावां सूं)        

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of King (राजारा, री, रै, रौ)        Of Kings (राजावांरा, री, रै, रौ)

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In King (राजा में)                In Kings (राजावां में)

Locative  case   (संबोधन)         Oh King! (हे राजा)                Oh Kings! (हे राजावां)

118. Evarnant masculine word remains as it is in singular form,  in Plural form it changed into Deergha (long) so after chnging it in hraswa “यां” added in last. But in nominative case and in Vocative case “यां” used optionally. as--

                        

                        Ikarant masculine Saint (मुनि) word

case                                Singular                                Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                         Saint (मुनि)                                Saints (मुनियां)

Vocative case  (कर्म)                       To saint (मुनि नै)                 To saints (मुनियां नैं)

 Accusative case         (करण)                       From  saint (मुनि सूं)                From saints (मुनियां सूं)

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)             For saint (मुनि  रै वास्‍तै)        For saints (मुनियां रै वास्‍तै)

Dative case     (अपादान)             From saint (मुनि सूं)                From saints (मुनियां सूं)        

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of  saint (मुनिरा, री, रै, रौ)        Of saints (मुनियांरा, री, रै, रौ)

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In saint (मुनि में)                In saints (मुनियां में)

Locative case   (संबोधन)        Oh saint! (हे मुनि)                Oh saints! (हे मुनियां)

Iikarant masculine Oilman (तेली) word

case                                Singular                                Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                            Oilman (तेली)                          Oilmen (तेलीयां)          

Vocative case  (कर्म)                               To oilman(तेली,तेली नैं)         To oilmen(तेली,तेलीयां नैं)

 Accusative case         (करण)                               From oilman (तेलीसूं)                From oilmen(तेलीयांसूं)

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)                     For oilman(तेली रै वास्‍तै)        For oilmen(तेलीयां रै वास्‍तै)

Dative case     (अपादान)                    From oilman(तेलीसूं)                From oilmen(तेलीयांसूं)

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)                Of oilman(तेलीरा, री, रे, रो )        Of oilmen(तेलीयांरा, री, रै, रो)

Genitive case (अधिकरण)                In oilman(तेलीमें)                In oilmen(तेलीयां में)

Locative  case   (संबोधन)        Oh oilman !(हे तेली)                        Oh oilmen !(हे तेलीयां)

119. Uvarnant masculine words remains same in singular, in plural it changed into deergha so after doing hraswa “वां” added in last.  But in nominative case and in Vocative case ‘यां’ used optionally. as--

Ukarant masculine Hermit (साधु) word

case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                         Hermit                                Hermits

Vocative case  (कर्म)                    To hermit                         To hermits

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From hermit                          From hermits

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For  hermit                         For  hermits

Dative case     (अपादान)            From hermit                         From hermits

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of hermit                         Of hermits

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In hermit                         In hermits

Locative  case   (संबोधन)        Oh hermit!                        Oh hermits!

Ukarant masculine Clerk  (बाबू) word

case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                         Clerk                                Clerks

Vocative case  (कर्म)                    To Clerk                                To Clerks

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Clerk                         From Clerks

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Clerk                        For Clerks

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Clerk                        From Clerks

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Clerk                                Of Clerks

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Clerk                                In Clerks

Locative  case   (संबोधन)        Oh Clerk!                        Oh Clerks!

120. Ekarant masculine words remains same in singular, in plurals ‘आं’is added. But in nominative case and in Vocative case ‘आं’ used optionally. as--

                Ekarant masculine Dave (दवे) word

 

case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                         Dave                                Daves

Vocative case  (कर्म)                    To Dave                        To Daves

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Dave                         From Daves

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Dave                        For Daves

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Dave                        From Daves

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Dave                        Of Daves

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Dave                        In Daves

Locative  case   (संबोधन)        Oh Dave!                        Oh Daves!

121. In Okarant masculine word remains same in nominative case of singular term but  in nominative case of plural and in Vocative cases, singular term etc it changed into ‘औ’,  ‘आ’ and ‘ए’and  in plural it changed into ‘ओ’ , ‘आ’.  As--

Aukarant masculine Horse (घोड़ौ) Word

case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                         Horse                                 Horses

Vocative case  (कर्म)                    To Horse                        To Horses

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Horse                         From Horses

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Horse                        For Horses

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Horse                        From Horses

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Horse                        Of Horses

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Horse                        In Horses

Locative case   (संबोधन)        Oh Horse!                        Oh Horses!

Feminine

 122. Halant feminine word remains same in singular form but in plural sense ‘आ’ is added in the end. as-- 

Halant feminine Kite (चील) word

case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Kite                                  Kites

Vocative case  (कर्म)                    To kite                                To Kites

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From kite                         From Kites

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For kite                        For Kites

Dative case     (अपादान)            From kite                        From Kites

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of kite                                Of Kites

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In kite                                In Kites

Locative case   (संबोधन)        Oh kite!                        Oh kites!

123. Aakarant feminine word remains same in singular form but in plural ‘वां’ is added. as-

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Mother                                 Mothers

Vocative case  (कर्म)                    To mother                        To Mothers

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Mother                         From Mothers

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Mother                        For Mothers

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Mother                        From Mothers

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Mother                        Of Mothers

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Mother                        In Mothers

Locative case   (संबोधन)        Oh Mother!                        Oh Mothers!

124. Evarnant feminine singular word remains same. In plural if it is deergha than after changing it hraswa ‘यां’ is added in it. as-

Ikarant feminine Statue (मूर्ति) word 

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Statue                                 Statues

Vocative case  (कर्म)                    To Statue                        To Statues

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Statue                         From Statues

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Statue                        For Statues

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Statue                        From Statues

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Statue                        Of Statues

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Statue                        In Statues

Locative  case   (संबोधन)        Oh Statue!                        Oh Statues!

Iikarant feminine Mare (घोड़ी) word

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Mare                                              Mares

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To Mare                                To Mares

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Mare                         From Mares

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Mare                        For Mares

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Mare                        From Mares

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Mare                        Of Mares

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Mare                                In Mares

Locative case   (संबोधन)        Oh Mare!                        Oh Mares!

 125. Uvarnant feminine word remains same in singular. In plural if it is deetgha than after changing it hraswa ‘यां’ is added before the word. as-

Ukarant feminine Tobacco (तमाखु) word       

                                                                                                             

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Tobacco                              Tobaccos

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To Tobacco                        To Tobaccos

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Tobacco                        From Tobaccos

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Tobacco                        For Tobaccos

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Tobacco                        From Tobaccos

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Tobacco                        Of Tobaccos

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Tobacco                        In Tobaccos

Locative case   (संबोधन)        Oh Tobacco!                        Oh Tobaccos!

Deergha Uukarant feminine Daughter in law (बहू) word

                                                                                                             

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        daughter in law                             daughter in laws

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To daughter in law                To daughter in laws

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From daughter in law                From daughter in laws

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For daughter in law                For daughter in laws 

Dative case     (अपादान)            From daughter in law                From daughter in laws

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of daughter in law                Of daughter in laws

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In daughter in law                In daughter in laws

Locative case   (संबोधन)        Oh daughter in law!                Oh daughter in laws!

126. . Ekarant feminine words remains same in singular, in plurals ‘आं’is added. as-

                        Ekarant feminine Ash (खे) word

 

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Ash                                             Ashes

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To Ash                                To Ashes

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Ash                        From Ashes

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Ash                        For Ashes

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Ash                        From Ashes

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Ash                                Of Ashes

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Ash                                In Ashes

Locative  case   (संबोधन)        Oh Ash!                        Oh Ashes!

127. Okarant feminine word remains same in singular form. In Plural “वां” is added in word. as-

                        Okarant feminine (गो) word

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To Desert Monitor                To Desert Monitors

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Desert Monitor                From Desert Monitors

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Desert Monitor                For Desert Monitors

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Desert Monitor                From Desert Monitors

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Desert Monitor                Of Desert Monitors

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Desert Monitor                In Desert Monitors

Locative case   (संबोधन)        Oh Desert Monitor!                Oh Desert Monitors!

128. Aukarant feminine word remains same in singular form. In plural  “वां” is added in word. as- 

Aukarant feminine Cow (गौ) word

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        cow                                cows

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To cow                         To cows

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From cow                        From cows

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For cow                        For cows

Dative case     (अपादान)            From cow                        From cows 

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of cow                                Of cows

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In cow                                In cows

Locative case   (संबोधन)        Oh cow!                        Oh cows!

 Pronoun words

First person ‘I’ word

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        I                                 we

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To me                                 To us

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From me                        From us

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For me                                For us

Dative case     (अपादान)            From me                        From us

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of my                                Of us  

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In me                                 In us

                                  Second person ‘You’ word 

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        You                                your

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To You                                To your

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From You                        From your

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For You                        For your

Dative case     (अपादान)            From You                        From your

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of You                                Of your

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In You                                In your

                                Third person ‘He’ word

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        he                                 they

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To him                         To them

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From him                        From them

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For his                                For them  

Dative case     (अपादान)            From his                         From them

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of his                                 Of them

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In his                                 In them

                                Uncertainty descriptive ‘Someone’ word

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        someone

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To someone                                

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From someone                        

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For someone                                

Dative case     (अपादान)            From someone                                

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of someone                                

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In someone 

Definite descriptive ‘This’ word

                                

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        This                                 Them

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To this                          To them

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From this                         From them

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For this                        For them

Dative case     (अपादान)            From this                         From them  

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of this                         Of them  

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In this                          In them

Interrogative descriptive ‘who’ word

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        who                                whom, whose

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To whom                         To whom

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From who                        From whom

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For whom                        For whom

Dative case     (अपादान)            From who                         From whom

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of whom                        Of whom

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In whom                         In whom

Relative/Ablative descriptive ‘that’ word

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        that                                 them        

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To that                         To them

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From that                         From them

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For that                         For them

Dative case     (अपादान)            From that                         From them

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of that                                 Of them

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In that                                 In them

Relative/Ablative descriptive ‘that’ word

 case                        Singular                        Plural

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        that                                 them        

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To that                                 To them

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From that                         From them

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For that                         For them

Dative case     (अपादान)            From that                         From them

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of that                                 Of them

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In that                                 In them

Respect cognitive ‘you’ word  singular

 case                        Singular                

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        you                                

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To you                        

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From you        

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For you                        

Dative case     (अपादान)            From you                

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of you                        

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In you

Respect cognitive ‘Raj’ (The ruler, king) word

 case                        Singular                

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Raj                                

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To Raj                        

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Raj

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Raj                

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Raj                

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Raj                        

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Raj

129. Jee, jee sa, sa or saab suffixes are used before noun descriptive words and these words are only found in plural forms, as -

 case                        plural                  

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                         archimandrite  (महंतजी)                        

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To archimandrite  (महंतजी)                

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From archimandrite   (महंतजी)

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For  archimandrite   (महंतजी)                

Dative case     (अपादान)            From archimandrite (महंतजी)                

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of  archimandrite (महंतजी)                

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In  archimandrite (महंतजी)

Respect cognitive ‘Rao ji sa’ word

 case                        Plural

                

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Rao ji sa                                

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To Rao ji sa                        

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Rao ji sa

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Rao ji sa        

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Rao ji sa                

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Rao ji sa                        

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Rao ji sa

Respect cognitive ‘Thakur sa’ word

 case                        Plural

                

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Thakur sa                                

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   ToThakur sa                

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Thakur sa

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Thakur sa

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Thakur sa                

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Thakur sa                        

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Thakur sa

Respect cognitive ‘Seth sahab’ (merchant, money lender) word

 case                        Plural

                

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Sethsaab                         

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To Sethsaab         

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From Sethsaab

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For Sethsaab

Dative case     (अपादान)            From Sethsaab         

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of Sethsaab                         

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In Sethsaab

130. For respect plural is used, as -

Gave to merchant, Thakur came, merchant went, Maharaj came.

Number descriptive word

131. The forms of word ‘one’ is only in singular, as-

 case                        Singular                        

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        one

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To one                                 

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From one                         

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For one                                 

Dative case     (अपादान)            From one                                 

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of one                                 

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In one

132. The forms of general numerical words two, three four etc are only in plural. as-

 case                        Singular                        

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        two

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To both                 

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From both                         

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For both                                

Dative case     (अपादान)            From both                                 

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of both                                

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In both

                         Word ‘Three’

 case                        Singular                        

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Three

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To three                                 

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From three                         

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For three                                

Dative case     (अपादान)            From three                                 

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of three                        

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In three

133. The forms of discriminatory numerical words first, second , third are only found in singular, as-

 case                        Singular                        

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        First

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To first

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From first                         

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For first                                

Dative case     (अपादान)            From first                                 

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of first                                

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In first

                Word ‘Second’

 case                        Singular                        

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Second

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To second

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From second                        

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For second                        

Dative case     (अपादान)            From second                                

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of second                

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In second

134. Third, forth, sixth and ninth these words are aukarant . All remaining words are with anuswar, as-

           fifth, eighth, seventh, tenth, hundredth etc.

Word ‘Fifth’

 case                        Singular                        

Nominative case (कर्त्ता)                        Fifth

Vocative case  (कर्म)                   To fifth

 Accusative case         (करण)                      From fifth                        

Instrumental  case(संप्रदान)            For fifth                        

Dative case     (अपादान)            From fifth                                

Ablative case(सम्‍बन्‍ध)        Of fifth                

Genitive case (अधिकरण)        In fifth

                        Verb (action)

135. When doing like works are shown, is called verb.

136. Verb(action) is derivative.

                        as - ‘Do’ is a verb.

In this ‘Do’ is fraction and ‘ing’ is the sign of verb.

137. With the meaning of verb every work is detected.

as- doing, taking, giving etc.

138. Verb is of two types- (1) Transitive (2)  Intransitive.

139. In which the object is there with verb is called transitive verb.

                        as - Ram is giving the book.

Here book is object so ‘giving’ is transitive verb.

140. Where no object is with the verb is called intransitive verb.

                        as- Ram sits.

Here no object is used so ‘sits’ is intransitive verb.

141. There are two elements(parts) in transitive and intransitive verb. First work and second result.

142. Work means the efforts of organs like hand, leg, eye etc.

                        as- Ram is making rice.

Here for cooking stove starting, using utensil, to clean rice etc all are works. Work always remains in doer/ performer.

143. Result means completion of work.  

                        as- Ram is making rice.

Here the cooking of rice is result. because of doer Ram’s all works the work of cooking is completed.

144. In transitive verb the result remains in the object and in intransitive verb the result remains in the doer.

To recognise transitive and intransitive verb this is the second way.

145. Where the work remains in the doer and result in object  is called transitive verb.

                        as- Ram is writing the book.

Here to take the pen in hand, move the hand as the shape of word, these all are work. The shape of letters made is the result. So in the writing verb movement of hand is work and the writer Ram is the doer and writing form result and the book in which writing is going on is in object ‘writing’ is transitive verb.

146. Where the work and result both remains in doer that is intransitive.

as- Ram is sitting.

Here for sitting folding the legs etc movements is work. To sit is result.. In the verb sitting folding legs is work and sitting result form. These both are in the sitting doer (Ram), so that this verb ‘sitting’ is intransitive.

147. Transitive verb is of two types-- 1. Active voice 2. Passive

148. In verb when the gender, number, person all are according to the doer is called  Active voice.    

as- Ram used to write books.

Here the gender, number and person  of verb is according to doer Ram in ‘used to write’, because Ram is masculine, singular, third person and ‘used to write’ is masculine, singular, third person verb, so ‘used to write’ is active voice.

149. In verb when the gender, number, person all are according to the object is called passive voice.

as-Books are being written by Ram.

Here the gender, number and person  of verb is according to object Books, because books are feminine, plural, third person and ‘being written’ is, feminine, plural and third person verb, so ‘being written’ is  according to the object ( passive voice).

150. Where the doer came in the form of Accusativeis passive voice.  Means ‘from’(सूं) sign is used with doer and object came in the form of doer.

as- Grass is being eaten by horse.

Here horse is doer and grass is object.

151. Intransitive verb is of two types-- 1 Passive voice 2 Quote voice.

152.  Passive voice is same in both transitive and intransitive verb.

                        as- Ram is sitting.

Here the gender, number and person of

 verb all are according to ‘Ram’.

153. In quote voice verb, quote is main so this verb is not according to doer and object but always comes independently in third person singular and in the form of doer, Accusative(करण).

                as- Horse is sitting, Mare is sitting.

                                   Transitive verb                              

         Intransitive verb                                                                                                                                             

Passive voice-Horse is eating grass.

Passive voice-Horse is sitting.

Active voice- Grass is being eaten by horse.

Quote voice- Horse is being sitting.

155. Gender, number, person, tense are found in verb.

Note- Gender, number, person are same in verb and noun. In verb the tense is important so it is showing.

                                TENSE

156. The time spends in doing work is called tense.

 The second name of tense is lakaar.

157. These are 12--

as- 1. Simple past

2. Immediate past

        

3. Past perfect

4. Questionable past

5. Conditional continuous

6. Past Imperfect

        

7. Simple present

        

8. Incomplete present

9. Suspected present

10. Future

11. Method

12. Possibility

158.  Except lakaar, the anterior part of the action is different.

159. Main tenses are three- Past, present and future.

160. The done things are past.

as- Ram wrote a book.

Here Ram wrote the book so past tense is showing here.

161. Which is going on is present tense.

        as- Ram is writing a book.

Here Ram is writing a book now, so present tense is showing here.

162. Which will happen is future tense.

        as- Ram will write a book.

Here Ram will write a book, so future tense is showing here.

163. There are 6 parts of Past tense- 1. Simple past 2. Immediate past 3. Past perfect

        4.Questionable past 5. Conditional continuous 6. Incomplete

164. In a past tense when it is not sure that the work is done before some time ago or the work is done long time ago, is called Simple past tense.

        as- I wrote.

165. In the Past tense when it shows that the work has done just now is called Immediate past.

as- I write, I just write.

166. In the past this thing that the work done very earlier is called Past perfect.

        as- I done.

167. In the past tense when it is showing some suspicion is called Questionable past.

        as- I have written.

168. In the past when work and reason both are of past is called Conditional continuous.

        as- If I studied, I would be happy, If you worked, all family members would be happy.

169. In the past when work remain incomplete is called incomplete past.

        as- I was doing, You were doing.

170. There are three types of Present tense- 1. Simple present 2. Present imperfect

3. Questionable present.

171. The work which is going on now is simple present.

        as- Sitting, sleeping, writing, reading.

172. The work is started but not completed is called present imperfect.

        as- I am writing, she is writing, I am sitting.  

173. When there is some suspicion in starting of a work, is called questionable present.

        as- He would write, She would write.

174. The work which will start now is Future tense.

        as- I will write, She will write.

175. In which order or respect shown with encouragement is method.

        as- you do, you give (respect).

176. In which the desire shown for work is called possibility.

        as- I write, she write.

177. After doing a work, second work done, doing or want to done, there the first action is

       called anterior action.

        as- He went after sleeping, he is reading after writing, he is laughing with talking, he will eat food and go to bed.

178. To done a action when other action done is called practicable action, at the time action.

179. By abolition ‘ओ’ of action (verb ) , added before the word as suffix to, for made the at the time action.

as- He is going to see.

Here, ‘going’ is second action done for the cause for the action of ‘seeing’ so that ‘to see’ is at the time action.

 Anterior action                                        At the time action

do, after doing                                         to do, for doing

go, after going                                         to go, for going

sit, after sitting                                                to sit, for sitting

tie, after tying                                                 to tying, for tying

write, after writing                                         to write, for writing

Apparel,                                                 to apparel, for appareling

180. These under mention suffixes are added according to gender, number and person in the twelve lakaars and in anterior action-

181. Simple past, Immediate past, Past perfect, Questionable past in these all lakaars are in active voice but the verb is according to verb of transitive.

        Mares eaten grass.                        Mares just eaten grass.

        Mares were eaten grass.                Mares would be eaten grass.

Here the verbs eaten etc are according to masculine grass object.  

Horse kicked                                        Horse kicked just now.

        Horse kicked                                        Horse would be kicked.

Here the verbs kicked etc are according to feminine kick object.

182. Exception-In words when helping verbs came in the end in intransitive verb that is  joint and according to

Ram was sitting                        Ram could take medicine

Ram took medicine

Ram would bring medicine

Ram went to home.

1.Simple past                                 

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 यो                या                        ई                ई

Second person        यो                 या                        ई                 ई

Third person                 यो                 या                         ई                 ई

First person                 इयो                इया                        ई                 ई

Second person        इयो                इया                        ई                 ई

Third person                 इयो                 इया                        ई                 ई

2.Immediate transitive past 

Numbers

Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 यो है                या है                        ई है                ई है

                                         योइज है           याइज है                ईज है                ईज है

Second person        यो है                या है                        ई है                ई है

                                         योइज है           याइज है                ईज है                ईज है

Third person                 यो है                या है                        ई है                ई है

                                         योइज है           याइज है                ईज है                ईज है

First person                 इयो है                इया है                        ई है                ई है

                        इयोईज है        इयाईज है                ईज है                ईज है

Second person        इयो है                इया है                        ई है                ई है

                        इयोईज है        इयाईज है                ईज है                ईज है

Third person                 इयो है                इया है                        ई है                ई है

                        इयोईज है        इयाईज है                ईज है                ईज है

 3. Past perfect

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 योहो                याहा                        ईही                 ईही

Second person        योहो                 याहा                        ईही                ईही

Third person                 योहो                 याहा                        ईही                 ईही

First person                 इयोहो                इयाहा                        ईही                 ईही

Second person        इयोहो                इयाहा                        ईही                 ईही

Third person                 इयोहो                 इयाहा                        ईही                 ईही

4. Questionable past

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 यो हुवैला        या हुवैला                ई हुवैला         ई हुवैला

Second person        यो हुवैला         या हुवैला                ई हुवैला        ई हुवैला

Third person                 यो हुवैला         या हुवैला                ई हुवैला        ई हुवैला

First person                 इयो हुवैला        इया हुवैला                ई हुवैला         ई हुवैला

Second person        इयोहो                इया  हुवैला                ई हुवैला        ई हुवैला

Third person                 इयो हुवैला         इया हुवैला                ई हुवैला         ई हुवैला

5.Conditional continuous

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 वतो                वता                        वती                वती

Second person        वतो                वता                        वती                 वती

Third person                 वतो                वता                         वती                वती

First person                 तो                 ता                         ती                 ती

Second person        तो                 ता                         ती                 ती

Third person                 तो                 ता                         ती                 ती

6. Past Imperfect

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 वतोहो                वताहा                        वतीही                 वतीही

Second person        वतोहो                वताहा                        वतीही                 वतीही

Third person                 वतोहो                वताहा                        वतीही                 वतीही

First person                 तोहो                ताहा                         तीही                 तीही

Second person        तोहो                ताहा                         तीही                 तीही

Third person                 तोहो                ताहा                         तीही                 तीही

                                7. Simple present

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                ऊंहूं                वांहां                        ऊंहूं                वांहां                 

Second person        वैहै                वोहो                        वैहै                वोहो

Third person                 वैहै                वैहै                        वैहै                वैहै

First person                 ऊंहू                आंहां                        ऊंहूं                 आंहां

Second person        ऐहै                ओहो                        ऐहै                ओहो

Third person                 ऐहै                 ऐहै                        ऐहै                ऐहै

8. Suspected present

 

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                  वतो हुवैला        वता हुवैला                वती हुवैला         वती हुवैला

Second person        वतो हुवैला         वता हुवैला                वती हुवैला         वती हुवैला

Third person                 वतो  हुवैला         वता हुवैला                वती हुवैला        वती हुवैला

First person                 तोहुऊंला        ताहुंवाला                तीहुऊंला        तीहुंवाला

Second person        तोहुवैला        ताहुवोला                तीहुवैला        तीहुवोला

Third person                 तोहुवैला        ताहुवैला                तीहुवैला        तीहुवैला

9. Future 

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 ऊंला ऊं                वालां वां                ऊंला ऊं                वालां वां

Second person        वैला ई                वोला वो                वैला ई                वोला वो

Third person                 वैला ई                वैला ई                        वैला ई                वैला ई

First person                 ऊंला उं                आंला आ                ऊला ऊं         आंला आं

Second person        ऐला ई                ओला ओ                ऐला ई                ओला ओ

Third person                 ऐला ई                ऐला ई                        ऐला ई                ऐला ई

10. Method 

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                                                                                                 

Second person        व                वो                        व                व

Third person                 

First person                 

Second person                        ओ                                         ओ

Third person                 

13. Immediate intransitive past 

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 योहूं                याहां                         ईहूं                ईहां                                                                                

Second person        योहै                याहो                        ईहै                ईहो

Third person                 योहै                याहै                         ईहै                ईहै

First person                 ओहूं                 आहां                        ईहूं                ईहां

                        ईयोहूं                इयाहां                                                                

Second person        ओहै                आहो                        ईहै                ईहो

इयोहै                इयाहो                                        

Third person                 ओहै                आहै                        ई है                ई है

                        इयोंहै                इयाहै

14. Intransitive questionable past

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 योहुऊंला        या हुंवाला                ईहुऊंला                ई हुवांला                                                                                

Second person        यो हुवैला        या हुवोला                ई हुवैला        ईहुवोला

Third person                 यो हुवैला        या हुवैला                ई हुवैला        ई हुवैला

First person                 आहुऊंला        आहुवांला                ईहुऊंला                ईहुवांला

                        इयो हुऊंला        इया हुवांला                

Second person        आहुवैला        आहुवोला                ईहुवैला                ई हुवोला

इयोहुवैला        इयो हुवोला                        

Third person                 ओहुवैला        आ हुवैला                ईहुवैला                ई हुवैला

                        इयो हुवैला        इया हुवैला

        

12. Possibility

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 ऊं                 वां                        ऊं                 वां                        Second person        वै                वो                        वै                वो        

Third person                 वै                वै                        वै                वै

First person                 ऊं                 आं                        ऊँ                आं

Second person        ऐ                ओ                        ऐ                ओ

Third person                 ऐ                ऐ                        ऐ                ऐ

                        12.  Anterior action

                यनै, यर, कर

                नै, र.

15. Intransitive Simple past

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 ओ                आ                        ई                ई        

इयो                इया                                        

Second person        ओ                आ                        ई                

                        इयो                इया

Third person                ओ                आ                        ई                

                        इयो                इया

         

16. Intransitive past perfect

Numbers

       Masculine                                 Feminine

Singular        Plural                        Singular        Plural         

First person                 ओहो                आहा                        ईही                ईही

                        इयोहो                इयाहा                                                                

Second person        ओहो                आहा                        ईही                ईही

                        इयोहो                इयाहा                                                                

Third person                 ओहो                आहा                        ईही                ईही

                        इयोहो                इयाहा

183. Simple past, Immediate past, past perfect, questionable past all the four lakaars there are two forms in that of doer, second is used  in transitive as-

I wrote a letter                                You wrote a letter

He wrote a letter                        Horse kicked

Hermits are doing meditation                They wrote a letter

Horses eaten grass

184.  Simple past, Immediate past, past perfect, questionable past all the four lakaars there are two forms in that of doer, first form is used in intrasitive as-

Horse went                                horse went

I went                                        he went

you went                                they came

Note: The doer of verb in some transitive and intransitive “I, me, he, they” used usually but the correct way is the described way.

The method of forming the lakaars

185. To make the forms of verb extinction vakaar from vakarrant. In Marwari language there is no Vowel but after extinction of vakaar stem coverts into Vowel.

as- In “समझावणौ” when we do extinction of vakaar, it remains “समजा” and stem converted into Vowel.

1. Simple past

186.Before the stem according to the number one map after adding suffix these simple past characters made, as-

Vowel transitive (व़ा) “Sow” stem

                                              Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

First person                           I, I sow                        I, I sow        

Second person         You, you sow                        You, you sow

Third person           They, they sow                They, they sow

1. According to rule 178 in simple past etc four lakaars the forms of stems are according to object. So that for the first example singular and plural both shown, so for next understand in same way.

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I sow                                I sow

                        you sow                        you sow

                        she sow                         he sow

Consonent transitive stem (लिख)“Write”

                                              Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

First person                           I wrote                         I wrote         

Second person         you wrote                        you wrote

Third person                 He wrote                        he wrote          

 

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I wrote                                I wrote

                        you wrote                        you wrote

                        she wrote                         he wrote

2.Immediate past

187.Before the stem according to the number two map after adding suffix these immediate past  verb is made, as-

Vowel transitive (व़ा) “Sow” stem

                                Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                           I sow                                I sow        

                        you sow                         you sow

                         He sow                        he sow

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I sow                                I sow

                        you sow                        you sow

                        she sow                         he sow

Note: The forms of immediate past used in present in several stems like sit, sleep, stand, read etc.

as - I am sitting, you are standing etc.

Consonant transitive stem (लिख)“Write”

                                              Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                             I wrote                         I wrote         

                        you wrote                        you wrote

                        He wrote                        he wrote          

 

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I wrote                                I wrote

                        you wrote                        you wrote

                        she wrote                         he wrote

3. Past perfect

188. Before the stem according to the number three map after adding suffix these past perfect verb is  made, as-

Vowel transitive (व़ा) “Sow” stem

                                Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                           I sow                                I sow        

                        you sow                         you sow

                         He sow                        he sow

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I sowed                        I sowed

                        you sowed                        you sowed

                        she sowed                         he sowed

Consonant transitive stem (लिख)“Write

Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                             I wrote                         I wrote         

                        you wrote                        you wrote

                        He wrote                        he wrote

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I wrote                                I wrote

                        you wrote                        you wrote

                        she wrote                         he wrote

4. Questionable past

189.Before the stem according to the number four map after adding suffix these questionable past verb is  made, as-

Vowel transitive (व़ा) “Sow” stem

                                Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                           I have sowed                        I have sowed        

                        you have sowed                 you have sowed

                         He have sowed                        he have sowed

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                 I have sowed                        I have sowed        

                        you have sowed                 you have sowed

                         she have sowed                        he have sowed

Consonant transitive stem (लिख)“Write

Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                             I have written                         I have written

                        you have written                you have written

                        He have written                        he have  written

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I have written                         I have written

                        you have written                you have written

                        she have written                        he have  written

5.Conditional continuous

190. Before the stem according to the number five map after adding suffix these conditional continuous   verb is  made, as-

Vowel transitive (व़ा) “Sow” stem

Masculine

                                  Singular                        Plural

                           I sow                                we sow        

                        you sow                        you sow

                         He sow                        they sow

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I sow                                we sow

                        you sow                        you sow

                        she sow                                they sow

Consonant transitive stem (लिख)“Write

Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                             I write                                 we write         

                        you write                        you write

                        He write                        they write

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I write                                we write

                        you write                        you write

                        she write                         they write

1. In respect the forms in feminine are same as in masculine and only in plural. -- Mother said we will come, you also come.

6. Past Imperfect

191.  Before the stem according to the number six map after adding suffix these past imperfect verb is made, as-

 Vowel transitive (व़ा) “Sow” stem

Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                           I used to sow                        we used to sow        

                        you used to sow                you used to sow

                         He used to sow                        they used to sow

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I used to sow                        we used to sow

                        you used to sow                you used to sow

                        she used to sow                        they used to sow

Consonant transitive stem (लिख)“Write

Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                             I used to write                                 we used to write         

                        you used to write                        you used to write

                        He used to write                        they used to write

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I used to write                        we used to write

                        you used to write                you used to write

                        she used to write                 they used to write

        

7. Simple present     8. Incomplete present

192..  Before the stem according to the number seven map after adding suffix these simple present and incomplete present both verbs are made, as-

Vowel transitive (व़ा) “Sow” stem

Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                           I am sowing                        we are sowing        

                        you are sowing                        you are sowing

                         He is sowing                        they are sow

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                I am sowing                        we are sowing        

                        you are sowing                        you are sowing

                         she is sowing                        they are sow

Consonant transitive stem (लिख)“Write

Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                             I am writing                         we are writing         

                        you are writing                you are writing

                        He is writing                        they are  writing

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I am writing                         we are writing         

                        you are writing                you are writing

                        she is writing                        they are  writing

193. The forms of simple present and incomplete present are usually same. But in sit, sleep, stand etc stems the forms are different, as--

Simple present                                        Incomplete present

        sitting                                                                going to sit

        standing                                                        going to stand

        sleeping                                                        going to sleep

1. see page 63. Third person as- Go and see, he is sowing. First person as- Yes, I will be sowing. You would be sowing so that not come.

 

9. Suspected present

194.  Before the stem according to the number eight map after adding suffix these suspected present verbs are made, as-

Vowel transitive (व़ा) “Sow” stem

Masculine

                                  Singular                        Plural

                          I would be sow                we would be sow        

                        you would be sow                you would be sow

                         He would be sow                they would be sow        

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                I would be sow                we would be sow        

                        you would be sow                you would be sow

                         she would be sow                they would be sow

Consonant transitive stem (लिख)“Write

Masculine

            I would be writing                we would be writing

                        you would be writing                you would be writing

                         He would be writing                they would be writing

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

        I would be writing                we would be writing

                        you would be writing                you would be writing

                         she would be writing                they would be writing

                                

10.Future

195.  Before the stem according to the number nine map after adding suffix these future verb is  made, as-

1. In future verb pronounce vowel ending with vowel in the other forms of stem. In the other forms of singular in future verb by adding ‘स’ before suffix and by order ‘व’ to ‘स’ in plural , future verb has been made. as- I will do, we will do, you will do, he will do, they will do.

Vowel transitive (व़ा) “Sow” stem

Masculine

                                  Singular                        Plural

                          I will sow                        we  will sow                

                        you will sow                        you  will sow        

                         He  will sow                        they  will sow                

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                I will sow                        we  will sow                

                        you will sow                        you  will sow        

                         she will sow                        they  will sow        

Consonant transitive stem (लिख)“Write

Masculine

                          I will write                        we  will write                

                        you will write                        you  will write        

                         He  will write                they  will write        

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                I will write                        we  will write                

                        you will write                        you  will write        

                         she  will write                        they  will write        

11.Method

196. Method way comes only in second person forms. Before the stem according to the number ten map after adding suffix these method verbs are made, as-

Vowel transitive ‘Sow’ stem and ‘Go’ stem

Masculine

singular                                Plural

Second person        you sow                                you sow

                        you go                                         you go

                                        Feminine

                        You sow                                 you sow

                        you go                                         you go

                        

Consonant transitive ‘Write’ stem

                

Masculine

singular                                Plural

you write                                you write

Feminine

                        You write                                you write

11.Possibility

197. Before the stem according to the number eleven map after adding suffix  possibility verbs are made, as-

Vowel transitive (व़ा) “Sow” stem

Masculine

                                Singular                        Plural

                           I sow                                we sow        

                        you sow                        you sow

                         He sow                        they sow

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I sow                                we sow

                        you sow                        you sow

                        she sow                        they sow

Consonant transitive stem (लिख)“Write

Masculine

                                           Singular                        Plural

                             I write                                 we write         

                        you write                        you write

                        He write                        they write

Feminine

Singular                         Plural

                        I write                                we write

                        you write                        you write

                        she write                         they write

Anterior verb

198. Before the stem according to the number twelve map after adding suffix possibility verbs are made, as-

Vowel ending ‘sow’ stem

                        after sow, after sow, after sow

Consonant ‘write’ stem

                        after writing, after writing, after writing

199. Usually the forms of intransitive stem are according to transitive. There is a little difference which is shown further.

Vowel intransitive ‘sleep’ stem

1. Simple past

masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I slept                                        We slept

                you slept                                you slept

                He slept                                They slept

                                Feminine

                I slept                                        We slept

                you slept                                you slept

                She slept                                They slept

                                

2.Immediate past

                                     

200. Before the stem according to the number thirteen map after adding suffix immediate past verbs are made, as-

                                Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I am slept                                We are slept

                you are slept                                you are slept

                He is slept                                They are slept

                                Feminine

                I am slept                                We are slept

                you are slept                                you are slept

        She is slept                                They are slept

201. In simple present, the forms of this stem are same.

                                

3. Past perfect

                                Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I was slept                                We were slept

                you were slept                                you were slept

                He was slept                                They were slept

                                Feminine

                I was slept                                We were slept

                you were slept                                you were slept

                She was slept                                They were slept

4. Questionable past

                                   

202. Before the stem according to the number fourteen map after adding suffix questionable past verb made, as-

                                Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I would be slept                        We would be slept

                you would be slept                        you would be slept

                He would be slept                        They would be slept

                                Feminine

                I would be slept                        We would be slept

                you would be slept                        you would be slept

                She would be slept                        They would be slept

5.Conditional continuous

        

masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I sleep                                        We sleep

                you sleep                                you sleep

                He sleep                                They sleep

                                Feminine

                I sleep                                        We sleep

                you sleep                                you sleep

                She sleep                                They sleep

6. Incomplete past

                                Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I was sleeping                                 We were sleeping

                you were sleeping                        you were sleeping

                He was sleeping                        They were sleeping

                                Feminine

                I was sleeping                                 We were sleeping

                you were sleeping                        you were sleeping

                She was sleeping                        They were sleeping

7.Simple present

                                

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I am sleeping                                 We are sleeping

                you are sleeping                        you are sleeping

                He is sleeping                                      They are sleeping

                                Feminine

                I am sleeping                                 We are sleeping

                you are sleeping                        you are sleeping

                She is sleeping                                      They are sleeping

8. Incomplete present

                                

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I am sleeping                                 We are sleeping

                you are sleeping                        you are sleeping

                He is sleeping                                      They are sleeping

                                Feminine

                I am sleeping                                 We are sleeping

                you are sleeping                        you are sleeping

                She is sleeping                                      They are sleeping

9. Questionable present

                                

                                        Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I would be sleeping                        We would be sleeping

                you would be sleeping                you would be sleeping

                He would be sleeping                        They would be sleeping

                                        Feminine

                I would be sleeping                        We would be sleeping

                you would be sleeping                you would be sleeping

                She would be sleeping                They would be sleeping

10.Future

masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I will sleep                                We will sleep

                you will sleep                                you will sleep

                He will sleep                                They will sleep

                                Feminine

                I will sleep                                We will sleep

                you will sleep                                you will sleep

                She will sleep                                They will sleep

        

11. Method

masculine

                you sleep                                you sleep

                                Feminine

                you sleep                                 you sleep

12. Possibility

masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I sleep                                        We sleep

                you sleep                                you sleep

                He sleep                                They sleep

                                Feminine

                I sleep                                        We sleep

                you sleep                                you sleep

                She sleep                                They sleep

                                 Anterior verb

                Sleep,                 sleep,                sleep

Vowel ending ‘Sit’ Stem

1. Simple past

203. Before consonant transitive stem according to the number fifteen map after adding suffix Simple past verb made, as-

masculine

singular                        plural

I sat                                 we sat

you sat                                you sat

he sat                                they sat

                Feminine

I sat                                 we sat

you sat                                you sat

she sat                                they sat

2.Immediate past

masculine

singular                        plural

I am sitting                         we are sitting

you are sitting                        you are sitting

he is sitting                        they are sitting

                Feminine

I am sitting                         we are sitting

you are sitting                        you are sitting

she is sitting                        they are sitting

In simple present the forms of this stem are same.

                

3. Past perfect

                                Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I was sat                                We were sat

                you were sat                                you were sat

                He was sat                                They were sat

                                

Feminine

                I was sat                                We were sat

                you were sat                                you were sat

                she was sat                                They were sat

4. Questionable past

                                Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I would be sat                                We would be sat

                you would be sat                        you would be sat

                He would be sat                        They would be sat

                                Feminine

                I would be sat                                We would be sat

                you would be sat                        you would be sat

                she would be sat                        They would be sat

5.Conditional continuous

        

masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I sat                                        We sat

                you sat                                        you sat

                He sat                                        They sat

                                Feminine

                I sat                                        We sat

                you sat                                        you sat

                She sat                                        They sat

6. Incomplete past

                                Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I was sat                                 We were sat        

                you were sat                                you were sat        

                He was sat                                They were sat        

                                Feminine

                I was sat                                We were sat        

                you were sat                                you were sat        

                She was sat                                They were sat        

                                

                                7. Simple present

204. The stem forms of simple present are as same as immediate past. See immediate past.

8. Incomplete present

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I am sitting                                We are sitting

                you are sitting                                you are sitting

                He is sitting                                      They are sitting

                                Feminine

                I am sitting                                We are sitting

                you are sitting                                you are sitting

                she is sitting                                      They are sitting

9. Questionable present

                                        

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I would be sitting                        We would be sitting

                you would be sitting                        you would be sitting

                He would be sitting                        They would be sitting

                                        Feminine

                I would be sitting                        We would be sitting

                you would be sitting                        you would be sitting

                She would be sitting                        They would be sitting

                                        

10. Future

                                        

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                        I will sit                                We will sleep

                        you will sit                                you will sleep

                        He will sit                                They will sleep

                                        Feminine

I will sit                                We will sleep

                        you will sit                                you will sleep

                        she will sit                                They will sleep

11. Method

Masculine

you sit                         you sit

Feminine

you sit                         you sit                 

        

12. Possibility

         Masculine

Singular                        Plural

                        I sit                                We sit

                        you sit                                you sit

                        He sit                                They sit

                                        Feminine

                         I sit                                We sit

                        you sit                                you sit

                        she sit                                They sit

Anterior verb

                        sit,                 sit,                 sit

205. In the forms of 'be' verb there are lots of differences so that it is used in different ways. As--

1.Simple past

                                Masculine

                singular                        Plural

First                I had been                        you had been

Second        you had been                        you had been

Third                he had been                         they had been

                                Feminine

                I had been                        you had been

        you had been                        you had been

                she had been                         they had been

2.Immediate past

masculine

singular                        plural

I have been                         you have been

you have been                        you have been

he have been                        they have been

Feminine                

singular                        plural

I have been                         you have been

you have been                        you have been

she have been                        they have been

3. Past perfect

                                Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I was been                                We were been

                you were been                                you were been

                He was been                                They were been

                                

Feminine

I was been                                We were been

                you were been                                you were been

                she was been                                They were been

4. Questionable past

                                Masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I would be                        We would be

                you would be                         you would be

                He would be                         They would be

                                Feminine

                I would be                         We would be

                you would be                         you would be

                she would be                         They would be

5.Conditional continuous

                                masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I had been                                We had been

                you had been                                you had been

                He had been                                They had been

                                Feminine

I had been                        you had been

        you had been                        you had been

                she had been                         they had been

8. Incomplete past

                masculine

Singular                                Plural

                I would be                        We would be

                you would be                         you would be

                He would be                         They would be

                                Feminine

                I would be                         We would be

                you would be                         you would be

                she would be                         They would be

7. Simple present

                        Masculine - feminine

                I am                                we are

                you are                        you are

                he, she is                        they are

8. Incomplete present

Masculine - feminine

                1 I am being                         we are being

                2 you are being                you are being

                3 he, she being                 they are being

9. Questionable present

                                        

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

        

1        I        would be                        We        would be

would be                                 would be

                

2        I        would be                         You        would be                         

                        would be                                  would be

                        

3         He        would be                         They        would be

                        would be                                  would be

                                        Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        

1        I        would be                        We        would be

would be                                 would be

                

2        I        would be                         You        would be                         

                        would be                                  would be

                        

3         She        would be                         They        would be

                        would be                                  would be

10. Future

                                        

     Masculine-Feminine

Singular                                Plural

                        I will be                                We will be

                        you will be                                you will be

                        He, she will be                        They will be

                                

11. Method

Masculine-Feminine

                        1. You, I , was                You be

12. Possibility

masculine-feminine

                I may be                                We may be

                you may be                                you may be

                He, she may be                        They may be

Anterior verb

                Be                been                being

Above mentioned all the examples are of active voice. Now the examples of passive voice are showing--

206. Passive voice is the same transitive verb and not intransitive because intransitive stem has no object and in transitive object is main. Object came because of the forms of doer. Doer remains hidden or came with the signs of karan. As- The book is being written. Being written. The book is being written by Ram. Being written.

207. Passive voice verb is going forward from simple past verb is made by adding the forms of this verb and made differently. So see in the forms. As-

                        

1. Simple Past

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

        I        has been seen                        We     has been seen

has been seen                                has been seen

        

        You        has been seen                        You        has been seen                        

                        has been seen                                 has been seen

                He        has been seen                        They        has been seen                        

has been seen                                has been seen                                                        Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        

        I        has been seen                        We        has been seen

has been seen                                has been seen

                

        You        has been seen                        You        has been seen                        

                        has been seen                                has been seen

                        

        She        has been seen                        They        has been seen

                        has been seen                                has been seen

2.Immediate past

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

        I        has been seen                        We     has been seen

has been seen                                has been seen

        

        You        has been seen                        You        has been seen                        

                        has been seen                                has been seen

                He        has been seen                        They        has been seen                        

has been seen                                has been seen                                                        Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        

        I        has been seen                        We        has been seen

has been seen                                has been seen

                

        You        has been seen                        You        has been seen                        

                        has been seen                                 has been seen

                        

        She        has been seen                        They        has been seen

                        has been seen                                has been seen

3.Past Perfect

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

        I        had been seen                        We     had been seen

had been seen                                had been seen

        

        You        had been seen                        You        had been seen                        

                        had been seen                                had been seen

                He        had been seen                        They        had been seen                        

had been seen                                had been seen                                                        Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        

        I        had been seen                        We        had been seen

had been seen                                had been seen

                

        You        had been seen                        You        had been seen                        

                        had been seen                                 had been seen

                        

        She        had been seen                        They        had been seen

                        had been seen                                had been seen

4. Questionable past

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

        I        would be seen                        We     would be seen

would be seen                                would be seen

                

You        would be seen                        You        would be seen                        

                        would be seen                                would be seen

                

He        would be seen                        They        would be seen                        

would be seen                                would be seen                                                        Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        

        I        would be seen                        We        would be seen

would be seen                                would be seen

                

        You        would be seen                        You        would be seen                        

                        would be seen                                would be seen

                        

        She        would be seen                        They        would be seen

                        would be seen                                would be seen

5.Conditional continuous

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

        I        seen                                We      seen

seen                                        seen

                

You        seen                                You        seen                        

                        seen                                        seen

                

He        seen                                They        seen                        

seen                                        seen                                                                Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        

        I        seen                                We        seen

seen                                        seen

                

        You        seen                                You        seen                        

                        seen                                        seen

                        

        She        seen                                They        seen

                        seen                                        seen

6. Incomplete past

Masculine

Singular                                Plural

        I        was seen                        We      were seen

was seen                                were seen

                

You        were seen                        You        were seen                        

                        were seen                                were seen

                

He        was seen                        They        were seen                        

was seen                                were seen                                                        Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        I        was seen                        We      were seen

was seen                                were seen

                

You        were seen                        You        were seen                        

                        were seen                                were seen

                

she        was seen                        They        were seen                        

was seen                                were seen        

        

7. Simple present                 8. Incomplete present

Singular                                Plural

        I        am being seen                        We      are being seen

am being seen                                are being seen

                

You        are being seen                        You        are being seen                        

                        are being seen                                are being seen

                

He        is being seen                        They        are being seen                        

is being seen                                are being seen                                                        Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        I        am being seen                        We      are being seen

am being seen                                are being seen

                

You        are being seen                        You        are being seen                        

                        are being seen                                are being seen

                

she        is being seen                        They        are being seen                        

is being seen                                are being seen        

9. Questionable present         

 Masculine

Singular                                Plural

        I        would be seen                        We     would be seen

would be seen                                would be seen

                

You        would be seen                        You        would be seen                        

                        would be seen                                would be seen

                

He        would be seen                        They        would be seen                        

would be seen                                would be seen                                                        Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        

        I        would be seen                        We        would be seen

would be seen                                would be seen

                

        You        would be seen                        You        would be seen                        

                        would be seen                                would be seen

                        

        She        would be seen                        They        would be seen

                        would be seen                                would be seen

10. Future

 

 Masculine

Singular                                Plural

        I        will be seen                        We     will be seen

will be seen                                will be seen

                

You        will be seen                        You        will be seen                        

                        will be seen                                will be seen

                

He        will be seen                        They        will be seen                        

will be seen                                will be seen                                                        Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        

        I        will be seen                        We        will be seen

will be seen                                will be seen

                

        You        will be seen                        You        will be seen                        

                        will be seen                                will be seen

                        

        She        will be seen                        They        will be seen

                        will be seen                                will be seen

11. Method

 Masculine

                        You    arise                        You    arise

                                arise                                arise

Feminine

                        You          arise                        You    arise

                                arise                                arise        

12. Possibility

 

 Masculine

Singular                                Plural

        I        may be seen                        We     may be seen

may be seen                                may be seen

                

You        may be seen                        You        may be seen                        

                        may be seen                                may be seen

                

He        may be seen                        They        may be seen                        

may be seen                                may be seen                                                        Feminine

Singular                                Plural

        

        I        may be seen                        We        may be seen

may be seen                                may be seen

                

        You        may be seen                        You        may be seen                        

                        may be seen                                may be seen

                        

        She        may be seen                        They        may be seen

                        may be seen                                may be seen

 

                                                  Anterior verb                    

Masculine

                after seen                after seen                 after seen

Feminine

after seen                after seen                after seen

11. Method verb

208. The forms of verbs shown above, except these, there are more four types of method type. 1. Respect method 2. Indirect method 3. Blessing method 4. Prayer method.

1. Respect method

                                

Masculine and feminine

Second person        Dictation, Get, going, coming etc.

2. Indirect method

                                

Masculine and feminine

Second person        Singular         Write, do, give, take, go.

                        Plural                 Write, do, give, take, go etc.

                     

  2. Blessing method

                                

Masculine and feminine

Second person        Singular         Long lived, etc.

                        Plural                 Long lived, etc.        

1. Respect method

                        

Second person        Please write etc.

209. The forms of stems in simple past, immediate past, Past perfect and questionable past are not made by simple method. See these forms in the map.

Causative and factitive

210. The two forms of verb transitive and intransitive are shown. Except these two more types of verb are there- 1. Causative and  2. Factitive.

211. In causative verb inspiration is found.

As- Ram is inspiring Shyam to write a letter.

Note- Here Shyam is writing letter for which Ram is inspiring, that you write a letter, so this verb is causative.

212. In this verb the first doer means which is inspired is the applicable doer. and the second which is inspiring is known as sponsor doer. ‘to’ is putted for sign of Accusative of applicable doer and the sponsor doer is came in as doer.

Note- Causative verb is made by the basis of the sentence is first sentence, and the sentence made is the second.

First sentence - “Shyam is writing a letter”.

Second sentence-  “ Ram is inspiring Shyam to write a letter.” Here the doer of first sentence “Shyam” is  applicable doer and the inspiring doer is “Ram” and he is here in the form of sponsor doer.

213. From intransitive to transitive and causative and transitive to causative verb is made by method.

214. In the end of many intransitive stems by added the “आव” suffix transitive and by adding “वाव” the causative verb is made and the vowel which is deergha is changed into hraswa as--

 

Intransitive                        Transitive                        Causative

Climb                                Climb                                Inspire to climb

Press                                Press                                Inspire to press

Fly                                Fly                                Inspire to fly

Sit                                Sit                                Inspire to sit

Increase                        Increase                        Inspire to increase

Decrease                        Decrease                        Inspire to decrease

Die                                Die                                Inspire to die

Play                                Play                                Inspire to play

Shine                                Shine                                Inspire to shine

Melt                                Melt                                 Inspire to melt

Wander                        Wander                        Inspire to wander

Slither                                Slither                                Inspire to slither

Hang                                Hang                                Inspire to hang

Walk                                Walk                                Inspire to walk

Getup                                Getup                                Inspire to getup

Stand                                Stand                                Inspire to stand

Rotate                                Rotate                                Inspire to rotate

Wake up                        Wake up                        Inspire to wake up

Sleep                                Sleep                                 Inspire to sleep

Turn                                Turn                                Inspire to turn

215. Many intransitive stems etc are made causative after adding suffixes ‘आव’  and ‘वाव’ and doing the vowel deergha, as--

Intransitive                        Transitive                        Causative

Die                                 Kill                                 killed/ inspire to kill

Cut                                Cut                                 Inspire to cut

lost                                lost                                Inspire to lost

Adherence                        Adherence                        Inspire to adherence

Found                         Found                         Inspire to found

Fell                                 Fell                                 Inspire to fell

216. Many intransitive stems etc after doing in ‘Ikaar’ and ‘Ukaar’  and after adding suffixes ‘आव’  and ‘वाव’ changed into causative, as--

Intransitive                        Transitive                        Causative

Encircle                         Encircle                        Inspire to encircle

Twist                                Twist                                Inspire to twist

Open                                Open                                Inspire to open

Turn                                 Turn                                Inspire to turn

Add                                Add                                Inspire to add

217. Some of the transitive and causative verbs are against rule, as--

Intransitive                        Transitive                        Causative

Riven                                Riven                                Inspire to riven

Release                        Leave                                Inspire to release

Break                                 to break                        Inspire to break

Explode                        Explode                        Inspire to explode

Get wet                         Get wet                        Inspire to wet

Sell                                 Sell                                Inspire to sell

to be scattered                to be scattered                Inspire to scatter

Stay                                Stay                                Inspire to stay

218. In those words which changed from intransitive to transitive and transitive to factitive by adding “आव” suffix, in causative “आव” suffix is not added.

219. Some intransitive stems not changed into causative.

as- Come, sleep, can etc.

220. In transitive stem by adding “आव”  and  “वाव” suffix causative verb is made and if the first vowel is deergha it is changed into hraswa.

Transitive                                 Causative 

        Do                                         Inspire to do

        Write                                         Inspire to write

        Paint                                        Inspire to paint

        Snatch                                Inspire to snatch

        Fill                                        Inspire to fill

        Break                                        Inspire to break

        Ask                                        Inspire to ask

        Wipe        `                        `        Inspire to wipe

        Welter                                        Inspire to welter

221. Many Causative verbs are against rules and many are having single forms.

        as-

Transitive                                 Causative 

Take                                        Inspire to take

Give                                         Inspire to give

Stitch                                        Inspire to stitch

Eat                                        Inspire to eat

Drink                                         Inspire to drink

Factitive

   222. The verb which is having two actions is called factitive verb.

Note- But factitive verb is counted in causative verb. There is a little difference between causative and factitive verb and that is in causative verb applicable doer came with the ‘to’ sign in form of Accusative but in factitive verb applicable doer came with the ‘to’ sign in form of action, so because of two actions this verb is factitive.

as- Guru is teaching vedas to the disciple.

Note- Here applicable doer came in the form of action so in this sentence one action is disciple and the second is Vedas. Here the major action is Vedas and the minor action is disciple.

223. Action is of two types-- 1. Major 2. Minor

224. By the own verb of doer which thought closed is major action.

Note- Often this action is non living being in factitive verb.

as- Mechanic is starting a clock, Tailor is sewing cloth.

225. Different from this is minor action.

Note- Often this action is living being in factitive verb.

as- Ram is teaching Vedas to Shyam.

226. In many transitive stems by adding “आव” suffix factitive and by adding “वाव” suffix causative is made.  And the order to stem is by collapse ( changing of word formation).

Transitive                        Factitive                        Causative

Know                                Tell                                Inspire to tell

See                                See                                 Inspire to see

Learn                                Learn                                Inspire to learn

Drink                                 Imbue                                Inspire to drink

Go                                Take

Eat                                Feed                                Inspire to feed                        Study                                Teach                                Inspire to teach

Read                                Read                                Inspire to read

         

 Dependent verb

227. Can and has been verbs are not independent, these are dependent.

Note- So that these verbs not come singly, always comes with another verbs.

as- can do, has been drink.

                 

                                   Joint verb

228. One verb made by addition of two verbs is called joint verb.

as- See and come, Start speak, Cut and throw, has been seen, can write, kill and sit, take, give, eat and go, start walking, to sleep, speaking continue etc

Kridant 

229. The suffix from verb or from stem is called Krit suffix. The words which are made by adding Krit suffix are called Kridant.

230. Words are of three types- 1. Action module 2. Substantive 3. Adjective.

1. Action module

231. Which gives the work of verb is action module.

as-  Should do etc.

232. By adding Should, should have suffixes before verb in adequate manner the action module words are made. And in feminine “ई” is ordered to “ओ”. as-

Masculine                                 Feminine

                Should do                                 Should do

                Should be done                        Should be done

                Should be done                         Should be done

2. Substantive

233. The main noun is substantive.

There are two types of Kradant. 1. Business cognitive descriptive 2. Accusative descriptive

234. Business cognitive expression descriptive words made by under mentioned method.  s

235. Many of expression descriptive words are itself stem forms.

        as- Thought, Call etc.

236. Many of expression descriptive words are itself verb forms.

        as- Singing, Sleeping etc.

237. Final letters “स, ट, ण, न” etc of many stems turned into expression descriptive by order.

as-         स- Explain, tell etc.

        ट- Shout, Anxiety etc.

        ण- Transactions etc.

        न- anthem, mine, drink etc.

238. In many verbs after omission expression descriptive is made.

as-         Sewing, death etc.

239. In many stems by adding “आव, आप, आळ, वाद, आई, वाई, ई, आवट, ओ” etc suffixes expression descriptive made and the stem command a particle. as-

        आव- चडाव (Increase), घटाव (decrease) etc.

        आप- मिलाप (Reconcilement) etc.

        आळ- उछाळ (Boom) etc.

        वाद-  बकवाद (Nonsense) etc.

        आई- ठगाई, धराई, मंमाई, सिंवाई, तुलाई, दिखाई etc.

        वाई- सुणवाई, तुलवाई, धरवाई, दिखलाई etc.

        ई  -  मरी, हंसी, ठारी etc.

        आवट- ब़णावट, सजावट, जमावट etc.

        ओ- झांको etc.

240. Many expression descriptive words are against rules.

as- रंगत (Tone), पिस्‍तावो (Remorse), भागड़ , उगत, कैणावट, कवावत (Saying), मौत (Death), रोज (Daily), बैठक (Meeting), रैणगत etc.

Accusative Descriptive

241. By the element by which the doer works is called Accusative descriptive.

        as-  चालणी, ढकणी etc.

242. By adding the suffixes like णी, णौ, ळो, ण, ई, औ, ळी etc before the stem, Accusative descriptive words are made. And the stem command a particle.  as-

                णी- चालणी, ढकणी, औरणी, कतरणी etc.

                णो- ओरणो, ढकणो etc.

                ळो- छाजळो, खुदाळो etc.

                ण- लेखण, छींण, वेलण etc.

                ई- चुस्‍की, टांकी, अंगरखी, पगरखी, समासी, कुरछी etc.

                ओ- छाजो, हीमो, कुस्‍सो, चींपियो etc.

                ळी- छजळी etc.

243. Many Accusative descriptive words are against rules.

        as- छाज etc.

Adjective

244. The Kridant adjective is of three types- 1. Active voice 2. Passive voice 3. Verb indicator.

245. By which we know about the doer is active voice.

as- करणवाळो (doer), गवैयो (singer), जड़ियो, लेखक (Writer), पुजारी etc.

246.  . By adding the suffixes like  “वाळो, ऐयो, इयो, क, री, आक” etc before the stem, active voice made. And the stem ordered by collapse (change of word formation).  as-

        as-

        वाळो- करणवाळो, धरणवाळो, चालणवाळो etc.

        ऐयो-  गवैयो, चवैयो etc.

        इयो-  जड़ियो, लिखियो etc.

        क -  लेखक, पाठक etc.

        री-   पूजारी, भिखारी etc.

        आक- रमाक, दौड़ाक, कुदाक etc.

247. By which we know about the work is passive voice. As-

        देखियोड़ो, देखियोड़ी (seen) etc.

248.   By adding the suffixes like  “ इयोड़ो, इयो हुवो” etc before the stem, Passive voice made. And the stem ordered by collapse (change of word formation).  as-

        As- देखियोड़ो, देखियोहुवो, देखियोड़ो, देखी हुई, कीयोड़ो, कीयो हुवो, कीयोड़ी, कीवी हुई, कीहुई, रंगियोड़ो, सजियोड़ो etc.

249. By which we know about the present verb is called verb indicator.

        As- देखतोथको, देखतो, देखतिथकी, देखती etc.

250. By adding “थको” suffix before conditional continues, verb indicator is made and only works in conditional continues in verb indicator.

        As- देखतो थको, देखतो etc.

251. Many words are prove by collapse (change of word formation)  and in them understand stem and suffix according to the word.

        As- लोठो, कपड़ो, गऊं, दीयो, लकड़ो, वाड़, कांटो, घोड़ो, ऊंठ, बळद, नाळ, गरदन, आंख etc.

        

                        तद्‍धित (Nominal)

252. The suffix which is from the word is called nominal.

        The suffix तद्‍धित came in the end is called tadhitant.

253. These words are of two types- 1. Substantive 2. Adjective

                        1. Substantive

254. Nominal substantive is having four types- 1. Offspring descriptive 2. Active descriptive

3. Expression descriptive 4. Diminutiveness descriptive.

1. Offspring descriptive

255. By which son or progeny is meant is called Offspring descriptive.

        As- रामोत

By saying “रामोत” is mean son of Ram or of his progeny.

256. By adding suffixes like “ओत, वत, आंणी” etc  before the name descriptive words offspring descriptive made.

As- रामोत, जसवंतसिंहोत, चांपावत, ऊदावत, चतांणी etc.

 

2. Active descriptive

257. By adding suffixes like “बालो, इयो, ई, दार, आर, आरो, गर, वांन, एती, वाई, वट, यो, वार, ओ” etc before noun active descriptive made. As-

वाळौ- भारीवाळो, पांणीवाळौ etc.

इयो- आड़तियौ, कांसटियौ etc.

ई - तेली, लखी, सोनी, करोड़ी, घांची, विसायती etc.

दार- जमीदार, दुकानदार, रसोईदार, चोपदार, छड़ीदार, डोडीदार etc.

आर- सुनार, लवार etc.

आरो- ठठारो, लखारो etc.

गर- सोदागर, कारीगर etc.

वांन- बागवांन, गामीवांन etc.

एती- गांवेती etc.

वाई- धडवाई etc.

वट- सिलावट etc.

यो- लोयो etc.

वार- उमेदवार etc.

ओ- ढूबो etc.

Expression Descriptive

 258. Expression descriptive words are made by adding the suffixes “त्‍व, ता, पणो, पो, आई, ई, स, ट, याप” etc before noun. As-

त्‍व- गुणत्‍व, ब्राह्‍मणत्‍व etc.

ता- गुणता, ब्राह्‍मणता etc.

पणो- गुणीपणो, ब्राह्‍मणपणो etc.

पो- भुडापो etc.

आई- चतुराई, पंडिताई etc.

ई- लम्‍बाई, चौड़ाई etc.

स- पीलास, खटास etc.

ट- चिरपराट, चरपराट, घरोट etc.

याप- धणियाप etc.

Diminutiveness Descriptive

259. By which diminutiveness found is called diminutiveness descriptive.As- छबोलियो etc.

260. Diminutiveness descriptive words are made by adding the suffixes “इयो, ई, ओलियो, कोलियो, लो, डको, डी, णो” etc before noun. As-

इयो-  कळस- कळसियो, कामळ- कामळियो, मिनको- मिनकियो etc.

ई-  डालो- डाली, लोटो- लोटी, कुरछो- कुरछी, कमाव- कमाई etc.

ओलियो-  छाब- छबोलियो etc.

कोलियो-  घर- घरकोलियो etc.

लो -  गाडो- गाडूलो, कडाव- कडायलो etc.

डको-  गांव- गांवडको etc.

डी-  राब- राबडी, घाट- घाटडी etc.

णी - ढोलियो- ढोलणी etc

261. Many words are against rules.

As- मारग- डांडी, गिदरो- गादी, घोड़ो- टारड़ो etc.

2. Adjective

262. Adjective is made by adding the suffixes “ओ, ई, इयो, लो, ईलो, आळो, लू, ळ, वान्‍, वंत, वाळो, मान्‍, री” etc before noun. As-

ओ-  ठंड- ठंडो, मैल- मैलो, भूक- भूको, तिस- तिसो, गज- गंजो etc.

ई-  धन- धनी, दुख- दुखी, रोग- रोगी, भार- भारी, सूत- सूती, गुण- गुणी etc.

इयो-  खटपट- खटपटियो, सूतक- सूतकियो etc.

लो-  रोग- रोगलो, चांय- चांयलो etc.

ईलो-  रंग- रगीलो, रोग- रोगीलो etc.

आळो-  नखरो- नखराळौ etc.

ळू-  झगड़ो- झगड़ाळू, दया- दयाळू etc.

ळ-  दया, दयाळ, कृपा- कृपाळ etc.

वान्-  धन- धनवान्, बुद्‍धि- बुद्‍धिवान् etc.

वंत-  धन- धनवंत, कुल- कुलवंत etc.

वाळो-  धन- धनवाळौ गुण- गुणवाळो etc.

मान् - बुद्‍धि- बुद्‍धिमान etc.

री-  सोनो- सोनेरी, रुपो- रुपेरी etc.

Feminine suffixes

263. Feminine descriptive noun is made by adding the suffixes “ ई, णी, अण, यांणो, आंणी” before masculine descriptive words. As-

ई-    ब्राह्‍मण- ब्राह्‍मणी, घोड़ो- घोड़ी etc.

णी-   जाट- जाटणी etc.

अण-  तेली- तेलण, तंबोळी- तंबोळण etc.

याणी-  भाटी- भटियाणी etc.

आंणी-  राजपूत- राजपूताणी etc.

Interjection

264. In which there is no gender, number or case is called interjection.

265. This is of five types- 1. Adverb 2. Connection indicative 3. Prefix 4. Conjunction 5. Exclamatory.

1. Adverb

266. By which we know the important time, important place, important expression and important method is called adverb.

267. Adverb is of nine types- 1. Time descriptive 2. Place descriptive 3. Expression descriptive 4. Method descriptive 5. Quantitative 6. Negative 7. Determinative 8. Indeterminative 9. Joint.

1. Time descriptive

Now                Today                Two days before                 Ever        Sometimes        Sometime

                                yesterday/ two days

                                after yesterday

Then                Tomorrow        Morning                        Again         When                Which time

When                Day before        Dawn                                At last         Then                 That time

yesterday/

day after

tomorrow

Then                Morning        Always                                Again           Immediately            Now

       and again

That time         Now                 Later/ after

                        2. Place descriptive

Here                There                That side                Day                 Near          Far                Near

There                There                 Which side                Beyond         Near          Near

Where                This side         Where                 Everywhere   Near            Far

3. Expression descriptive

Sometimes        Quickly        Reality                  without asking        useless

Suddenly        ok                True                 Immediately                Truly

Means                Though        Meaningless            Mutually                Meaningless                 

Suddenly        However        Each another         False                        Meaningless

Only                Regularly        Early                 Very                        Nonsense

Yes                 Than                 But                  Self                        Control/ Support

Know                Agree                But                  Fast                        Delay

4. Method descriptive

like, like this, As, How, Like that, Like this, As, And, Etc.

                        5. Quantitative

Over, Most, Excessive, More, Less, Some, Little, a little bit, How much, How much, Once, Twice, Usually, Frequently, Mostly etc.

6. Negative

 No, no, That’s enough, Let it be etc.

                        7. Determinative

Now, Whenever, When, Here, Here, There, Like this, in this way, Like this, In that way, Right now, At that time, same time, Undoubtedly, Sure, Of course, Hardly, In reality etc.

                        

8. In-determinative

Sooner or later, somewhere, Here there etc.

9. Joint

Sometimes                again and again                                 Whenever

Wherever                Whenever                                        Wherever

Somewhere                Till now                        Wherever                Sometimes

Somewhere                 Upto what                 Whenever

268. Sometimes attributive noun changed into adverb.

As- Ride horse slowly, put the plants straight, He is walking good, He is walking straight.

269. By adding “ with, ly,  to”  the noun changed into adjective.

As- My son, do the work intellectually, Go to the king courteously, The king who intellectually

works, empires gaily.

270. In many adverbs inflect added like noun.

As- This is today’s work or yesterday’s, The land is good here, Go home straight from there.

2.Relation indicatory

271. Which shows the relation with other word or sentence is relation indicatory.

As-  Chopdar is escorting the King.

272. Relation indicatory is of two types- 1. Without inflect and 2.With inflect.

Without Inflect                                 With inflect

                without                                        before                with                under

with                                        after                with                equivalent

with                                        back                in                equal

simple                                         up                out                left

till                                        down                subject                right

after                                        near                instead                between

except                without                Further

3.Prefix

273. If following interjection words are addition of verb than it is called prefix in Sanskrit or in language.

As- stroke , exchange etc.

प्र                अनु                दुस्                नि                सु                परि

                परा                अव                दुर्                अधि                उद्                उप

                अप                निस्                वि                अपि                अभि

                सम्                निर्                आङ्                अति                प्रति 

274. Prefix is added before the stem and the meaning of stem is changed after adding this.

As- The meaning of “हार” is to lose and in this after adding prefix the meaning changes like this-

आहार (Food), प्रहार (stroke), संहार (slaughter), परिहार (avoidance), विहार (pastime).

4. Conjunction

275. The word which comes between two terms or two sentences is called conjunction.

276. Conjunction is of two types- 1. Coordinative 2. Subordinating.

277. Which connect term and sentence is called coordinative.

As- Ram and Laxman went.

278. Which divides term and sentence is called subordinating.

As- The cow is fat, but gives milk a little.  

Coordinative                         Subordinating

And                 more                 enough                but

and                 as                or                        or,or

so                if                what                        that

if                 if                 but                        otherwise

then                that                 but

again                if                but

5.Exclamatory

279. The word by which one know about the feelings and state of mind is called exclamatory.

As- Oh! it is so irritating.   Wow! God’s grace.

280. It is of three types- 1. Suffering cognitive 2. Wonder cognitive 3. Shame and dishonor cognitive.

Suffering cognitive- अहहह, आयरे, आह, ओयरे, हाय, हायहाय, त्रायत्राय, ओ, ऐ अरे etc.

Wonder cognitive - वावा, धन्यधन्य, जयजय etc.

Shame and dishonor cognitive- छीछी, धिक, छी:, हैं etc.

Compound

281. The words with inflect are called term.

282. Addition of two terms etc is called compound.

283. In compound the inflect is done in the last term, in other terms there is the omission of inflect

As-  राजवाड़ी

Note- Here “राज री व़ाड़ी” is the distribution so the last term first inflect is remaining and in other the sixth inflect is omitted.

284. Compounds are of six types- 1. Descriptive compounds 2. Determinative compounds 3. Exocentric/ Possessive 4.Dvigu  5. Copulative/ Co-ordinative  6. Avyayībhāva.

1. Descriptive compounds

285. In which adjective and substantive are monopolized is called descriptive compound.

As- परमात्‍मा (God),महाराज(King)

After the distribution of परमात्‍मा, परम means supreme and आत्‍मा means soul. So it means the supreme soul. Here the adjective is supreme and the substantive is soul and the monopolization of these two means gender, number and inflect is one so it is descriptive compound. In this same way understand महाराज.

2. Determinative compound

286. When in the previous term without the first inflect there is any other inflect and the other term is major is called determinative compound.

As- प्रियवादी (good speaker), शरणागत (Refugee), हिमालय (Himalaya), जोधपुर (Jodhpur), पुरूषोत्‍तम (Purushottam) etc.

The distribution of प्रियवादी is प्रिय प्रतिवादी means The man who says good words.  Here the second inflect in the first term प्रिय and other is main, so that this प्रियवादी compound is determinative. Just like this शरणागत, the distribution is शरणे आगत। हिमालय, and the distribution is हिम रो आलय, जोधपुर, the distribution is जोधा जी रो पुर, पुरूषोत्‍तम, the distribution is पुरूषों मे उत्‍तम।

3. Exocentric/ Possessive compound

287. Exocentric/ Possessive compound is that in which the other material is major.

As- चतुर्भुज, पीतांबर etc.

चतुर्भुज, the distribution is चतुर है भुजा जिणरै वो (that which is having four hands), the meaning of चतुर is four and भुजा means hand, here neither चतुर is major nor भुजा is major, but because of these two terms the other material विष्‍णु (Vishnu, the Hindu God) is major means चतुर्भुज word is saying about Vishnu, so that this compound is Exocentric/ Possessive. The distribution of पीतांबर is पीत है अम्‍बर जिणरै वो,  पीत means yellow, the meaning of अंबर is cloth, so the meaning of पीतांबर is Vishnu which is in yellow clothes.

4. Dvigu compound

288. his is the compound in which the first term is numerical. This compound came frequently in to collect many things and make one.

As- त्रिफला, त्रिलोकी, पंचपात्र, पंचरत्‍न, नवरत्‍न etc.

The distribution of त्रिफला is तीन फळां रौ समूह (the group of three fruits), here the first term त्रि is numerical and group is the meaning, so that this compound is Dvigu. The distribution of त्रिलोकी is तीन लोकां रौ समूह (the group of three worlds). The distribution of पंचरत्‍न is पांच रत्‍ना रौ समूह( the group of five gems). Understand नवरत्‍न just like these.

                         5. Copulative/ Co-ordinative

289. In this compound two begining terms are added with ‘and ‘ word and after that ‘and ‘ is omitted.

As- Ramlaxman, motherfather, daynight etc.

The distribution of Ramlaxman is Ram and Laxman. Here with Ram, Laxman is added by the word ‘and’ after this there is omission of the ‘and’ so this is Copulative/ Co-ordinative compound here. The distribution of motherfather is mother and father, the distribution of daynight is day and night.

6. Avyayībhāva

290. In this compound the first term is avyay. This compound is adverbial.

As- यथाशक्‍ति,(as power/ as far as possible), निर्भय(fearless), प्रतिदिन(daily), अनुरूप (compatible).

The distribution of यथाशक्‍ति is without contravention of the power. The meaning of  यथाशक्‍ति is according to power. Here the first term यथा is avyay so that this is avyayībhāva compound.  The distribution of निर्भय is भय रो अभाव and the distribution of प्रतिदिन is दिन-दिन प्रति which means daily. The distribution of अनुरूप is रूप रै योग्य।

Sentence consideration/ sentence ideas

291. Sentence idea is that in which the way of making sentences with words. The group of the terms is sentence, in which in the end after remaining the verb the meaning is done. In the sentence it is not necessary that it is having a second case but doer and verb is most important.

As- Ram is alive.

292. Sentences are of three types- 1. Subject oriented  2. Object oriented 3. Expression oriented.

293. In the sentence when subject is major, is called subject oriented.

As- Ram is eating food.

Here subject Ram is major, because the gender, number are according to the subject of verb.

But say and come, bring, can and mistake except these verbs all other transitive stems are used according to object in subject oriented sentences of simple past, past perfect, immediate past and questionable past. As-  Beaten the boy by cane.

294. In the sentence when work/ object is major is called object oriented.

As- Food is eaten.

Here object food is major because the gender, number of verb are according to object.

295. In object oriented sentence subject comes and also not comes.If subject came than in the form of karan with (from) sign.

As- Food is eaten by Ram.

296. In the sentence when the verb is major than it is called expression oriented.

As- How he/she remains silent.

Here remains verb is major, so this sentence is expression oriented sentence.

297. In expression oriented sentence the verb is  masculine, third person, singular, because the meaning of stem is expression, that is masculine and singular, and because it is not second or first person so it is third person. The object comes in karan form as “From” sign in expression oriented sentences.

As- How he/ she remains silent.

298. In the sentence there are two elements are necessary. Motive and predicate.

299. About which something is said is motive and which is saying is predicate.

As- Ram is doing.          Horse is running.

Here in the first sentence Ram and in the second sentence Horse is motive because about Ram and horse it is said. And in the first sentence “doing” and in the second sentence “running” are predicate. These both are verbs. Because after doing object of Ram and Horse is there ordination.This means that when in sentence there are only doer and verb than the object is motive and the verb is predicate.

300. But when motive and predicate increased by using adjective than with adjective the object is motive and with adjective verb is predicate.

As- Kamet horse (a breed of horse) is running good.

Here Kamet horse is motive and running good is predicate.

301. If the adjective of object used after object and before verb than the object is motive and with the adjective of object verb is predicate.

As- The water of Rai ka bagh is sweet.

Here water is motive and sweet is the adjective of motive. So object water is motive and sweet water is group predicate, because the motive of water is sweet. This is rule.

 302. If one verb is having two subjects or two objects and they are not substantive adjectives together than first noun is motive and with second noun the verb is predicate.

As-Wood turned into manure after hollow.

Here wood and manure both are subjects. From these first is wood is motive and the second is manure is with turned is verb predicate.

Made that prince, the king.

Here prince and king both are objects. From these first prince is motive and second with king, made is verb predicate.

Term Plan

303.The normal process to add the term in sentence is in the start the subject and in the end the object and if other cases wanted than put between these both. But use locative case first from all.

As- Child is writing a letter with pen. You put down Ram from the table and give him his book. Maharaj stay in home, I have some work.

304. If it is necessary to put any case, adjective or avyay except subject and verb, than the term which is associated with, put that with that particularly.

As-For a generous man money is like a pebble. An uncouth person is like a hard working bull of rupees one lakh twenty five thousand.

305. Adjective comes before substantive and adverb comes before verb.

As- There are very few intelligent men. Govind is doing studying good.

306. Put anterior verb before from that verb by which the sentence completes.

As- Children are studying with concentration. Horse is jumping dung.

307. In poem these prescribed rules are not compulsory, As-

Sortha

जे व्‍है हियो हाथ, कूसंगी केता मिलो।

चनण भुजंगा साथ, काळो न लागे किसनिया ।1।

308. About which the question is, put interrogative pronoun

 near by that.

And if it is fully a question or if the whole sentence is a question than put it first.

As- Which is this book?

Is he is the same? Whom you saw?

In the first sentence “which” term is interrogative. In the second sentence “Is he is the same” this whole sentence is interrogative.

309. In the sentence when no interrogative words are there, the idea to know about that is according to the pronunciation or expression of the speaker.

As- You came? then he arrived?

310. If many subjects of one verbs are there, and their gender is not same than the verb is according to plural and the last subject.

As- Horses, bulls and the goats were graze.

311. Between many in-different genders, subjects and verbs if group words comes than the verb is not according to the last subject but it is masculine.

As- Men, women, king, queen all went out.

312. In the sentence many subjects are there but by conjunction it know as singular, then verb is singular and if it know as plural then verb is plural.

As-  Godown, stable and office are but ok. Here by the conjunction but singular is shown.

Ram and Shyam came.

Here by the conjunction and plural is shown.

313. For obey, in the verb plural sense is uses.

As- Maharaj came.   Panditji came.

314. When in the sentence there are many subjects and in between them when denominator term comes  then the verb changed into singular.

As- Today, brother or me will go.

315. If a verb is having many subjects of first person, second person and third person then the verb is first person.

As- Brother, you and me will go.

316. If  a verb is having many subjects of second person and third person then the verb is second person.

As- He and you go.

Substantive adjectives

317. In the sentence the major noun is called the substantive and which shows the quality of that noun is called adjective.

As- Ram is learned.

Here Ram is the major noun or substantive so Ram is substantive and learned is showing the quality of Ram so learned is the adjective.

318. Sometimes single adjective came without the major noun or substantive. inference there the major substantive means understand the major substantive directly.

As- Rich is happy.

Here rich adjective’s substantive is man so the substantive came without man but man’s inference is done.

319. When adjective came with substantive no inflect is added in the adjective. But where adjective came without major substantive, there inflect is added with adjective.

As- Rich persons are happy,  Riches are happy.

320. Okarant substantive adjective came along then in all masculine terms except the singular of subject “ओ” to “आ”  and in feminine of subject’s singular “ओ” to  “ई” happens. And in masculine adjective of second form of subject is ordered “ओ” to “ए”.

As- The black horse is going like air. Ride the black horse. The yellow mare is very naughty. Ride the yellow mare. The black horse kicked.

321. Adjective descriptive “ओ” word comes with substantive where except the first form of singular of the subject in all of the rest in singular “ओ” is ordered “इण”.

And in plural “इणां”, “यां” , “ऐं” is ordered. In subject plural “ऐ” is ordered.

As- This horse is going. Let this horse go. Let these horses go. These horses are going.

322. In sentence making it is important to care about attachment, competence, aspirations.

Because without these sentence can’t be make.

323. The nearness of the terms is attachment. If one can make sentences without attachment, like in morning pronounced “Ram” and, in evening pronounced “is going”  can make a sentence, which is not possible.

324. The appropriate knowledge of meaning by the togetherness of descent of the terms is competence.

Without competence if sentences are made then “watering plants with fire” this sentence should be made, which is not possible.

325. A term desire with the other term is aspiration.

Without aspiration if sentences are made then “horse” term should be a sentence, but it is not a sentence. By adding “is going” etc verbs made a sentence.

Term making

Before making term first of all recognise these five words and the types i.e. noun, pronoun, adjective, verb and descent and after that do the proper term making of noun etc.

Noun- 1. Noun 2. Types 3. Gender 4. Number 5. Case 6. If subject or object then of which verb.

Pronoun- 1.Pronoun 2.Types 3.Gender 4.Number 5.Person 6.Case 7.If subject or object then of which verb 8.Whose representative.

Adjective- 1.Adjective 2.Types 3.There is some substantive of it.

Verb- 1.Verb 2.Types 3.Gender 4.Number 5.Person 6.Tense 7.Which verb 8.Whose verb 9.Who is the object.

Avyay- 1.Avyay 2.Types 3.Discernment.

Example

                                Sortha

पर कर मेरू प्रमांण, आप रैवै रज कण जिसा।

वेह पुरूष धिन जाण, इण जगमांहे राजिया । ।

पर- 1.Noun 2.Attributive 3.Masculine 4.Singular 5. Object-case the substantive of this is man inference.

कर- 1.Verb 2.Active voice 3.Masculine 4.Plural 5. Third person 6. Possibility 7.Transitive 8.Infrerenced subject 9.Object “on”.

मेरू-  1. Noun 2. Vandyke 3. masculine 4.Singular 5. Relation indicatory “evidence”.

प्रमाण- 1.Adjective 2. Attributive 3.”on” is the substantive.

आप- 1. Pronoun 2. respect cognitive 3. Masculine 4. Plural 5.Adjective 6. The substantive of this

रवै- 1. Verb 2.Active voice 3.Masculine 4.Plural 5.Third person 6.Possibility 7.Intransitive 8. Subject “self”/ “you”. (आप)

रजकण- 1.Noun 2. Nominal 3. Masculine 4.Singular 5.Relation 6.Relation showing “like” 7.Determinative compound

जिसा- 1.Pronoun 2.Type cognitive 3.Adjective 4.Substantive “you” (आप)

वेह- 1.Pronoun 2.Relation cognitive 3.Masculine 4. Singular 5.Object 6.Adjective 7.Substantive “person” (पुरुष)

पुरूष- 1.Noun 2.Nominal 3.Masculine 4.Plural 5.Object 6. Know of this verb

धिन- 1.Adjective 2.Attributive 3.Substantive “Person”(पुरूष)

जांण- 1.Verb 2.Active voice 3.Masculine 4.Singular 5.Second person 6. Method verb 7.Transitive 8. The subject is “you” 9.Object “person”(पुरूष)

इण- 1.Pronoun 2.Definite 3.Adjective 4. Substantive is “world” (जग)

जगमांहे- 1.Noun 2.Nominal 3.Masculine 4.Singular 5.Genitive.

राजिया-1.Noun 2. Vandyke 3.Masculine 4.Singular 5. Object is saying of this verb.

It is an end of marwari grammar written by Pandit Ramkarn Sharma S/o Dadheech Aasopa pandit Baldev.

The End.