vijayanagara.in references. This is an open document for all participants to edit and add references using a special link which you can request from contact info at vijayangara.in. Similarly, you can also upload documents to vijayanagara.in/docs or media files to /media
Digital Hampi category
Place-Hampi: Inhabiting the Cultural Imaginary
is a ground breaking new media art installation that elevates cultural heritage to a new level of experience.
Vijayanagara: The Empire that Vanished!
V. K. Joshi (Bijji)
Ramayan Sculpture from Hampi - Vijayanagara
Bharatiya Kala Prakashan 2010
Karnataka Janapada Kalaygala Kosha
Hampi Kannada University 1996
He has created Digital Hampi - a project in which his application has been put
in use to not only bring the ruins of Hampi to glory, but also to allow users …
A collaboration between Microsoft Research and NIAS
The narratives are best experienced in full-screen mode with an Internet
connection speed of 2 Mbps or higher. The Virupaksha Temple at Hampi …
6 Nov 2008 ... An Australian curator conceptualised and co-created the world's
first interactive cultural exhibition called PLACE-Hampi: a 3D replication …
a. For an general introduction on the social and economic history and geography of the Vijayanagara empire see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hampi
b. UNESCO World Heritage Centre's url on Hampi gives a broad historical overview of the group of monuments that are on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/241
c. Brief yet useful introduction to the architecture of the 15th century centrally located Chandramauleshwar temple and the Hampi preservation project of the Global Heritage Fund (GHF): http://globalheritagefund.org/what_we_do/site_significance/current_projects/hampi_india
(Further details of GHF's restoration initiative are available under “Preservation of Sculptures and Architecture” in the “Conservation and Restoration” section)
d. Chronological overview of the Vijayanagara empire – see introduction page of the Vijayanagara Research Project (VRP) at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology: http://www.penn.museum/research-asian-section/640-vijayanagara-research-project.html
(For more info on VRP, see “Research Websites” in the “Other Resources” section)
e. An overview of the geography, history, monuments and sculptures at Hampi that journalists and amateur historians might find useful: http://www.indianetzone.com/42/vijayanagara.htm
f. Introduction to the political and socio-cultural history of the Vijayanagar empire that journalists and laypersons might find useful: http://www.indianmirror.com/dynasty/vijayanagaradynasty.html
g. Basic information on the architecture, sculptures, religious and cultural history of the Virupaksha and Vitthala temples at Hampi for writers and journalists: http://www.templenet.com/Karnataka/virup.html
h. An insightful overview of the social history of the Vijayanagar empire:
i. Scholarly content on the socio-cultural and political history of the Vijayanagara empire from the Central Institute of Indian Languages (Mysore, India): http://www.classicalkannada.org/DataBase/KannwordHTMLS/CLASSICAL KANNADA LAND HISTORY AND PEOPLE HTML/VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE.htm
j. Useful information on history, geography, socio-cultural and architectural heritage of Hampi for writers, journalists and tourists: http://hampi.in
k. Informative news report on karnataka.com titled “Cusing modern techniques like Geoinformatics, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and digital cartography: DAC's Role At Hampi" highlights a project of Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC, Pune) that proposes to find hitherto buried rivers, roads and other important data in Hampi: http://www.karnataka.com/tourism/hampi/cdac.html
a. The “UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural heritage” was adopted by the General Conference at its seventeenth session in Paris on 16th November 1972. The complete text of the convention is available at: http://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext
b. For the “UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions” adopted in 2005 by the 33rd General Conference and entered into force in 2007 see: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/themes/2005-convention/the-convention/
c. Text of the “UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage” adopted at the at 32nd session of the General Conference in Paris, from 29 September to 17 October 2003 is at: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?lg=en&pg=00006
d. For the “ILO Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries” that was adopted on 27th June, 1989 at the 76th session of the General Conference of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in Geneva and came into force on 05th September 1991, see: http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C169
e. The “United Nations Declaration on the Rights of
Indigenous Peoples” adopted by the General Assembly on 13th September 2007 is at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/drip.html
f. Text of the UNEP Convention on Biodiversity adopted in Nairobi on 22nd May 1992 and brought into force on 29th December 1993 is at: http://www.cbd.int/convention/text/
g. For the “UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property” that was adopted at its sixteenth General Conference in Paris on 14th November 1970 and entered into force on 24th April 1972, see: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13039&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
h. Text of the “UNESCO Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict with Regulations for the Execution of the Convention” adopted at The Hague on 14th May 1954 is at: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13637&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
Scholarly and other information on murals and manuscript paintings of pre Vijayanagara, Vijayanagara and post Vijayanagara periods.
a. S Subbanna's blog post titled “The Legacy of Chitrasutra - Eight – Sri Pampa Virupaksha temple, Hampi“ on 26th December 2008 on Sulekha.com giving a good overview of the art and architecture created during the Vijayanagar empire at Hampi and includes paintings, sculptures, buildings, statues and other structures: http://ssubbanna.sulekha.com/blog/post/2008/12/the-legacy-of-chitrasutra-eight-sri-pampa-virupaksha.htm
b. Short article named “Vijayanagar Paintings of Karnataka” by Sajithkumar S on 21st January 2008 in the Internet publication IndiaStudyChannel.com provides a general introduction to the painting styles and methods used in creating the murals of the Vijayanagara empire.
c. Benoy K Behl's insightful article titled ‘Murals of India“ in Frontline dated 11th - 24th October 2003 describes Indian painting traditions, which travelled across Asia and created a vision that shaped the culture of the continent. It also contains useful information on Vijayanagara murals.
d. News report “18th century murals languishing” by Sai Deepika Amirapu in The Hindu dated 18th June 2008 that highlights the lack of sustained effort to conserve traditional Indian heritage paintings. It cites the example of the 18th century Rajavade palace in Nippani taluk in the Belgaum district of Karnataka.
e. T. S. Subramanian's informative news feature titled “Neglect causes ruin of murals” in The Hindu dated 11th June 2010 discusses the neglected condition of murals and frescoes dating back to the Chola, Pallava and Vijayanagara rule in temples in Veppathur in the present Tamil Nadu.
f. Interesting news report named “15th-century relic discovered in Haveri” in the Times of India dated 8th January 2010 about the discovery of a rare 15th-century relic (a combination of veeragallu and mastigallu) at Kalkeri village in Hangal taluk of Haveri district in January 2010. It was supposedly a memorial to a brave soldier and his wife who laid down her life after a 'Sati' (bride burning) ritual. The stone was erected during the reign of king Veera Harihara Rama of the Vijayanagara kingdom.
g. Insightful news feature titled “Paintings in South India” in the Internet publication Indianetzone in January 2011 on the different styles of paintings creating during the rule of various dynasties of Southern India in places which were integrated into the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. They include Hoysala in Mudibiri, Vijayanagara in Hampi, Chola in Thanjavur and Nayaka in Madurai.
h. Brief article named “Vijayanagar Paintings” in the Internet publication Indianetzone in January 2011 on representations of different rulers and scenes from Indian epics and myths visible in the murals in the Virupaksha temple at Hampi.
i. Short but useful article named “Manuscript paintings of Hoysala dynasty” in the Internet publication Indianetzone in January 2011 on the unique painted palm leaf manuscripts done during the reign of the Hoysalas:
j. Brief, insightful articles titled “Medieval Kerala Paintings” and “Paintings of Kerala” in the Internet publication Indianetzone in January 2011 on the painting styles and influences of paintings from Kerala between the 15th and 19th centuries:
k. Useful and short article named “Chola Paintings of South India” in the Internet publication Indianetzone in January 2011, introduces the works produced during the rule of Raja Raja Chola in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu:
l. Brief and informative article titled “Nayaka Paintings of South India” in the Internet publication Indianetzone in January 2011, discusses the works created during the reign of the Nayaka dynasty in Madurai and Chidambaram in Tamil Nadu:
m. Articles in the Internet publication Indianetzone in January 2011 provide short overviews of Jain murals in Sittannavasal and Tiruparuthikundram in Tamil Nadu:
n. The blog name is “Suttona Banni-Ondu yashaswi payanakke naandi” this blog is about ‘Hampi temples, Hampi heritage villages, Thunga-Bhandra Dam and its surrounding areas. This blog is published by
Shri Harsha B S,
Suttona Banni Team Karnataka.
a. An international seminar on Painting Narratives: Mural Painting Traditions in the 13th – 19th Centuries from 23rd to 27th January 2008 was held at Dakshin Chitra, Chingleput district, Tamil Nadu, India. This was organized by the Madras Craft Foundation (Chennai, India), its coordinating partners, the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) and Indian Council of Conservation Institutes (ICCI, Lucknow, India). Focussing primarily on the traditions of South Asia, the event also had a public forum discussion and post-seminar trip on the much neglected mural painting traditions from the 13th to the 19th centuries. For entire seminar proceedings, participant profiles and a map of mural sites in South Asia see:
b. S. Theodore Bhaskaran explains the technique used in mural paintings across India including Vijayanagara in the paper “Mural techniques" available at:
c. The British Association for South Asian Studies (BASAS), London, U.K. supported a collaborative research project titled “Art and Empire under Vijayanagara and the Successor States.” The researchers were Dr. Anila Verghese, Anna Dallapiccola and Crispin Branfoot. See list of BASAS books and publications:
d. Information about Vijayanagar murals and sculptures from the Central Institute of Indian Languages (Mysore) with details of relevant bibliography, references and suggested readings:
a. The Global Heritage Fund page discusses the threats, conservation plan and approach and restoration work that the organization has undertaken since 2009, with special focus on the preservation of the 15th century Chandramauleshwar Temple. The project is in partnership with the Government of Karnataka, the Hampi Foundation, Cornell University and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). It also provides photos and a video (listed in the corresponding sections of this document) and a summary of the conservation project.
. Subbaraman S details the challenges in preservation of frescoes and murals in the paper “Conservation problems of mural paintings in living temples”. Using the examples of the Chola temples in Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu) and Vijayanagara paintings at Lepakshi (Andhra Pradesh) he also suggests remedies at:
. In O P Agarwal's “Overview of the conservation status of mural paintings in India”, the author and Director General of ICCI details the number of sites per state surveyed for restoration and those which have been actually preserved. He also explains the challenges and techniques involved in preservation.
1. Hampi online.com page with book covers on Hampi and Vijaynagara that are available on amazon.com
2. List of books from the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA), Delhi:
3. Scholarly publications on Hampi and Vijayanagara:
4. C. Sivaramamurti’s book titled “Vijayanagara Paintings” on Vijayanagara murals published by the Information and Broadcasting ministry, Government of India in 1985:
5. An excellent digital archive of books and publications on Hampi and Vijayanagar is available at the US Library of Congress (Washington, DC):
6. List of books and publications by Dr. Anila Verghese:
7. The Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) has an extensive collection of books and publications on Vijayanagara in English, Kannada and other languages which is not available online currently. However, ICHR has a plan to digitize these archives in the near future. ICHR's website is: http://www.ichrindia.org/
8. List of selected publications by Prof. Anil K. Gupta:
9. Summary of art historian Veena Shekhar's publication “Monograph on mural paintings of Sibi” is at: http://veenashekar.chitralakshana.com/publications.htm
10. List of scholarly articles on Hampi and Vijayanagara in the documentation database of IGNCA: http://ignca.nic.in:80/hampi/art_articles.pdf
a. Since 1980 an international group of researchers under the aegis of the Vijayanagara Research Project (VRP) at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology has been documenting and interpreting the remains of Vijayanagara through a program of “surface archaeology”. Begun in 1980, VRP has undertaken recording the extraordinary range and richness of archaeological detail in the core of the city through architectural and archaeological drawings, photographs, descriptions and maps. The pages describe investigations and interpretations, while also offering essential background information on the history of the city and the empire of which it was the capital, the urban layout of the site, and the variety of its military, ceremonial, civic and religious architecture.
b. Numismatist Hariharaiah Oruganti provides valuable insights on Vijaynagara coinage. He also has documented scholarly information on and included visuals on various aspects of Vijayanagara: http://www.vijayanagaracoins.com/
c. Various research and conservation initiatives by IGNCA on art, sculpture, architecture and culture of Indian heritage sites such as Hampi and its digital archives are available at:
Department of Tourism, Government of Karnataka, website on Hampi useful for laypersons and tourists: http://www.hampi360.com/
a. A video titled Vibrations of Hampi showing the various structures, buildings, surroundings and sculptures, is available at:
b. “Hampi - The City Carved in Stone” by Hotel Malligi, Hospet
c. Video clips of Hampi and Vijayanagara structures, buildings, environs, communities and sculptures, are available at: http://www.indiavideo.org
a. A slide show on the site significance, threats, conservation plan and restoration activities by the Global Heritage Fund:
b. Images of mural paintings at sites across South India:
c. UNESCO's online gallery of photographs of the buildings, structures, sculptures and landscape that constitute the Group of Monuments at Hampi declared as a World Heritage Site:
d. Artistic photographs (with explanatory notes) of the monuments and architecture at Hampi and Lepakshi by Amit Guha, a member of INTACH, Hyderabad:
e. Patrimonium-mundi.org is documenting the World Heritage List in panophotographies, immersive and interactive spherical images. High resolution pictures of the temples at Hampi and some of their surroundings from this educational project are at:
f. Sets of photographs (categorized and captioned) of the temples, structures, sculptures, carvings and landscape of Hampi by a group of photography and history enthusiasts:
g. Photographs of the structures, monuments, sculptures, murals, carvings, community and environs of Hampi: http://hampi.in/hampi-photos-1.shtml
h. Pictures of some of the temples, sculptures and surroundings at Hampi shot by a family of tourists: https://picasaweb.google.com/yoguchelli/AJourneyIntoTheForgottenEmpire#
i. Photographs of the buildings, structures, environs and archaeological ruins at Hampi taken by a tourist: http://amitkulkarni.info/pics/hampi/
j. Pictures of some of the monuments, structures, surroundings and archaeological ruins at Hampi taken by professional photographers are at: