Tahir Musa Ceylan’s Thought
Ten thousand years old adventure: Antony Stevens(2005) has mentioned the archetype of the self, originally proposed by Jung, that rises to the surface of our dreams, epics and diseases, as a kind of psychic archeological field and by this way the truth of the unseen and the knowledge of the unknown can be enlightened. According to him ten thousand years old self, lives in the labyrinths of the soul just like the atoms hide in the substance and we can notice it’s existence by just feeling it.
According to Stevens, ‘my life is the story of realizing the unconscious one in my way’ (Stevens, 2005). It means that there is a ten thousand may be hundred thousand years old self and everybody realize this self in their own ways. The most important thing that Stevens’ s has said here is the existence of identical and uniform type (collective) self that is in everybody but this self is differentiated by human while emerging on to the earth. This point is important, we will take so defined self/collective subconsciousness as the main line of Stevens/Jung couple and over it we will place collective self concept with some differences.
When Jung had criticized Freud he had rightfully made a point of two points. First one is loading sexual content in to libido completely. The second one is personalizing the subconsciousness. We have learnt by the analysis about the genome that Jung’s criticisms are right on both two points. Despite this, Jung’s telling that ‘archetypes cannot be known by means of extracting direct information for example by experiment and can be resolved only by a special experience , internal information and gnosis’ is the weak of him against Freud. Freud has demonstrated that, this information can be emerged by psychoanalysis and showed the results of the method that he used as the applied science and this is enough to show his justification. But it is possible to have more certain information than Freud had , by using some biologic tests. Because the information is saved in the human body whether it is the result of collective self or it is the result of personal experience.An information that is not saved in the body cannot be used by the body. We will come back to this point later.
On the other hand Jung has said that delusions of Schizophrenia patients show parallelism with the epic themes that are parts of images of collective subconsciousness. This is true too but schizophrenia patients and saga makers don’t talk about these delusions and epic themes as they are two different dialects of collective subconsciousness. If it wasn’t so, sagas and delusions would be completely the same thing. However there are only similarities between these two. Because collective self goes to every single person by differentiating to some extent. This small difference turns into moderate difference when it appears on different conditions of the earth and this is the explaining point of partial differences between delusions and sagas in the present day.
Stevens has said that one of the three hypothesis of Jung is that : Human soul (psyche) is not the first basic information source of only the human psychology but also of the human life. This source is given to us as a priori. It is directly the result of the nature and evolution and this soul’s object is archetype, the archetype of collective subconsciousness. This archetype establishes the basic patterns of our behaviors in our lives.(Stevens 2005). It will be suitable to talk about telepathy to enlighten this subject. Especially twins feel what their other twin do, where it does it in certain aspects. But it is not specific only to twins. Some people have the ability of feeling non-blood related people. The only approach to explain this is may be the collective self approach. Because by this way , everybody have selves that are very close to each other and some highly in sighted persons can feel others while they are feeling themselves. The common feature that we see in all the people that have telepathic behaviors is that , they have high insight ability and by this way it is possible to understand others as deep as themselves while looking at others with the ease of the looking at themselves. The reason that this situations occurs more in twins is that , especially in identical twins collective self is exactly the same (because it was the same polarization for both spouses) and also often object self is exactly the same (growing in the same environment) so as they are feeling themselves they feel the twin mate at the same time.
The main point to withstand the irrefutable hypothesis of Jung is that the collective subconsciousness by his word, collective self by our word passes to every newborn with the same content. Collective self is not sitting at the corner supernaturally and we take a little bit and give to baby during the birth. Collective self material passes to every single of us in may be very little levels but in different contents and main body all of these differences make the collective self. It means that collective self has minimal differences in different people at birth and also the collective self of 2010 is different than the collective self of 2011 in certain aspects. Because the experiences of people in a year has added new things to collective self. Existence cannot find place in a static manner. It can only find place in a dynamic manner. The goal of the mechanism of the collective self is creating more combinations. The main thing here is comparing , slightly differentiated versions collective self with the fields of life that have small/big differences and gathering information from as wide spectrum as possible and adding this information to the complex of collective self. If this is so, transferring the collective self to person without any change makes that person meaningless for the goal of life.
Transferring of Collective Self with Minimal Differences : We know that collective self is composed of every single person’s (including early hominids and pre-evolved living things) contribution (transferred hereditary by DNA). So the collective self that the son A carries, consists of own father’s transfer to collective self in minimal level ( the material that is transferred to collective self by the father is very little , compared to the material that is carried by the collective self from the past) and in high levels consists of the material from the past. In the same way the collective self of the son B mostly consists of the material that is carried from the past and he also gets material B from his father in a few amount. Material A and B are actually very similar materials but because they are derived from different objects and very little part of them is transferred to collective self material , they transfer to their sons nearly the same collective self material that has very little differences . The natural tendency of people is to marry with the people who does not have blood-relations with themselves and not marry with their relatives. This leads to the gathering of the collective self and the genetic material without differentiating to separate edges and gaining a homogenous structure. But this is not an obstacle to the transferring of collective self to every different son with minimal differences.
Collective self stops the edges that is highly differentiated from other edges by handicapped and dead births in the families that have high rates of consanguineous marriage. In this structure the only way to differentiate and separate the collective self from the association is encouraging the consanguineous marriage. As we know the prohibition of incest by almost all communities has prevented this to happen in highly manner. It is interesting to see that people behave cooperatively to protect the collective self material. We don’ t see a behavior against prohibition of incest in almost every societies on the earth and it is related to the instinct of collective self of every single person to protect itself naturally and spontaneously. Even though people show disturbing attitudes for collective self , they do not show an apathy to a harm to the collective self .
In this situation it is necessary to see collective self as a complex that is renewed with small pieces in every day /every hour just like the circles that the age of a tree. The most inner circles are the strongest and oldest ones and their appearance on the earth is very early and they present themselves as instinct. The most outer ones have not had a shape and have not had the form of instinct yet, they mainly represent a behavior tendency and their transference to the next generation can be mostly in the form of predisposition and in the form of creating a tendency. A human being comes to the earth with pieces of each circles (more pieces from the older circles) and while giving new sons they feed the collective self by adding one or more circles. Probably people who have psychiatric disorders come to earth without getting important numbers of these circles or getting one or more times from the same circle.
The energy that is used by the inner-most circle to make themselves appear is the highest. Because they are the remnants of the paradox of existence/non-existence that belongs to the first existential moments and they have large amount of energy against existence ( remember the power of the living and surviving instinct). While Schizophrenic patients are walking through the outer circles of the collective self they move away from the objects and show regression as they move to inner circles so they can find energy source that they can easily use.
The outer layers of the collective self has the latest object information so they are the layers that can easily adapt to the present world , they interact easily with the objects and turn into object self in a fast manner (they externalize). Their feeding sources are the objects from the first day but not the collective self because of the fast transformation. These layers born as hungry to the objects from the beginning and immediately attack to the object. All the fields of each layers don’t turn into object self completely at the same time. Transformation shows heterogeneity by moving fast in some fields and reacting to the deep layers and by remaining on the outer layers in other fields. The healthy transformation that is expected is homogenous (all layers completely) transformation. The most likely seen problem heterogenic transformation is the personality disorder. For example the people who have a higher transformation in the fields of accepting objects as they are, when they can not balance this with the transformation in the field of presenting aggression, they have avoidant personality. An opposite situation results in aggressive, hostile ( may be antisocial) personality. In some disorder transformation (externalization) is homogenous but consists of only superficial layers, in this situation autistic disorder develops to some extent. In some other situations, externalization develops through the deepest layers homogenously in the very early periods and collective self that the person must keep as a core behind, sticks in a narrow field. In this situation person has to defend the core of collective self by repetitive rituals against the relations with the objects (obsessive compulsive disorder with insight). In the situation that self moves away from the objects (leaving the object self) and refuge to the collective self , person looses layers between objects and collective self and seeks relation as collective self does (primitively) and because the person is usually rejected by the objects person seeks relations with objects through the self of a person who has a healthy object self (mother, father, husband, lover, children, doctor, esc.).
To have an accurate relation with the objects , collective self must externalize in some extent but not more. If there is not enough externalization there is an impulsive, passionate, destroying (primitive) relations with objects and if there is an extreme externalization there will be giver, extremely elastic, not demanding type of relations with the object.
We can say the groups (for example families) that have a weakt ability to gather information from the objects to contribute to the collective self , are in the course of extinction. The number of people in these groups is decreased or they get away from producing information because they cannot get enough risk (to get risk you have to have enough energy to face the risk).
We can say that the most important thing that collective self needs is information. It doesn’t have any problem with the energy. It can reach to high energy levels whenever it needs. Wars, the works that need patience and more time to be done, a woman’s effort to get a man, make us think that when there is a reward in the end the energy usage is not restricted.
Information has not been enough for many years through the existential course of human beings and also information has been produced on the fields that are very few than it is needed. For example in a village of Middle Anatolia people has died early through generations because of lack of knowledge of asbestos making pulmonary disease until a doctor called İzzettin Barış who has a well developed objective self mentioned about this situation. Most of the time people cannot use an information that is in front of their eyes and can be revealed even by a simple observation for hundreds of years. It is relevant to call whole of the matter not only the living beings as senseless energy.
Jung says that collective subconciousness is common for all human communities independent of culture , race and history and also says that marriage, giving presents, dancing , dream interpreting and many more are common issues. It is impossible not to agree this however we see that common issues of some communities are not common for other communities.
For example beliefs about stones has been existed in Christianity ,Judaism and Turks before and after Islam (Tanyu, 1968) It is possible that the prevalence of beliefs about stones is because all of humanity had been through the stone age. However there is not a partnership about the belief’s theme about stone. For example the Yede stone of Turks that is raining stone is not seen in other societies as far as we know but can be seen in all Turkish communities throughout the world. Because of this we can say that collective self , as branches of a tree , is partially differentiated than the base , in different communities, collective self shows partial differences. It means that we can talk about a Turkish collective self. This difference is in the serve of making more combinations to diversification of the information. But in the present years it is nearly impossible that there can be a self specific to different communities because of the increased communication and relations between human groups and globalization. This can weaken the information producing process that is in favor of collective self.
Establishing of Objective Self Over the Collective Self in the Brain: The connection between the opposite brain hemispheres and the type of energy that is transferred between them is different in different people. Right brain hemispheres of two people are interfered with the non-verbal messages for example facial gestures, prosody, voice tone and attitude on the other hand left hemispheres of these two people transfer information to each other about verbal messages. Right brain, conjugates the messages of the other person’s right hemisphere and body with it’s own body’s messages and it’s own right hemispheres mind courses, so it understands the other person by patching the other mind and body to it’s own body and by conjugating the other body language and mind. It is a process of understanding the other person’s mind and body by pulling towards it’s own scale ( as we use horse power to understand car power and using dynamite power to understand earthquake magnitude). More clearly person A’s right brain hemisphere knows what kind of mind course, does the messages of it’s own body messages produce. In the same way it understands the body language of Person B that is produced by the person B’s right hemisphere’s order over the body of person B as right hemisphere of person A has extended it’s own neurons through the body of person B and getting impulses from it. Person A makes this solution by accompanying it with the previous message that it gets from that body and by comparing it with the mind structure that is corresponding to these messages. As a conclusion of this simple accompanying process person A thinks that if a person shows these attitudes it has those mind structures. We call this making hypothesis about other’s mind.
Now in this situation we can say that right brain hemispheres of everybody are in relationship with each other, recognize, love each other and can sacrifice itself for the other with an independency from the left hemisphere ( we can see that when emotions deny reality). So how can we explain this independency from itself and from left hemisphere ? And how can we explain the dependency to the other right hemisphere? This is the existence of collective self as a chain over right hemispheres. The existence of collective self is through emotions. Where is an emotion there is a presence of collective self (here we don’t say that emotion is completely a process of collective self , emotion is of course exposed by using an object and has a dual way but the process of having direction to object is always caused by the energy using instinct of collective self.) All emotions need at least two people /objects. There is not a human who can feel an emotion without having an object ( we have to accept that even imaginary feelings have imaginary objects.) Shortly, emotions exist by the process of collective self as a result of partnership ( we also talk about negative emotions here because negative emotions of the partnership are also in serve of completing that partnership.)
Left brain hemispheres behave according to the manufacturing process of objects within itself. It adjusts itself according to the relations of the objects ( the rules of physical world , realities of object world and basic and practical scientific determinations.) It interacts with the other people’s left brain hemispheres. So the chain of the right brain hemispheres represents the basic of collective self and every single left brain hemisphere represent the basic of objective self. The are chains between objective selves too, even if they are looser than the chains between the right hemispheres. Because objective selves are still parts of collective selves even if they are changed and masked. The chain of objective selves is like an active library in which the information about objects are stored and the basic information of life is held. In this library the interaction between chains never drops under a limit and it is non-stop.
If we move along this topic by going back to the relationship between mother and child ; we see very avoidant children around , these are inhibited children by responding harshly to every externalization attempts of collective self or these are the children whom are taken away from the objects because there is a mediator (mother) between them and objects. In these children objective self is developed weakly because they can not interact with the objects necessarily also because their right brain hemisphere can not show itself enough , later in their life these children can not reveal an emotion however their left brain hemispheres, to compensate this situation, make an extraordinary effort. These people cannot feel but can describe the feeling, with a could expression (because they are inexperienced about gestures related to emotions they say that they are unhappy , we can say that they are blind (alexithymiac) to their own feelings.
Genetic researches reveal that the number of people before leaving Africa was too low to threaten the future of the kind. If we assume that we have reached today’ s number after ten thousands of generations from very few man and woman of may be one or two thousand or one or two hundred communities, we can say that even the population of seven billion is high but the genetic variability is not that rich. We can say that genetic variability is not too much as it is thought if we think about the past times that one man ( in primitive communities father and in later times tribe leader) was inseminating one woman.
Researches on the fossil records say that our ancestors has emerged on Africa two hundreds of thousands years ago. In that period of time climate conditions had started to become harder and earth had entered to the period of Sea Isotope stage VI ( Marin Isotope Stage VI) in other words a mini ice age had started and most parts of the continent of Africa became uninhabitable. An important part of the human population at that time was destroyed, and anyone who is alive today is composed of children of people who survived in a region of Africa where is relatively sheltered and nurturing. For that reason,people who have passed from the earth, and stil living for two hundreds thousands of years have very high share in the gene that indicates brotherhood with each other severely. (Remember our genetic differences does not exceed the rate of one percent even in the different phenotypes). Accordingly, people have a collective self that all of humanity shares, indicates a high degree of homogeneity, and casues a great partnership that people are not aware of. This collective self stems not only from the fact that ensure the genetic homogeneity, but also stems from the fact that develops an extraordinary culture of solidarity in the sheltered,narrow area of Africa. Emitted from a small field size, these areas were giant caves that presumably would allow people to live collectively. Especially the exploration of the PP13B caves in Pinnacle Point , in the east cost of Africa away from the tides, by Dr. Marea CW (2007) and P.Nielsen from Arizona Universtiy, and finding solid signs of 164 000 years old life by the excavations , highlighted the reality of the bottleneck of man in Africa in those years.It is understood in this way that very rich flora and tides which do not reach the cave has left marine products to facilitate feding and nesting due to the cold has increased being side by side in a constant contact (people now built crowded cities, apartments that are stacked on top of each other, intimate cafes and overcrowded concert halls).People have survived by acting with solidarity and by being nested. In this way it is understood why loneliness and being out of the community are freightening and, why these people who are out of society has transformed the issue into a life or death situation and show a behaviour , which disregard the human dignity, to re-enter into society. And the same reasons, is likely to cause rampant jealousy between partners. It is important to have a life outside the group to some extent in many organisms that live in couple however in people this could not happen presumably because of cold and feeding difficulties. Both being monogamous and sleeping, sitting in contact to different men and women… Actually, this may not be just the cause of paranoia between partners but also the cause of homosexuality.Development of groupings first around the fire, and then around the hard silkret sotnes (that are stil used in some villages of our country to warm up)should easily cause trends that are mentioned above. Today when we look at people, we can understand thta he spent a long period of extreme social circuit. Society’ s being the top of the issues for all psychiatric disorders at all times is built around these roots.
It is understood that people had lived in cave communes for a long time.Emergence of natural leaders within the commune and spontaneous obedience to these leaders without any difficulty are the structures of the commune, that is way people stil look for a leader to go after especially during disasters.This is the common ground of development of collective self.
Approximately one hundred and fifty thousand years ago few ,people who lived in hard conditions in Africa had passed a narrow strait , the problem at that time was food scarcity and lack of population. That narrow strait had been passed by acting with solidarity and by creativity.Today we are again in a narrow strait.Today our problems are again food scarcity especially in some regions, starvation, overpopulation and violence. People will pass through today’s problems by acting with solidarity and by creativity like they had done ten thousand years ago.These are the two points that man is most powerful in, especially the partnership hoss all kinds of power that rises from the total accumulation of dead and billions of people still living.People in every hard conditions has returned to this field and has had it’s energy from there.Today communal regression has started just like people going back and regressing to the collective self when they are trapped in daily life. Communities stubbornly start form far more behind and seem ambitious to provide partnership by pulling themselves to a far more behind point .A magical atmosphere has surrounded almost all communities, a surreal world of has surrounded children and isolated , fantastic environment has surrounded adolescents. The eye of the society is at the back because everyone know that they will exceed the current bottleneck with partnership and creativity and so the society calls everyone to the backmost to unite.
The scarcity in of biogenetic difference makes it easy to gather around the collective self, for people and to remain homogeneous, for the collective self. Because when genetic difference among people is less it is easier and faster to develop a common culture that belongs to the species. According to Jung, archetypes of the subconscious is actually a common biological structures that have emerged through selection. However, Jung did not tell what these structures exactly are. Biologists determine archetypes as "psychobiological response patterns " however some neuroscientists determine them as "deep homologous neural structures," Especially the second definition is important for the expression of the brain's deep,so meaning the older structures, and on the other hand for expression of these structures take place exactly in the same way in different people. In addition, in today’s world we can also say that perhaps endophenotypes are the biological structures that fully met what Jung has described as archetypes. Endophenotype, is the basic biological feature that a man owns and that is common with a group of other people.Such as those with BRh + blood group represent the common features and can recieve blood from eachother. There are certain warnings that urge these endophenotypes and afterward the archetypes to act in a specific direction. These are capable of acting as a sign (signal) to some extent for the person. For example the endophenotype ,that is seen mostly in Japan and that lacks the enzyme called aldehyde dehydrogenase which breaks up a substance rises from disintegration of alcohol, responds the smelling of alcohol by flushing an palpitation that leads to seizure. For these people, alcohol gives a warning signal and body immediately shows an automated response to this warning. As such, the human body is organized to provide automatic reactions to the different signs from different areas.Automatic response means naturally preorganised. In other words, the body is organised before encountering these signs by the ones that lived priorly and the person knows what to do. In addition, for not only automatic responses, but also for models of behaviours that are occured by decision making , people advance in one direction that is predetermined in spite of they think too much on which direction they should go. Let's say that one with the properties of the paranoid personality, avoides to take risk in a new condition even though logic indicates otherwise and a person with vibrant, active and hyperthymic personality chooses to take if this is not the pre organisation of the body and the mind of a man so what is it?.Not only human but also all living beings posses from the birth a behaviour repertoire that is extremely strict on acting in specific direction in certain conditions.
So we can say that , a baby does not born alone , it posseses an internal (and common) system that informs it about the world. The part of the system in it has the knowledge about the world before seeing the world because of the pieces (people) that has seen before and stil see. Baby is not an ‘’empty’’ being.
The information about the collective self exists in all embryos.It is in embryo so it should be in the cells that rise from that embryo.This information is continuingly transferred to baby from the mother during the embryo stage.(Mother creates appropirate changes on DNA by inserting the proteins that are synthesised in cell to cell nucleus with the help of environment through the umblical cord this change also occurs in the cells of the baby at the same time.) For example it is clearly seen that every newborn in all cultures has a structure that has a tendency to the language. And probably the newborns of the period of emergence of man had weaker predisposition to language than that is today.Because from that time the language has developed, diversified and the brain areas that represent it has grown, consequently language represanting parts of DNA has grown more than other parts and this led to the highest predisposition of babies to the language they own at the moment they are born. An infant of a family who speaks a langueage that is one of the Indo-European language family, also shows susceptibility to different origined languages.This situation shows that each person has the tendency to transfer property of the language and also has traces of different languages.In collective self tendencies that are developed by our and different other families that are far from us, float independent from us and when it comes empierce us again independent from us. Already otherwise would have been unthinkable. Assuming that every baby was born in a ‘tabula rasa’ situation and all the information was thought to it by life means to accept that life is an insufficient mechanism in extraordinary sizes. Missing of the information ,that is produced during life by billions of people, and recording all those lives that passed away as nothing is not a situation that life can fit in if it has an intelligence.(we have to assume it has even though it seems it hasn’t in many conditions, a superior view enough above to put everything in right place can complete that intelligence in it is own). Life has benefited from all the past lives as producers of information. It has never lost the information it has recorded the information first in to memory then into DNA then into tales, stones, tablets, papers, libraries, discs. The widest and the most exceptional areas of organisation of the brain of human has been always left to the memory. So the recording of the information that is produced has always been important since the first moments of life and has never been let to lost away. Today, as you know, computers are now used as almost an infinite information storage devices. In every period of history people first tried to solve the recording system. Employees always have been a special asset in this area, both themselves and their surroundings have dedicated a sanctity to the work that is done. Through out the history the cities that have rich libraries have always seen as important cities, also today the most sophisticated countries are known investors on computers and softwares. Every population use their strong sides to compensate their weak sides. For example China is about to complete it’s development by using it’s population to gain intensive technologies. If we accept life as a system that has a lot of energy , knowing is it’s weakness and it compensates this weakness by using energy Giving birth to billions of living thing, unleashing them to earth, feeding, raising and producing them ,in an energetic way, is a great work. Every living thing has a remarkable flow of information that is removed from their lives and then firstly transferred to memory and then transferred to DNA. This information is kept in the circulation to be used by the next generations. In recent years genetic experts state that developmental lines of the organisms walk entirely through mechanisms of epigenetics(that is produced by the interaction between gene and environment).Here we talk about the genes that work under the influence of the information that comes from the environment and that takes the environmental information in .If life had such a luxury only as maintaining what is existing and not interesting in development and in gathering information there would be no need to record the environmental information into the DNA. But we know that environmental information is transferred into the DNA by some intracellular mechanisms primarily by c-fos proteins. What is interesting here is that the new records are side by side with the old ones and while the practice of daily life people use old and new records time to time and for example people are afraid of mouse even though they have never seen a mouse. Similar situations can be seen frequently in dreams.
The Polarization of Collective Self: Collective self is cult that shows collectivity of energy and information that are distributed to people. This structure gives a piece of itself that posseses almost all of it’s features, to every human being even in the fetal stage. This piece produce human being in forty weeks by using it’s energy and knowledge at a maximum level and by repeating it’s philogenetic history when the baby is in it’s mother’s womb yet. By birth collective self faces the external world and looses it’s fluidy and takes a solid structure. The collective self that comes from generations and takes contributions from each generation, polarize by getting a solid structure while experiencing the outer world as a plaster that faces the air gains the objective self in a way of ego (self) psychology defines itself. Object self that occurs as a result of polarization, is actually the act of possessing of collective self by the environment. Environment allows collective self to establish connection with itself by creating representations on the pole that is stretched towards it and does this over these representations. Based on this foundation we can say that the basics of object self are the inside representations of the outer world. That is why object self is defined as the piece of collective self that is left and possessed by the environment. From this point of view if we consider collective self as a burden of energy we also have to object self as a burden of energy. There is a need for information in the outer world that is why if the collective self has put itself into a baby it has to be changed into burden of information. In this case object self should be a high consciousness state that is full of representations of the outer world.
The richest areas of collective self are the representations of that belong to the actions that is made commonly by different people. For example, language, a common activity of all people on earth so the most powerful representations of the collective self are about language and therefore the power of transition of language representations to baby is high. Chomsky, in his study called, "Theory of Syntax Views" says that when the baby is born it is aopted to the basic grammatical structureby the mechanisms that are located deep in the brain mechanisms so the texture about this structre shows a universal character and babies add their own gramer structure on to this texture. That is why we can say that if there was a universal language every baby was born with the ability to speak this language. Therefore language as a foundation is a stable structre that does not change according to people and societies. After being embroidered in to the collective self, writing may take this form and babies may have not to wait the age of 6 or 7 to learn how to write.
Not only about language ,babies also have pre-representations about human faces at the time they are born. For example babies do not look at chin up forehead down, upside down faces but they look for a long time to the images that are in a straight position , only nose, mouth and eyes are replaced. It is understood here that the general framework of the face (forehead, above, the jaw below),is the basic structure, filling inside of this frame by this or that way (eye, nose and mouth changing form and place) is a secondary condition. From here we can say that informations that are transferred to people by collective self are the informations that draw the frame about life, give essentials and have a stable characteristic. If transfers of the collective self did not exist and if we had to learn again and again how many legs, eyes and ears every living being that we saw has, for a life as as fast as today, not a seventy years of life also thousand years life of a olive tree would not be enough. So it is always the collective self that lets human to exist and gives the first form to human in life. A person who has collective self but who has learned nothing in this world continues to it’s life in a bling and lame way eventhough it’s loss is great.As Jung has pointed especially all of our neurotic disorders are casued because we can not meet life with the collective self sufficiently. A collective self that has entered in to human enough but that has not meet object in a sufficient way, does not reach a devestating point even it causes a mental disorder.From this point of view it is doubtful that there is a severe destruction in impulse control disorder patients whom are mainly dominated by collective self.However it is not difficult to predict that affective disorders such as depression in which outer world’s object pressure is intensive, causes disturbances with dramatic losses as disabilities.
Today self expression human and feeding of impulses are totally under environmental pressure.Environment has changed human into a pet with rewards and punishments.People have learned to domesticate itself while domesticating animals and the result is and will be diseases.
Relegation of Collective Self Into Object(ive) Self: Freud has mentioned about a libido of ego and a libido of object. According to him the libido of the ego deplaces to the libido of the object like a foot of an amoeba and marks the object by libido (by leaving a part of libido inside the object.) and forces ego to achieve the collectivity again by taking it’s part ,that is inside object, back. It is just like a man who thinks he should own the girl because of spending months or years by chasing her. The important thing here is that after a million years of tradition, collective self tries to interact with objects by swallowing them. When this swallowing process passes a limit on that externalization point (amoeba foot as Freud has mentioned) of the collective self, the balance between the collective self and the outer world changes in favor of the outer world (object.) Even the collective self with it’s energy and instincts seems to be around , the rationality, logic and object representations of the outer world that has an energy process within itself becomes so dense that the material of collective self cannot be transported to that edge and object self that uses the rules of the outer world appears. The main reason of collective self turning into objective self is trapping of collective self while it is moving through it’s strong living instinct into the situation where objects present themselves to be swallowed. The instinct that makes it be, in the first place, now turns into the instinct that changes it. Early living beings have produced some instincts by surrounding, changing and swallowing the foods and next generations of these living beings cannot carry other living directives beside these instincts. As species develop and generations pass, swallowing instinct changes in favor of the outer world and becomes the key of having the object self. Very powerful things on earth has to be disintegrated or changed at the point that they cannot fit to the earth anymore. Because of that while the instinct of living ,at a point, moving through addiction of object, the collective self differentiates into objective self.
On the other hand the changing of collective self into object self is not a random process, there are patterns of swallowing objects that are passed through generations. These patterns speed up the process of swallowing of objects and produce object self. The orbit of this transferring process is mother. Mother transfers the attitudes and tendencies that she likes and takes in from her father unconsciously , to her son. Because of this, a person can make choices easier and finds a correct direction and moves fast through that direction by using family traditions. The collective self that is carried inside the patterns of traditional behaviors give a person the scheme of interacting with the objects fast and correct.
The Pressure Of the Collective Self: The pressure of collective self over the objects becomes less when the producing process of collective self is too long. Because it does not need the information from the objects as more as it did, collective self has already reached the information that is needed. On this superior level most of the objective self looses it’s importance but now we are very far away from that level. There are similarities between the formation of the planets and establishing of the self. As planets form when the clouds of dust that are swimming in the emptiness, come together and squeeze , objective self occur when representations that are taken from countless numbers of objects that are interacted with, come together and make an organization. As planets , objective self has no energy, it transfers all it’s energy to the collective self. It is normal that the edges that use more energy have more object representations than the less energy using edges. Again because of the same reason, it is possible that these edges have more space in life that others and have an apparent or secret power over others. Hegel has associated the asymmetry between the subjects, with the lack of desire that is carried within themselves. If we accept desire as it is an indirect representation of instincts that we brought from collective self, the things that we spoke here take us to the same point that Hegel has mentioned.
In the societies that have big differences between energy using amount of edges the grouping is common on every levels including emotions of fear and refuge. Because it can be hard for some edges to stay in life as the other edges can have power of living that is enough for several people. In such a situation it is harder for an independent object self to be established and processed. Because an independent (autonomic) structure can be possible with other’s symbolic disturbances as Winnicott has mentioned (Winnicott, 1971.) A person can feel the emotions of independency and fearlessness when it has relatively more energy than the others to improve a symbolic disturbance in it’s own head.
Common Use of the Bodies: The most disturbing thing is the self to use it’s own or another body.The healthy thing is each of the object selves ,which are derived from collective self, to use each of the bodies that are appropriate for themselves ( not by the meaning of physical abuse but by the meaning of making rush to common work).In large families it is possible for every mind to make everybody rush into work. As grandfather orders work to his grandchild, grandchild may request the grandfather to play game. As one of the brothers wants to work for him, the mother can do everyone's job. Extension your body to someone else for a while is a condition frequently applied in the everyday life of the village where methods like collaboration etc. frequently used. In today's nuclear families unconditional service of body to someone else is almost negligible.
If the body is not used by someone else to dicipline it by it’s ownself is a hard work.If you pay attention you can see that people originated from large families or villages easily show behaviours as strucking their body to work.If a common work has to be done they do it first an deven a glass of water has to be brought they bring it first. Bodies of these people have been used by others for manytimes and in each of them body fetishism has been eliminated. As each body gain discipline by fulfilling the command of other’s they progress on subjection to it’s own self.All the works about the body become easy when they are done collectively.Using body in team sports, dance teams, working groups means to complete the job without knowing how the time passes This is probably to manage their body without forcing brain physiology by having coordination with other fore bodies.
The use of body alone for example labor alone or individual sports is strenuous rather than tedious.Because in them as there is no easy managing of body by the self there is also no music that references to the collective self.
The most unfortunate people in this world can be said to be narcissistics. Because their usage of body in a collective way has always been close to zero through the development of the human species. Therefore as they are inexperienced on using their body in a collective way they also show weakness on spatial thinking capacity as finding a place on map. We can anticipate that ego-centric thinking has cut the way of other-centric thinking and led the regression of absolute thinking eventually narrow the ego-centric thinking. The most opposite way of existence to collective self based existence is narcissist personality structure.
However, we are as human beings, from infancy accustomed to the use of a body in a collective way. All babies use their mother’s body for years in a closed system. Over the years, mother and baby relationship, barely turns into the binary (duality) from "the union (unity)" in a difficult way. Person wants to return to the unity whenever it finds an opportunity.
Returning to the unity is actually the beginning of the final goal of returning back to collective self. If we compare the form of the existence of human with a tree we can accept the body as collective self. If we assume each subsequent branching as object self the two thin branches in the end represents duality the single branch immediately behind them represents unity. The end point of a situation, when each of the two returns back to be single again, is the collective self. So the desire of each adult or child's d to return to their mother’s womb when they suffer a frustration in fact is a different way of showing the the desire to go back to the collective self. We as living probably only see the branches but we need tobe aware of there is a body (collective self) beneath that holds everything together.
If we think this way we feel that the people who gives the impression of acting independently of each other actually act in resonance and coordination with each other in the face of life events and they are connected to a common root. Interestingly those who behave improperly to the rhythm that is given by the collective self are vulnerable structures to the attacks and breakings just like a branch which has grown up in the opposite direction. Thus for human beings, the optimal behaviour model that lives,in the maximum standart with the lowest energy is the style of adapting to the rhythm that is given by collective self. In this manner, in the social waves, the ability to have the flexibility to swim in the common rhythm is gained but also securing a certain personal space independently is possible by carrying negative feelings at the same time. In this case, practically , person floats in the positive direction through emotion and socialization as love directed, on the other hand to maintain independence it puts hate or inhospitality along with love.
On the other hand as the person’s capacity to create meaning increases, the freshness and the capacity to act independently of the object self also increases, the chance to survive without sticking to others, increases. A fresh object self creates it’s own classification by going out of the general object self classification of the collective self. The specificity degree of this classification increases independency capacity of the self. However the separation of the child from the previous branches ( family, parents) prematurely without making the basic classifications, in contrast to imagination, makes it hard for the child to make object classifications specific to itself. For a person who has not learned how to make classification of object representations , the establishment of a solid self which rises above classifications that are undone or done in a lame or blind way, is blocked and also the behavior that is independent of objects, people and personal history is stumbled. Because a healthy object self means a well classified object representation in the last case. For a person who has not adequate and regular representations in it’s mind, neediness to objects is inevitable. Every living beings want to achieve a state of stability (homeostasis). The optimal state of stability for the object self has to be correct and detailed classification of object representations without leaving the instincts/drives of the collective self unanswered and finding inner power to act through this classification.
Continuity of the Self: It is not the case for the baby to ensure continuity in it’s self on it’s own.The continual existence of the mother near the baby with unchanged feelings ensures the continuity of the self. Initially the seamless association between mother and the baby puts the image of continuity into the baby’s head. All babies start to life with a preliminary assumption that all objects has to be continuous. We can see this clearly in Piaget’s researches. From this point, the necessity of the representations that are established subsequently in human mind to be continuous is a preliminary assumption for our mind. The most inadmissible thing for us is death. Because we have a misunderstanding that the life that we have has a continuity. But this misunderstanding works for the self issue. The self does not change even our consciousness , conditions and things what we have change. This constant and continuous self, the idea of stability that we have, creates a sense of eternity about ourselves and sublimity related to it.
The sense of stability is reinforced in the presence of constant affirmation from the mother to the baby. The stability of the self is not according to the world but to the mother. Therefore this situation is unreal, and the basic cause of all neurotic structures. That’s why the state of ‘self disintegration and the end of the stability of the self’ which is defined as madness, self-losing, losing control, fear of extinction by the patients, is the most anxiety causing situation in all psychiatric disorders. as the self-constancy is the first established cognitive structures, a threat to it, naturally pushes people into a serious disorder.
Another factor in providing stability of self is the sleep. We get up from the bed with the same self structure even though during sleep consciousness is discontinued, interrupted and we awake with a conscious that is different from yesterday. This situation is important to reflect the unchanging state of the self despite the cessation and change of the consciousness.
Self as a Point of Reference: How the establishment of the internal representations of objects leads people to the state of consciousness? When representations which come automatically from the environment through sensory organs, pass a certain number it becomes a necessity to establish a relationship among them and to make a classification for all. As a natural mind which builds a relationship between the objects of the outer world and brings them in to line with each other , building a bond between the inner representations like the outer one is a necessity too. When it is done a higher state of consciousness begins to emerge in the person. A person who establishes relations that are simple first but then complex and hierarchical earns a higher state of consciousness. If there is a natural mind that establishes relationships outside there is a state of consciousness inside to meet it. The process of establishing relationships between object representations has to be done according to a reference point. If such a reference point, that is relatively stable does not exist the correct positioning of representations that changes depending on the time and space, can’t be made. We call this reference point as self in practice. Object self ,inat one point, is the form and place of meeting of the outer world by the collective self in a stable way, At some point we can say that this is the form of the collective self when it meets the outer world. A change at this point means a change in the form. In a didactic way the records of the form of the meeting of the outer world and collective self and the relations between them, that is kept in time is called the object self.Collective self establishes relations with the outer world through the bodies in which it can define itself. In this case object self is relative and variable structure depends on the polarization amount and form of the collective self at a point and the form of the outer world at that point. This is the same as a crater (object self) that is formed by an impact of a meteorite (outer world) on the surface of a planet (collective self). The depth and shape of the crater depends on the size ( the number of the objects that are met) , the strength (tough external conditions), the impact ange (the duration and intensity of the relationships) of the meteorite and also it depends on the resistance of the planet ( genetic and environmental conditions). Object self is established as the average of all of these and related conditions. As every field of the planet has different types of crater , collective self as a mass has different end points. The nature of each of these end points effect the collective self in a way. Very rarely such a polarization occurs that the orbit changing process when a huge meteorite hit a planet and makes a deep crater, happens in the collective self, prophets,not as much as prophets but also scientists and warriors like Genghis Khan who trailed billions of people through out the millenia, are those who changed the direction of the collective self on their own. Also as a huge crater that is formed by an impact of a meteorite to the earth that broke off a bit and formed the Moon , there will be extraordinary end points that evolutionally breaks off it’s species from the previous members and springs them up. The first person who uses a tool for the first time and creates the primitve language with symbols is probably such a person.
Relative Stability of the Self: Every encounter of the collective self with the outside world are naturally different meetings.For that reason objects selves that are established as a result of these meetings, has to be different at each end point ( as a difference between each person) and also has to differentiate day by day at each end point (as daily changes of a person). The initial change on each end point gains a stability with a gradually decreasing swing, in time and relative stability of a self is achieved.The impression of this relative stability as an absolute stability (the stability of the self) is beacuse of basically it ‘s change ignoring feature. Collective self degrades and eventer decreases as changing itself in the direction of object self as a result of every encounter with the outer world. After a while this degradation reaches a peak point and collective self, in the last instance, realizes that minor changes ,after a point, are not meaninful for itself and the sum of the changes is an invariance. May be it would be appropriate to say that as mathematical expression; over time (in adulthood, different then childhood) the benefit of getting a new self according to every environmental changes becomes less than it’s harm for a person because in time the flexibility of the body to adapt to the changes becomes over and adaptation costs more to organism day by day. In this case, environmental changes can’t force changes in the self, at this point object self is permanently established and a passive defence is settled instead of responding to the infringements of the objects with adaptation and resistance.
On the other hand another factor that provides the stability of the self that is formed after a point, is prediction, of the changes of the outer world and a person’s making itself insensitive to changes by reaching the experience of solving the meaning of them. Knowing can cause letting it be without changing because knowing is controlling almost in a magical way.( the relative unresponsiveness of a wise person to the events being developed and will be developed is because of that person’s knowing the first event gives the self trust of having the ability to know the second and third event as knowing the third event gives the self trust of having the ability to know the thirteenth thirty third events that’s why that person will always have an opportunity to take action at any time.). Although at this point the self is seen as the sum of the outer world representations and the user of them, it is useful to state the special form of internal relationship that exists in these representations as the cornerstone of the self. The sum of the identifications which are established with small but special group of these object representations is the fundamental point here. Identification with the parental representations especially projective identification forms the basis of structuring of the object self. This is, in general view, a situation about the extent of internalization of the most powerful object representations. Naturally, it is impossible for the baby to cope with the objects initially. At this point it is expected from the baby to identify it’s self with the representations of it’s parents that copes with the objects successfully and helps the baby to cope. Instead of establishing it’s own self representation, baby uses the representations of it’s parents ,in it’s mind, as it’s own self representation. Later as the representations of other men and women begin to enter the mind, the child realizes that in some aspects they are more competent than parents. In this case the child creates an eclectic representation by putting outstanding features of others onto the parent’s representations and this time identifies (projective identification) itself with that representation and rules itself with it. At a later stage as the child realizes, this eclectic representation can not rule it’s relations with the objects, the child starts to have relations with the objects independently (autonomy period). The structure that is initially with object representation on one side of the relationship and parent’s representations on the other side , has to be on the opposite side against the object in the relationship and such a structure has to be a different representation that is non-parental but like them. This representation is the ‘self’ representation. ‘Self’ is the representation of the unrepresented, is a representation that is established to cover the empty field that is left from the parents and does not have a compensation as an object, it is a representation that is established mandatorily the nonexistent one. Because till that time a representation (belongs to parents) was ruling the person, when it is eliminated because of insufficiency it becomes mandatory for an organism that is ruled by an representation till that time, to find a representation immediately and this is the ‘self’ as the compensator of the non-existing one. This is the same as Freud has mentioned in ‘Totem and Taboo’ that after the leader of the tribe dies the remaining cannot rule themselves and put a totem in the place of the leader. ‘I’ is the totem of us. As the mind that is established initially by the mother and then by the social group, determines a concept firstly as ‘me’ but not ‘we’, although the answer has been given by the settlement above, the remaining part of the answer consists of the necessity to describe the centre, that feels the feeling of stability. It means that, let’s take A, B, C, objects that are constantly on the move in each other ;object A will think that object B and C change their positions relative to each other but the position A does not change relative to B and C.[ Because it does not see a change in the position of A unless it replaces B and C and see itself from the outside ( here we don’ talk about an adult with no ability of empathy , the object A we talk about is a baby)]. Same thing will be thought by B and C for themselves. Therefore every object is in the misunderstanding that they are constant, stable and continuous. Even though each person’s mind is created by a group in a cooperation and belongs to the partnership as it is on a body, gives the incorrect illusion of belonging to a constant, continuous and stable single centre (‘self’). In fact the the absolute self perception of the mind should be as the ‘us’ perception but comparative perception creates an illusion and establishes ‘me’ perception. Therefore ‘me’ is the result of relativity , not the result of the truth. Here with a metaphoric association we have to talk about that we usually see egocentrics who move around ‘me’s’ all the time like to have comparative (relative) talks. Because for narcissists earth is relatively meaningful for themselves.
Here it has to be mentioned that identification can also be determined as the self-shaping tool of the collective self. The most important mechanism of learning for human is imitation. If the collective self imitates the relationships of a person who had previously externalized, with the outer world , externalizes itself easily. Identification is a mould actually filling in an existing mould.
If the bonds of the collective with the outer world are not established sufficiently, identifications remain weak, the internal integration of the outer world by the collective self and acceptance of the outer world by the collective self cannot reach a necessary depth and eventually, the weakly established object self faces to the felling of not getting help against the objects. The object self that understands it cannot get necessary help from the outer world promotes self-help by exaggerating it’s own power and fills the gap that is created by the outer world (Kohut). This type of externalization of the collective self is called grandiose self. In the people with this kind of self structure we see that in daily life they always rely on themselves put themselves forward, give all examples about themselves deny all other people even all other objects in this world. On the other hand in a situation that the power of the collective self is relatively weak , the outer world’s representations invade the self as wiping the common basics (loss of the object of one of those representations for example a death of second degree relative) person suddenly looses power to live ( person is in the lightness of fluctuating by every movement of the representation that occupies more than enough).This type of structure is called depressive personality pattern in psychiatric practice , here let’s call this ‘the self under invasion of the object’. According to two extraordinary examples above in which the relationship between collective self and outer world has disrupted, we don’t need to mention that it is important to keep the balance between these two to survive and to keep the channels in between open. We can call the ability of these two sides to provide their effectiveness on the person by keeping bonds between outer world and collective self open and the homeostasis established by this way , as psychological homeostasis. The efforts of the object self to compensate after the homeostasis is disrupted leads to psychiatric disorders of some degree. For example the state of depression caused by the disruption of homeostasis on the collective self side, is nothing more than the attempt of the objective self to reach a lower balance level by breaking down the bonds with the outer world to make a decrease in the opposite side ( to get rid of objects).The visible face of the psychiatric disorders is the completion of absurd solutions of the object self to correct the impaired the psychological homeostasis. Freud has thought the ego as a person and if we imagine object self as a person we observe that when a person is under circumstances that the person is inadequate, tries to compensate with extra work. For example when a child survived from the danger of falling into the well the father closes all the wells and controls them day and night again and again is a solution even though it is absurd and this is called obsessive compulsive neurosis.
Determination of The Location in The Space Through The Systems of Body-sensation and Deep-sensation : Human’s spatial position is determined by the pressure of the earth from feet (PEF) and the overflowing state of the centre of the gravity of the body (CGB) on the touch of our feet to the ground. When we bend much forward during walking the perpendicular line to the ground from CGB falls outside of the frontline of the feet- ground contact field person bends backwards to push CGB back. If CGB slides back this time bends forward to pull CGB front and keep the balance during walking. On the other hand if PEF exceeds the front line of the feet , it means body is bent forward, this time body is pulled back as the back muscles of the leg contracts and knees bend , if the PEF exceeds backline of the feet body bends backwards this time the front muscles of the leg contracts and .the bending of the knees and the back-slide of the body are prevented. Starting from these examples we can say that our spatial position is determined by our answers through the mechanisms we established against the power of gravity on our bodies. There is also a purpose too in this answer. If we didn’t have a purpose of standing up we could face the force of the gravity onto our bodies by lying down. So we can say that our position on earth is determined by the completion of our purposes and the forces applied to us. We call it a completion because we withdraw from our purposes when we don’ t have enough power to face the forces of the earth ( illness state), when we are faced to force we push our centre of gravity near to the ground and increase the surface contact (by sitting and lying down) so we can face the tough forces of the outer world by spending less power . The body-sense (somatosensorial) and deep-sense (proprioceptive) mechanisms are the ones that set all of these; determination of the pressure onto our feet and the point which our gravity centre is shifted to and then integration all of them at a higher centre. These mechanisms desire our body to be symmetric and near to the ground to calculate the effect of the force of the earth which is applied to our body and simplify the respond. Because only under these circumstances they can position the body with smaller neuron circuits and faster (remember short and particularly short legged soccer players demonstrate greater mastery on repeated movements consecutively.)
Let’s say ,for a moment, earth has put away the force that it applied to us ( we feel this best when we are on a landing plane and moving down fast in an elevator.) We have difficulty on positioning on the earth when our eyes are closed in such a situation, on the other hand weaknesses in the body also makes it hard to determine a position. For example when a person seated in the dark rotary chair is rotated very slowly finds itself stays constant, but on. the other hand when rotated very rapidly, it supposes it turns in the opposite direction This situation is related to insufficiency in the structure of the semicircular channels in the inner ear. On the other hand if a mechanical vibration is applied to the biceps of a blind person, person feels it’s forearm bends forward and feels it’s waist thicker , as an illusion, whereas if vibration is applied to the back muscles of the biceps, in this situation person feels it’s waist thinner. Here we understand that brain gets information from every muscle and every joint to detect the position and position us correctly just according to this.
As we determine our position in the space by the forces that are applied to our body and muscles that responds them , we position our self by the forces that objects apply to us, the effects of them on the inner world our ours and the responds of ours against them: I am a person who cannot say no (preferring to let living objects take over me rather than spending the energy to resist them), who does not like to work ( preferring to gain satisfaction from objects rather than to spend the energry to struggle with them), who likes to be cunning (using the weaknesses of objects to reach satisfaction without using any energy), who conceals himself (hiding my own weaknesses against the objects and not letting them know that I can see their weaknesses), who is alert at all times (afraid to be caught off-guard and lose position against objects), who is relatively calm ( predicting that a loss against one object would mean a gain against another one, or even if not, a loss against one object would merely mean nothing within a whole lifetime), who is respectful to people (committing from the beginning not to use slyness against the weaknesses of living objects, and also taking an indirect commitment that there won’t be any slyness against myself for my own weaknesses).
Object Self as a Form of Positioning in the Universe: Let us think this way: If we had lost the deep sensory fibers that inform us of the condition our body is in, sensory nerves that coordinate our concrete relations with other objects such as pain, ache, pleasure; In other words, if we could not get any news from the body, could we establish the “Object Self” at an early stage? Observations done on some neurologic patients show that in these situations, boundaries on personality began to get lost. These senses are the ones that determine the person’s position in the universe. The position of a living being against the place he is at is obtained by two sub-groups of information: The sense/information he receives from objects and information he recieves from himself related to his own reactions to objects. If we did an animation with a solid example; let us think that we are walking uphill barefoot on a snowy slope with a 10% incline. Sole of our feet ensures that we feel the snow on the ground through the sensors that detect the cold, and that we feel we are walking uphill through the pressure sensors by sensing the high pressure being enforced to the tip of our toes. Now, let us list the responses our body gives to these senses coming from the sole of our feet: Our body carries the blood to the surface by expanding the surface veins and warms up the area that is cold, at the same time it creates shivering to produce extra heat. Heartbeat and breathing rate will increase. Various nerve paths, especially the deep sensory fibers, transmit to the related centers of the brain the body’s reaction to the slope and cold to the related centers of the brain. These centers evaluate these reactions and position themselves: A person who gets effected by the cold fast and who cannot withstand physical strains such as walking uphill. The person, after making this evaluation abouth himself, will head for areas with physical conditions that does not strain him. For example he will choose to work in an office environment, praise the virtues of working in an office, will mercilessly fight against situations and people who force him into straining physical conditions. Unethical methods will also be involved in this fight. This structure will penetrate into his self and the person’s self respect against this self will fail. In this situation, in order to balance his self respect with others, he will then struggle to lower their esteem, will start bad-mouthing everyone, cannot tolerate others’ successes. (Here, in order to give a general idea on construction of self, the explained situation is simplified and exagerated). Consequently, the self is to be positioned against itself rather than other objects. For example; just like how we position ourselves physically when we say “I am in Ankara”, we give a self positioning to ourselves when we say “ I love myself as much as other people”.
An important point worth mentioning is, people who have no strength to determine their physical situation in optimum accuracy are not able to determine their self positioning with minimum accuracy either. Because, self is a relative state determined physically against an object and relatively against itself.
If the sensory organs that are sensing the object, hipocampus that is recording it and brain parts like the shell that are evaluating it are in good condition, respresentations of the surroundings in the brain, integration of those representations with the person’s observations of himself is the first requirement for establishing object self. The second requirement is establishing a relationship between the records taken from the environment and collective self. So, establishing of the object self, as a structure that goes back to the past, that bonds the present with the past, that enhances the past by adding it to the present, that transfers the present to the past, will be obtained.
Here, we can make one speculation that will change the argument a bit: The environment, in pursuit of establishing it’s own perfect representatives, has used humans, creating good representatives in each member of humanity, has struggled to transfer the information belonging to itself to accross the human kind. When we say development level of humanity, what should come to mind is the level that surfaces up when we gather the object characteristics represented in other individuals and fit into the brain of one person.
Each individual develops the representations within himself and transfers them to the next generation. As if an artist draws and leaves sketches of the scenery he sees around him one after another, and even though he tries to contribute to a perfect painting with billions of sketches; the painting never reaches its final stage. Because the eternity of the object is beyond the eternity of the individual! Collective self, in the areas it does sufficient amount of externalization, by posessing the representation of the surroundings fully, will begIn to make its original inesential and will begin to live itself. (The individuals who, after a certain level of success, move on to a fantastic life that directly feeds instincts, suitable for the expectations of the collective self). For the collective self, the surroundings is a structure that is a problem, threatening the being and castrating the narcist pleasure that can be taken out of it. In every individual there is a delusion of seeing one’s self as the center of the universe. As much as the fools, idiots, psycopaths, individuals whose insuffiency are obvious, the individuals who have definite sufficiency are also inclined to percieve themselves important. Even though they have lived through numerous examples to prove otherwise, no one ceases to see himself important; the minute he percieves himself unimportant he will get ill. No one can fill their lives percieving himself as unimportant
Body Image and Self: We had previously mentioned that the information involving self representation comes from two sources. One of them is the proprioseptive sensory system that transfers information on the position of the body in the universe. The other is the perception system bringing information from the outside world.
Of the two systems, the first one determines the individual’s position in space, the second one determines his position among the objects. Therefore, the self is a calculation that appears as a result of processes that determines the individual’s own position. This is just like a captain in a ship who detects the depth through sonar waves, the distance to the shore and other ships through the radar and percieves the relative position that show up as a result on a coordinate platform. In otherwords, there is a proportionate value showing the position of the ship (the result that comes out from sonar and radar calculations), and a superior center (the captain) who evaluates and makes this value meaningful according to conditions (Storm, the fuel and load in the ship, staff on board, the sturdiness and speed of the ship and his own capabilities).
Relative Objective Self : When we implement the above mentioned metaphore to an individual, notion of relative objective self surfaces. Self perception of the objective self against the other objects in different distances and connections are different. For instance; in the above example, while the captain percieves himself as “I” against the ship he commands, he percieves his ship and all that are in it as expanded “I”, “we”, against the other ships. Furthermore, he percieves humanity against other living things as an even more expanded “I”, or “we as humanity”. As a matter of fact, the notion of “we” does not explain a community who only has superficial connections among themselves, in a deeper meaning it signifies a fluid plasmatic atmosphere that allows my own “I” to be expanded and other “I”s to expand toward me. Wherever “We” is, the solid structures of the subjects will dissolve, elasticity and integration toward eachother will increase, with the facilitative effect of belonging to collective self, a large subject with multiple feet, weak internally bonded plasmatic structure will emerge. The more this new subject grows, its internal bonds will weaken in the same proportion.
If we continue with the above example, let us assume the captain had a stroke and cannot feel his arms and legs. In this situation the self area will shrink even more, where before, the arms and legs that were considered within the self (part of the subject), will separate from the subject and each will become an object by itself. Interestingly, in schizophrenics, it is thought that there is a self disintegration, but in the end, no matter how much the self disentegrates there is a resistant small seed that protects itself by enclosing itself into a small area. Under these circumstances, the relative objective self in schizophrenics loses its last shell, shrinks all the way to its seed even back from the form carrying the initial object relations. The information we gathered from a schizoprenia clinic show that, by losing the multiple layered structure of self, the individual becomes foreign even to his own body, the patients do not hesitate to burn their fingers with cigarettes, perceive their own hands, arms, legs as objects and destruct them without feeling any pain. Even the body has gone outside of the self, there is only the resistand seed of the self is left. The patient cannot retrogress from this state, because the resistant seed of the self is not a structure brought by the patient from his relations with other objects, on the contrary, philogenetically it is the esence all the living creatures and their fellow species bring from their previous lives. Therefore, the individual cannot spend it by assuming it is his own possession; it is a structure belonging to the collective self.
The self can be compared not only as capacity but also taking into account as intensity. If the individual’s life is spent within everchanging objects, unpredictable object relations, in this case we expect the object representations not being able to be formed in a firm state (solid and binding) within the individual’s mind. In this situation the intensity of the self will be excessive (self indulgent) (diluting of the collective self was not possible), its appearance will be homogenous (since the objects could not create stable representations all the represantations will be more or less like eachother (the individuals who traveled many places but did not settle in any of them, took up many jobs but could not be permanent in any of them, loved many women but never spend his life with one love), its layers will be ambigious. In this kind of a structure, the structure that distinctly dominates will unavoidably be the collective self, it’s primitive (narcistic, compulsive) structure will permeate in every relation.
On the contrary to this, in the less intense (diluted by objects) selfs that have stable object relations, the boundaries of layers will be apparent, appearance will be heterogenious, the center bonds of layers weak even though the outer circles are more apparent, but at least the inner bonds between the circles compared to outer circles stronger (since there is either no circle formation yet or existing in a weak form it is not possible to say there are strong bonds between the circles in this area. This is why these selves, during the period when they go through intense objcet relations, can easily peel off their outer layer and move their own centers to the layers they virtually peeled. ( We observe that in the long term these individuals become a total object-lover and lose the substance called “myself”. There are weak indications that individuals whose everything is sea lose this substance less than the individuals whose everything is gold.) The transfer of the self center virtually to outer layers will be possible by adapting the center to the outer layers. It can be observed that this kind of object-lovers gain compulsive forms like the collective self in the center during their relations with objects in question. For example, this type of indvidual may suddenly burst and yell at a child who throw trash into to the sea. (Here I feel it is necessary for me to point out against any misunderstanding that I feel these individuals are fulfilling a mission without expecting anything in return, for preserving the nature’s creatures in need of protection and the joint heritage of humanity and they are most probably the most beneficial subjects of humanity. Because the most beneficials and the most dangerous, at most times (not all the time) are situated respectively at the extremes of the object side and the center side.
It is seen that the the inner layering sketches (since they are not whole layers we prefer to call them layering sketches, because only the sketches that meet the object will become layers), because of weaknesses in externalization, are bonded with firm bonds to the center, therefore the self becomes resistant as it goes down deeper. Because there sits a dense representatation of life of thousands of years; the outer layers, on the other hand, posses a history changing from maximum of few years or few decades.
In reality, the outer layers and to a degree the inner layers (for the sake of convenience during writing the layering sketches are also called layers) emanate by metamorphose from the collective self through the relations the collective self establishes. The collective self, through the relations it establishes with objects, will start to loosen up starting from the outer layers. Each object, with the looseness it created in the outermost layer, causes itself and other objects that are similar to it to ooze towards the inner layers. The first object relations, with the pushing of the new objects that came from the outside, and mostly with the pulling of the central circle, move towards the center. The intensity of the center (the intensity of the collective self (the collective self intensity that transfers by heredity, is in inverse ratio to the object relations of the individual in question against the object relations the generations before him had established during their lifespan)) determines how much distance the object representatives will move forward inside. The shortness of the moving distances of the objects from the outside towards inside (in other words, settling of the represantatives belonging to objects first relations were made with, far from the center to some degree) will complicate externalization of the collective self, will cause an otistic life that goes to the world of objects alianation to be built.
This new definition of introversion means, contrary to present knowledge despite the knowledge until today, accepting that some personality disorders (being anti-social, narcistic) are more introverted; and also accepting that the others ( dependent, abstenant) again despite the contemporary knowledge, are more extroverted (Ceylan 2010). (This interpretation is based on this foundation: Abstenant person is the one who met objets outside, accepted these objects and put high importance on them. The process of “putting high importance” originates from the weakness of the center part of the self. When the center is left weak, imbalance between the expectations of the object and the expectations of the center occur against the center and the individual refrains from building a relationship thinking he cannot satisfy the growing expectations of the objects. The reason for the individual to appear distant from the object to a degree is not because of the scarcity of extroversion, but instead it is the impaired balance between introversion and extroversion against the latter. The precondition of each individual to build a mutual relationship with the objects is, sensing that the object accross from him also percieves him to be an object that is noteworthy (at least close to the perceived value of the object accross from him). Consequently, abstenant personalities are distant from objects not because they don’t see the objects across from them valuable enough to externalize, but because they have doubts that they have no object value in the perception of the object (the object that is a subject for himself) across from them. Consequently, in order for each center to show sufficient amount of externalization, he has to keep his object value for others in close range to other person’s object value for him. Otherwise, externalization cannot materialize in a sufficient and balanced form. Likewise, narcistic personalities, because they percieve their own value very high but their object value next to zero they cannot externalize in a sufficient and balanced way, they put themselves in the place of the objects. Their attempts to speak with everyone dictatively, thinking they have a right to intervene in every incident is not a model of an extrovert behaviour, on the contrary; it is putting all the inside in place of the outside, sliding the value of the object far below their importance. Consequently, we have to accept these personalities opressing the outside not as extroverts but as introverts because for the process of oppresion they are attached to their prepotency. There is nothing more natural than making the acceptance this way; simply who ever has more inside is an introvert and who ever has more outside is an extrovert. Nevertheless, there are also “object fatigued” people who after being involved with objects, perceiving their values sufficiently, and completing their externalization all the way to the most inner circle turn to their own inside. They are the phenocopies of introversion not the actuals. These people, with the object knowlede they gained through their life span, turn to their inside accepting their own center as an object, with the aura of a scientist, headed off to discover it and carry the awe of handling themselves as a sacred object. Their behaviour resembles an archiologist who discovers a prehistoric cave full of pictures, bones and utensils no one had noticed before and begins to live in it.
As opposed to introversion there is difficulty in maintaining eye contact in almost all of the personality disorders (Buhl-Nielsen, 2006). The reason for this is the person being afraid of taken over by an unfamiliar object as long as the eye contact continues. (Because the objects cannot move forward sufficiently within the seed of the collective self, the unfamiliarity towards them continues, the person will not want to surrender himself to a stranger. As opposed to this, in the case where the ojects move forward sufficiently within the collective self and occupy many layers the unfamiliarity ends, the objects settle in with their representatives in the strong object self and there is no fear, the individual because of this continues eye contact and opens himself in a way to occupancy)
In advanced pathological cases the individual has sufficiently externalized even to his own body(even the representatives of his own arms and legs have not sufficiently moved forward within the collective self). In this situation, the individual does not possess the image of his own body’s wholeness and for example during the mirror interviews (meeting is done with the indvidiual in front of a mirror, the patient sees himself in the mirror, the interviewer speaks with the patient through his image in the mirror)(Tschuske 2002)) what attracts attention is that the patient cannot maintain eye contact through his own image in the mirror because his own object (his body) is as unfamiliar to him as other objects. Once the eye contact is distracted it is very hard to catch it again.
In order to build the individual’s self sturcture sturdily, the first object representatives (the representatives of his own body) have to move forward all the way to the seed within the collective self. In order to achieve this, the therapist tries to move forward the body representatives by having the patient encounter his own body.
On the other hand, in order for the body representative to move forward sufficiently, the representatives belonging to latter relations have to push sufficiently from the back. (For example, when a baby gets a ball representative, the hand representative that holds it and the foot representative that hits it will become strong), again the moving forward of the hand and foot representatives will pull behind them the representatives of other objects as well (as the hand and foot representatives get stronger, the baby, brings forth much stronger representation by the way he holds the toy car when compared to his previous representation of how he used to hold the ball. Sufficiently moving forward of the first representatives brings with it the proficient use of the objects that belong to these representatives. In other words, moving forward of the hand representative will ensure the increased proficiency in the hand usage and it makes it easy for the representatives of the objects the hand uses to get in, as the hand representative moves towards the center, it will become possible for the object representative hand uses to be also pulled in. It is impossible for a person who does not let his own body representatives to get near to the center to let the other object representatives to get inside, consequently it is not possible for him to build an effective relationship with the objects of these representatives. On the other hand, sufficiently moving forward of the first representatives as much as possible, will speed up taking in of other objects, facilitate externalization, ensure in depth tranformation from collective self to object self. The bonding of each new object representative with the firstly formed representatives and its moving forward within a relation with them will speed up the process. In other words, moving in of the bicycle representative will be perfect by the perfection representative the child had received before by using his body. In the case where the latter representatives not being in a relationship with the first representatives (let us say seeing bicycle pictures, listening to bicycle stories without riding a bicycle) will both make it hard to take the bicycle representative in and also the moving forward of the body representative to the center will be without trigger. In this situation, if the new object representatives can’t build firm bonds with the previous object reprsentatives the internal balance of the object self will not be built, internal wholeness will not be woven up, each representative will not be settled in sturdily. In this situation, when each object representation begins to move by getting stimulus from outside world, they threaten the self wholeness by moving around irregularly.
Regarding psychological balance, the importance of building the body image sufficiently (aproaching of the representations related to the body towards the center as close as possible), has been emphasized strongly by the analysts. In the conditions where this image is weak, the object representations not being able to move forward sufficiently, can be the cause of the free floating anxiety in the individual, because every “uncontrolled” object is dangerous to the organism. Since it is not possible to have a command of the other object representations, in the case where the representations related to the body does not move forward sufficiently; because of uncertain representations and objects that cannot be strictly controlled, emerging of anxiety is unavoidable.
Psychological health, will settle in the individual when he takes in him the object representations, objectify himself, gives part of his subject (the structure that comes from a blend of intense collective self and diluted object self in the earlier years of life and diluted collective self and intense object self in mature years of life) to objects and is able to take it back from them, entrust part of his subject to objects, and also accept objects up to a point into his subject. There is in fact such a state when this transitive structure shapes ideally, having both the subject side and the object side at a balance within somewhere in the middle layers. The outer layers are arranged as the areas where the object representations are more prominent, the collective self representation is weak; whereas the inner layers are the areas the object representations are weak, collective self is strong.
The ideal arrangement of the object self is; moving forward of the collective self to the middle layers as mid-size veins and to the outer layers as thin veins, but situating in the center consistently just like the heart. Whereas, the object represantatives moving all the way to the center as thin veins, situating more strongly in the middle parts, covering the whole self like a bark at the outermost circle in a dense form.
There has been an interesting development in the evolutionary path of humans. Using of tools. The tool using stage the chimpanzees are in today (breaking the shelled fruits without squashing the inside, gathering leaves to make a cushion, etc) has hindered the development of object self in humans. Because, using of tools means taking the objects out of their own state of being objects and turning them into the objects we “make”. This new form of the objects prevents collective self to sufficiently externalize. The collective self, supposedly creates bonds with objects, but it does this after it alters the objects with the “tool”. Consequently, the objects, are not able to force the collective self to tranform sufficiently and externalize. The reason that lays underneath the increase in violence and selfishness today is this: Objects, not being able to bring the collective self down on his knees, will result of themselves coming down on their knees in front of the collective self.
Object Self as Amalgam: An object, when it is represented in the state it is in within the self, the collective self will be tranformed to a degree at that point; if we assume this transformation as full transformation against some objects, partial transformation against others, and no transformation to some others, we will be left with an amalgam where the transformed state of the collective self to objective self and the non transformed states of the collective self become a whole. If there is not enough transformation within this mixture and the collective self is left to be dominant, the individual will show a compulsive structure who is excessively pleasure driven and who searches for immediate catharsis. If the transformation has exceeded to some degree, the individual will gain a character that is patient and knows to wait, is able to postpone his satisfaction. It would be good to intervene here. The bonds formed with objects through tools take them out of the state they are in and put them in a state collective self is expecting them in. In other words, the dominating structure of the object that pushes the collective self to transformation will diminish, the object will become the slave of the collective self. The objects have to have a dissuasive force to be able to discourage the collective self from staying as it is, to be able to put it into a state like themselves (functioning under the object’s rules), tool diminishes the strength of the object until it has no character left. For example, let us try to catch fish on a river without any tools. In order to do this, we have to get into the water, put our hands among the roots of the trees, and pick up the fish from their place with skill. This engagement means, the collective self has to learn where the fish live, their movement, try to move in a similar speed as the fish; in otherwords, as a result, abandon itself and in a way “become a fish”. Because, fish cannot be caught without a tool unless you yourself are a fish. Truly, we have witnessed that the kids who live next to a river and eat from it have movement capabilities just like a fish. However, if the kids had learned to use a fishing rod they would have never gone through these burdens and would not bend over their self towards the object. We think it is enough to leave the subject at the fishing rod. As for the people who rake the depths of the seas by throwing a net and scraping all the fish holes, rather than bending over the object trying to exterminate it we can say that they are not an amalgam but are a homogenous lump from the point of view of collective self. If we make a practical addition to the subject, we can say that at the bottom of continous non-changing selfishness from birth onwards lies the use of tools.
Object self is built on the circles the objects have gained from the colective self. This area carries both the subjective traces of the collective self and also carries the objectivity of the objects. Due to this, it does not just suit the reality fully, but also is not a fully subjective area, because of its character it is not stable, it is a mid area where the outside reality and the subjectivity overcome each other at times. Due to this, object self, even at times when it is most stable, lives through a risk of instability and struggles to keep a balance on a tight rope.
The objects, pay back the circles they take from the collective self as pleasure. The collective self, because it possesses phylogenetic roots, always carries an impulse to incline towards primitive pleasure. Because of this, the collective self, during the infant and child stages, will abandon its outer circles to objects in order to find satisfaction from the outside world that is unfamiliar to him (being aware of the partial or abstract aquintanceship the knowlede from the previous generations ensure with the objects) and allows a different self (object) that moves with the principle of reality to be estabnlished there as the object representative. As long as the collective self’s hunger for pleasure continues, the object self increases its area, and continues to get more circles against the new objects it offers to the collective self. At one of the stages of adulthood, the collective self begins to become insensitive to pleasure and gives up paying new circles to the objects. It even seems like, as a reaction, it squeezes the object’s self in a smaller area by taking back some of the circles. (Even though showing the people who after living through a very busy life go into seclusion as an example seems to be a good idea, it is likely that these people live as if the last crumbs of the collective self are sacred objects. Because of this, collective self shrinking the area of the object self is illusion).
Transformation of the collective self into the objective self is a necessary process for the collective self to continue its life span as a whole. This is just like someone, after learning his mother tongue moves to another country and is forced to learn the language of that country. The new language is learned because one has to get fed from that country or else will starve to death. The learned language cannot be spoken as comfortably as the mother tongue; in addition, the individual will include the accent of his mother tongue to his learned language. Collective self, while learning it, speaking the language of objects in a world foreign to him with accent , is a proof of amalgam.
Bollas (1993) describes the area where the object self is built, as an area where fusion between the object and subject take place. Even though we agree with Bollas hypothesis to some degree, we find the confrontation of collective self (Bollas situates “ourself” in the place where the collective self sits) with the objects not as a fusion but in a shape of creating amalgam more correct. Because with amalgam, there is no fusion within each other, but there is an equalization with each other, holding on to each other and interference within each other. In fusion there is a loss of character, whereas in amalgam the characters stay where they are and while in that matter a unity is formed. For example, an individual while he continues to behave totally suitable to the reality of object, suddenly carries out an impulsive action or the individuals who show most severe impulse control disorder live most of their lives according to the reality principle. If there was fusion instead of interference, how could the impulsiveness that surface in the elder years or among the dotage patients be conserved until then. We witness that the impulses in elderly, without changing any characteristics, maintain the same form as their childhood impulses. If there is character change in fusion, the impulses in elderly had to transform to another form and lose their old characteristics. While the collective self changes structure in certain areas according to the excpectations of the object , will also remain in some areas without changing structure. This dual structure, without changing their characters will blend into each other and remain in a shape to form an amalgam. The object self in this case, will take shape and serve as the transitional area between the collective self and objects. While having at one extreme end the most intense collective self, at the other extreme end very distinct object representatives, in the middle there is a complex area where the collective self and object representatives blend together.
Object Self and the Nervous System: In order for the object self to emerge in the embryo, before anything else, the object has to appear and the embryo/baby has to be in a state where he can comprehend the object. There is no room for discussion to the fact that in order to achieve this, the nerve system of the embryo/baby have to successfully complete its organization. Once the nerve system is sufficiently organized it will begin to comprehend the objects, in this way will also begin to compare the objects and the collective self. Once the system’s comprehension process of the objects completes a certain stage, will then reach a transcendence of perceiving himself as an object. Reaching this point is obtained, right before getting the common parts of the objects and reaching a general notion of an object. Because, being aware of the fact that I exist as the “you” for the people around me, as a result makes sure I perceive myself as the subject of the “I”.
Even though the notion of object self we propose here overlaps to an important degree with the notion many analysts/authors, who deal with self psychology like Kohut, simply call self, it is different in content from the state they virtually accept it in which is like a living thing and some naming it as“combustible self”, some as “self procreating self” and some naming it as “social self”. The object self, which is a sructure that appears by itself at the end of a natural and passive time span, even then differs from the lower layers it derived from and leaned against, and at the end gets put into objects; is derived as the function of collective self. The object self does not exist by itself, even though the combustibles it uses look like thy are gotten from the objects, the need to get combustable and urge to burn combustible comes from the collective self. Some, like Ricoeur, have stipulated that due to self living enjoyably can produce its own combustable.(Model 1996) It is clearly apparent that, so many selves living without enjoying life, has always had an occupation of some kind to keep them alive, therefore, there is always a structure within all of us ready to burn up when a single drop of fuel is put in.
Getting Information From the Object: By also using the other selfs (other person’s self) a creation of a new object’s self, is done for putting a new body through a new self to use in the object relations as soon as possible. In this way, the tiles of the body to turn it into an object is placed and the object self that is sitting above it is immediately put into relations with objects for generation of information. Husserl and years after Kohut have gone around this reality for a long time.
The most important impulse of the collective self is getting information from the object. Consequently, the state it cannot tolerate the most is object loss. As it is known, depression is also a basic pathology loss. Loss of wealth, spouse, parent, status are primary conditions that trigger it. The object who loses his collective self sometimes takes it partially back from life, and even sometimes, as seen in suicides, retrieves it back all together. If we think that, in dotage, where object loss hits the ceiling, even the names of objects are forgotten for example, retrieving from life, in other words death, happens latest within a few years, we can understand there is a firm connection between object loss and atrophy. With this understanding, no need was felt to extra feed the individuals who do not know how to get information from the object.
Goffman has also mentioned indirectly that the object self has been arranged to get information from the object. (Modell 1996). According to him “self” is a temporary function aiming to control others’ reactions. Even though presentation of self as a controlling tool of course points to building dominance rather than extracting information, it is certain that the latter in one way or another will feel a need for the first one. The newness in Goffman’s hypothesis is his presentation of self as a temporary processor, and this is a ground slide for many authors who have handled self a permanent and solid shape just like one of the organs in the body. The importance of Goffman for us is, more than his presentation of self as a temporary structure, his bringing it in front of us as a worldly functional tool. Self, is an introductory summary the human body, brain and mind makes up for their own use and for the use of others related to its own existence during its relations with objects. Afterwards, it will get under the control of this summary it made up itself (body, brain and mind).
Intake of the Objects/Formation of Object Self: The intake of objects, at least at the beginning stage is not an active process; the self representatives are formed as a result of spontanous meeting of collective self and objects and collective self taking a shape that is suitable to each object and at the end “hardening” in that shape. This occurance is same as a plaster wall which is still wet coming across a sand storm, and hardening by taking a suitable shape of the remenance of each sand pebble, stone, piece of leaf, tree stem that came on it and were dropped off once the storm was over. This compulsory formation up to a certain stage will cause the object self to appear automatically. When observed from this point, the object self is the collective self’s maid on earth, it is the passive form of the objects and collective self, it is the one that comes after them.
The object self, when it comes out to organize the representatives and succeeds up to a certain level, will eventually begin to be more active and a beter organizer for the objects that will stick in future storms. It will run away in some storms and in some storms it will especially come up front to make sure some stick on. As it becomes more skilled, it will not only actively position itself against the objects that have direct strike to it, at the same time, by moving the ones that are motionless ( creating a storm by itself or itself being a storm, in other words from a passive state reaching deep to an active state) it will begin to create new object representatives on the object self.
The first object that comes in the first storm and takes up the most space is the mother. Consequently, the order of the other object representations have be done according to the representation of mother. It is not possible for an order that does not put the mother representation at the core to be successful, or to not create problems in later stages. The mother representation, by taking responsibility like a focal point, will take a central role in positioning of other representations. This central representation, until other representations are established, will carry importance. Once every representation is positioned in its place, it will be time to get rid of this representation that takes up a large space. This time, other representations, hand in hand, will cause the mother representation to shrink and eventually turn into a fossil that has no active efect left. If this cannot be successful, the mother representation will hinder other representations to take up sufficient space and obstruct the individual to hold on to life strongly.
At the last stage, with the energy that comes from the collective self getting weak, the other object representation will become indistinct and lose their old existing strength. As the object representations get weak, the object self which had derived at the time they were arranged and which stil keeps its connection with them strongly will begin to lose its effectiveness and wither within itself.
The object representations are not pictures, each of them are living organisms. They find a place for themselves in the brain within the apparent, unchanging cyles to a degree. The numerous nerve cells that form these cycles will be nurtured actively and stay alive. Consequently, the object representations are forced to die unless there is an energy source which nurtures them. The representatives are, during the setup process, are in intense relations with their objects and are set up as an exact copy of their objects, but as it gets further away from its object or gets used to its object during the intense relationship, will be more face to face with the self it is positioned in and in time takes over the contents and new shape this self gives.
Indistinct Multi – Layered and Single Layered Self: Most researchers are inclined to percieve the self as a multi-layered structure. Slicing the self as separate layers will mean to slice up the objects and the life in relation with them, but life is not in this form; even so, in order to create a setup convenience, the mind by allowing different layers, pushing some objects to the back, adopting some of them will form its internal order in layers. However, in time the transition between layers will become indistinct, every member positioned in different layers will get into a relationship with another, more homogenious structure with stronger internal bonds will begin to form. Indistinct multi-layering, as a single layered whole, as the object relations increase will bloat as a funtion of time, complete its own internal unity and with the information it gathers from the objects at one point will turn to create its own reality as Deleuz says, by separating from the objects, praising itself, and acting on its own. This point, against the energy in the proportion the collective self allows him to use, falls into a time that the object self does not feel the need to expose any additional object information, and after this point life will continue with the various combinations of the information exposed until then. At the last stage, with further weakening of information coming from the object the single layered and homogeniously structured life, since it does not find any internal dynamic within itself will begin to separate into layers again, like during childhood behaviour, with loss of objectivity, will begin to cast out some of the object representations and bring some closer to himself.
For the nerve system to structure its internal balance, it is necessary for the object self to keep its relationship with the objects continuously. A nerve system cut off from the object connections, by being hungry for object information and being away from the nutritions that form him, will begin to generate its own internal echos, and this at most times will cause the appearance of assumed schizophrenia like scenes. If there was no object, a phlogenetic build up would not be generated, there would be no nerve system: the nerve system exists to basically make up the object representations and create a speculation on them. (not a structure that makes a copy of the world, in the beginning, by using the world ( in fact, maybe first making a copy of it) suitable to the fundamentals, to create a new and different speculation than the world). If the brain was not going to create a new speculation, its hundred billion cells, over hundred trillion connections and processes of one katrillion per second, would be too much to just make copies. Heading off from this speculation, the object self will make a speculative forecast of the future and at the end will make real or an imaginary attempt. Each attempt will result with the new object representations in hand and obtained new speculation.
As the natural differences within the object go through evolution and stem towards different fields, on the other hand the differences obtained, thanks to the objects, turn into gains of the collective self, transact from the point it was obtained to the other points, will turn into the mutual gain of the species. The researches involving epgenetics show that, even though they possess the same genetics when the self comes accross different objects he will express himself differently to all of them. From this, we understand that the collective self has, besides its high energy is able to come accross all kinds of objects, is able to show adaptation to all objects, combining extraordinarily and operating the internal mechanism by considering most of the conditions, the strength to vary itself. Just like the evolution of a stem cell into a cell that has the ability to store sugar in the liver, develop ability to fix muscle spasms and keep light in the eyes, the collective self can give to an alcholic father favoring violence and irresponsible mother the most devoted son in the world, possessing opposite personality features than his parents. The motivator for the collective self to, by combining and using “smart” internal mechanisms to obtain variation features at the extremes are, primarily the flexible philogenetic and specific programs transferred from the history, and as secondary the objects altering the suitable program for themselves by touching the collective self.
The collective self, when object selves that can damage itself gets formed, will keep these individuals under control by the other extremes. He will support the overly devoted ones who are useful to him and force them to sacrifice more. As a result, the collective self, will move forward toward its own goals in a controlled manner by building intensive relationships between the extremes. Because this control makes social relations necessary, with the shape Kohut brings forward “relevancy”, can show itself in different forms such as controlling, encouraging, straightening up each other, to connecting by loving each other. It is hard to explain being involved with one another in any other way except being compelled to each other by coming from the same stem.
For a living thing, enjoying being among objects is an incentive given to him from the collective self. Since every living thing gets this incentive from a collective pool summoned up from the experiences through millions of years (the collective self), he jumps in between the objects without waiting and collects information from every object he comes across.
Winnicott, expressed that the “real self” is always left as private and never goes into communication with others. This expression of Winnicott comes close to us. The collective self, with its deepest meaning, is a mutual existence dynamic that motivates the person without leaving him to himself and looks after only its own goals. But until now, after Jung, the one who has come closest to the collective self notion with the definition he made, as mentioned before has been Goffman, not Winnicot. On the other hand, Husserl also came close and expressed that the self structure emerges as a result of intersubjective interaction; in another meaning, the object self, finds its own reality by interpersonal interactions.
There is a one way transition between the object self and the objects. The objects that are within the elbow length of the individual are perceived as the posession of his objective self, even as objects within his natural extension. the objective self, as its establishment characteristics are obtained by “intaking”of the objects. Consequently, there is no disconnection between the objects and the self, and the self exists as the continuation of the objects (in order to continue its relations with them at a sufficient level, at least appearing to be a continuation of the objects). When observing from the object side, each object (representation), as it goes into the self loses its characteristics, moves away from the original, as it gets near the collective self it fades. When observing from the self side, as the objects (representations) move away thicken and in the state of not carrying the collective self get intense. Consequently, there is a continuation between the self and its objects, carrying each other at differenct degrees and there is an active effort to make the one across from him himself. In the way that I see the objects in my elbow length as a continuation/part of myself; I see the first object the mother who has been with me for a long time and has always snuggled closer than the elbow length to me as a part of me as well. (Mother, as a first object unquestionably shows a different and special structure than the other objects. The first reason for the difference is the mother encountering the collective self at a stage totally absent from other objects. Consequently, the collective self greets the mother in a suitable way to its expectations, initially, the mother acts not like an object but totally like a part of the subject, and causes the collective self to keep his expectations (nurturing his own instincts and motives unconditionally and without waiting) high towards future objects. The second reason for the difference is the first object not acting like an object but like the additional part of the collective self at the tailend of the baby. When the baby, because of the additional piece the mother carries has the illusion of the collective self much larger than it really is, goes into unconditional expectations towards nurturing of his impulses and motives. However high and large the first object, shows the tip of the collective self, deflation of this baloon by the other objects will take that much longer time and will happen as a result of that much more severe trauma. Despite this, the two tongued and two faced structure ( the face created by the collective self illusion and the actual object face) of the first object did not exist maybe the arrogant and narcistic structure of the humans, laying under the development and civiliazation of humanity would not have existed. The mother acting like the baby is a part of the collective self instad of an object causes the baby’s narcistic structure to bloat, delays the deflation of this structure and inadequacy of collective self’s externalization. Because of this, the humans are, creatures who are left behind in adaptation to the world, has not been forced by objects and due to this have stayed unadapted to those objects and have been trying to solve this inadaptability by trying to adapt the world to themselves. Mother, inflating the collective self at the tailend of the baby too much, increases the space it takes in the center during formation and increases the distance the objects have to travel, and the parameter of the collective self the objects will get will increase. On the other hand, the mother’s two languaged structure, facilitates the transition from collective self language to object language, even if it may be an unbalanced transition. Not babies, but especially the kids, as they learn this language from their mothers, are able to put in the same object relationship both the object and the collective self languages easily. Game is a typical area where both languages are seen. The child, as he makes a horse out of a stick will both rear and run it to elevate himself in the collective self language, and also puts food in front of it in accordance to the horse’s (object’s) expectations instead of himself
Different personality feautures, are defined according to the continuity of the self within the objects. For example, schizophrenic individuals, as well as carrying almost no objects within themselves, also have no shadow of their selves on the objects. In other words, not only the self has no continuity on the objects, but also the objects have no extension in the self. The existing extensions are left as the organic continuity of so many collective selfs that it is doubtful that they are representations of real objects.
The obsessive/compulsive personalities, on the other hand, have no self extension between the object representations, but the object representations have relatively deep extensions with well defined boundaries. An unstable and bothersome extansion that goes deep into the self forces the self to make arrangements on the object representations (compulsions). Because the self has no extension towards outside within the object representations, it is not used to their natural structures and because of this tries to adapt these “foreigners” to himself and put them in order. The end result we can sum from this is, in order for the object self to work to suit both in the interest of the collective self and the objects, the collective self has to directly be involved, one collective self “vein” has to take up each object self “leaf”, the representations have to be positioned near enough to ooze into the collective self areas in every activation so that during the response of the mutual language used both by the collective self and the objects can be utilized. For example, a man with a well arranged object self, when he is with the woman he loves, is able to both use the woman’s language and understand her deeply (the object language), and also empty out his own impulses (collective self language). In this way he is able to move forward as a balance with two feet that facilitate each other. If the man only understands the language of the object, because the relationship is deprived from the high energy given by the impulses, it will turn into a friendhsip of two people who get along well. In opposite, if he attempts to speak only the collective self language, the man wll see the woman only as a tool to empty out his impulses and will block the relationship.
In all personalities, the continuation of the active existence of the object being in high sufficiency depends on the energy the collective self will give to him. If the energy is scarce, it will be hard for the object self to make itself live by building a close relationship with the objects. An obsessive/compulsive personality for example, will sink within himself very fast, because his repetative relations with the objects takes up all his energy, he will feel the need for the energy the collective self will transfer more than any other personality. Because of this, these individuals (especaially the obsessive/compulsive people with insight) in a way to activate their own collective selves will be in cooperation with other people (especially the impulsive people whose colective self can easily be felt), will be in a need to activate their collective self by heightening the partnership feeling within themselves. However, we cannot say the same for the schizophrenics. These people who have weak object ties, therefore not losing much energy during their daily lives, do not need the energy form the collective self that much. The manic patients, just like the obsessives who use high energy are also interested in others, because they too consume in high volume. As a result, the power that causes our lives to continue in one direction or another or with one person or another, depends, as much as the value the objects let him gain, on the energy the collective self transmits. The energy the person uses is never preferred to be gained from the objects, mental energy does not increase by eating sweets!
The area, that the collective self energy ,that the person has been charged with, can directly be seen, are the eyes. The eyes that reach the brain through a very short optical nerve, directly reflects the power of the mental activity that shelter the representations of millions of years of history. On the other hand, it is again the eyes that connect the world of objects with extraordinary abundance of data, the brain, product of mutual vigor sturdily. We need to count the other sensory organs (hearing, touching, smelling) as the secondary areas that make this process. Consequently, it makes us think that, in the brain which connects the collective self with the objects, the sensory centers (seeing (geniculate field and Broadman’s 17. field), hearing (internal geniculate field and supertemporal field), smell (Broadman’s 28. field) , touching (somatosensorial cortex), taste (the frontal part of the second sensory motor cortex)) are the first cores of the object self, talamus is the junction of all the sensory system paths and is the head office that brings out the object self as a whole. These centers, are the main cores of the brain that meet the outside world. If a object self has to be organized within the brain, the founding blocks have to be used from these centers. The first indications of the objects are formed in these centers, positioned in these centers, the representation gets structured with the collections of these centers. If one or more of these centers do not work, the other centers take over the connecting job with the objects by enlarging themselves. We know that hearing centers in blind people, optical centers in deaf people are larger than the normal dimensions. It seems that the collective self does not allow the expansion channels to the outside be under a certain radius!
On the other hand, for individuals with all the sensory channels shut, behaviors theoretically walk towards the outside world through the inexperience of the collective self, in which case we observe that the instincts become more active than normal. If we say it in a metaphorbic form, we observe that in narcists who see no one except themselves, who hear no one except their own voice are blind and deaf to the outside world the instinctive behaviors come to the front! In schizophrenic patients also in an autistic form of being closed off to the outside world, the instinctive behaviors come towards the front, for example the autistics will try to swallow everything that comes in front of them. This obviously means that: the collective self in the situations where it cannot build its object self because his sensory channles are shut or even if he does build it cannot carry a “sufficient” representation from outside world to inside will try to build its relations with other objects in the forms it used thousands of years ago within the previous generations. (Here, of course, we do not have to mention that we dont mean to say the sensory channels of narcists and schizophrenics are physically shut. However among both of these groups of patients (and in different degrees in other groups of patients) there is no doubt that the object stimulus coming from the sensory organs get coded “ severly damaged” without protecting the original structure of the objects or even if the structure is protected mentally there is no room given to the representation).
The object self is in one way an organization evolving from the meeting of the past and the present. Humans, just like every other living creature are in a way, a meeting tool for the objects of the past and the present. We are aware that bringing together today’s relatively few number of objects with the many objects that have been collected through a span of millions of years, can only be possible if we have an extraordinary coding system like the DNA that will encompass a creative and executive summary of the past objects.
Layers of the Object Self: When we place an object in between two mirrors accross from each other, numerous images of it will be obtained. There will be the self image of the object in mirror A, self image of the object in mirror B, The image of the image of the object in mirror A in mirror B, image of the image of the object in mirror B in mirror A …… Just like this, there are many symbols of objects and their derivative symbols from those first symbols are formed in the brain. The symbol that is formed from the stimulus coming from the sensory organs, the derivative symbol formed in the system following the other symbol, the second degree derivative symbol formed in the second degree system that followed this symbol, following the scond degree derivative symbol and the second degree system, the thrid degree derivative symbol formed in the third degree system ….. Let us explain with one example: The picture of a chair is formed in our brain (occibital lobe optical center) by putting together the stimula caused by the rays coming from the chair into our eyes. This picture, by comparing it with the old records in the memory is defined as “chair”. The frontal brain shell will combine this definition with the definition of an object that is made from wood, plastic or steel, used for sitting “chair” meaning.
When “chair” meaning is used by a person as a word, the chair for that moment will lose its functional meaning as an object, the word “chair” will replace its object, in other words, the word “chair” is derived from the chair object and finally, if this evolution the “object chair” went through is taking place in my brain, then a word “chair” similarly can be formed in the brain of others and by saying everyone’s chair picture, meaning and word will be according to themselves, we will come to the conclusion that there exists a subject relative chair picture, meaning and word that is united with the subjects, in other words, “relative chair” concept is developed.
Now at this point, we have to think that at every stage there are brain modules doing the process, each of these modules are both the follower and the container of the one in front of it.(since the human brain is organized in a shape of phylogenetic layers, there has to be in each layer, one executing module and one following module that follows the executing module (as a counterpart for primitive selves in the lower layers, mature selvess in the upper layers). (Each seed, each module that gets organized with development in the brain will establish the module that will follow it at the same time of its own development. This is just like a need each house that has obtained its internal organization has for a mirror and having this object in the house. Each mechanism that has reached its “perfection”, in order not to miss any small failure within the system will structure a system that will observe him. As the brain develops, because of the seed that has spread to every area, these observant modules have created modules that will observe them in a larger area and also created “modules that will observe the observer”. But we can say that these modules, primarily, are formed in the lower part of the brain, for example, constructed in the mezensephalon, colliculus. After all this, as the brain’s development continues, a complex is established by creating many layered observing modules (observing the observer’s observer). The thing that we call “object self” is probably this. Although it is hard to state an opinion on the neuroscientific basis of the observent module, we can speculate there are mirror neutrons in the structure, and there is caudal DLPFC at the top of the pyramid thinking that it shows the ability to accomplish high engram integration. Then, in the area the picture is drawn, it means that, within the apparent creative area the first observant module, the second observant module that observes the first one and in the wording field the third module that will observe the word formation and also observes the first and the second modules, within the relativity field the fourth module that will observe all the layers will have to be; this will move forward as long as the evolution continues.(In fact, the observant modules, if their formation takes too long within the brain, interestingly will also form outside of the brain (Inferences one scientist made let us say from a video from watching himself or conducting tests on himself about his self) until the executing module is not able to form an observant module… An executing module himself, making executions involving the last observant module, at the point where he did not create his observant module the deepest and final layer of the self is created. The deepest layer is the layer where sufficient amount of capacity could not be formed to observe the previous layer. As could easily be understood from this, while a person with limited capacity is staying at the third layer, a person with more capacity moves up to the the fifth layer. Every new layer carries the self observing strength of the object, and after a certain point the person the object is in relation with forward. ( A person’s mental and to some degree intellectual depth depends mainly on the number of layers it has created in its self observing mechanism and some on its object observing mechanism (self)). We see knowledgable but shallow people; their capacity to observe objects is high but their self observation layers are low. There are also people who have no knowledge but have depth; their self observing layers are high but their capacity to observe other objects is low.
The observation processes are achieved probably by extending a synoptic connection from one below module to one higher module and with the information received through it. Thus, the brain by recording all the executions in each layer does its own record keeping. The records in this file are kept in graded ranks (first obervant module records file, second observant module records file..), the name of this file is “object self”. Here, we have to place the first executive module that covers the whole body in hypothalamous. Because it is informed directly about the position of the organism at first hand and first degree in every field. At every layer of the self there are strong ties between the situated executive and the observant modules, they form a wholeness within themselves. The ties of a self layer with layers below and above are weaker than its own internal ties, but even so, there is still sufficient connection to maintain organizational wholeness. The objective self is the whole of the bonds within these layers and also between the layers.
Even though the main structure of the self is built in this matter, it is apparent that this wholeness has ties with the different fields of the brain, gets nurtured from these places, makes comparisons with them (I am a sentimental person), and also besides comparing the capabilities of the other fields of the brain with himself, also compares himself with other selfs.( Ahmet does everything better than I do.) The relation of the self mechanism with the other fields of the brain gives opportunity to the person the make an intellectual/emotional evaluation of his own self. The evaluations that come from other areas are, of course, according to the characteristics of those areas. As the person’s own evaluation is formed in the observant modules, it is true that these modules turn to certain directions according to the stimulus it gets from emotional and intellectual centers. For example, even a person who has many layered observant modules and due to this has sufficient depth can see himself, mistakenly, under the negative stimulus it gets from the emotional centers, as a person with low humane capacity who has weak social characteristics and who is emotionally dry.
We know emotions have close relationship with the self. People who are hungry for awards, by bringing the self upfront in a social environment due to the drive of their emotions, will cause other people in the same environment to also behave emotionally. Let us say that a person with high self-appreciation, continuously began to show himself as reference during his speech; in this situation the selves of other people, relating to their own emotional cycle will develop anger to retrogress the opposing self. (What happens here is, the defensive stance the other parts will take if a part of the collective self attempts to go to a larger area than the one that was reserved for him. This position is gained thanks to the connections of the object self with the emotion cycles). Consequently, within the wholeness of the collective self it is likely that the object selves get into a chain interaction with each other. This happens,by moving of a mechanism like reverberating we see between the nerve cells. The expansion of one object self will create reverberation among the neighboring selves and at most times will be pushed back after a certain point. Because, the expansion capacity the collective self gives to a self (narcistic or executive expansion) is limited with the capacity of the other selves to tolerate him. If a self is expanding, the other selves balance it by shrinking (some authoritative personalities keep a yes-man around them), and as a response if one self is shrinking some other selves balance it by expanding.(People who are down to earth have repremending people around them) . As a result, there is a total expansion capacity the collective self gives to the transferred object selves, the objects these self are in relation with and at last to his own capacity ( the posessed power as the derivative of the past object selves and the relations the objects have among each other) in proportion. This capacity, contrary to common belief, does not increase as the number of people increase, but if the newborns find new objects they can build relationships with, the capacity will increase. In other words, let us assume the amount of wheat, milk, number or cars and houses always stay the same, but if the number of newborns are more that the number of deaths, since we all will share less objects, there will be a need to shrink the object selves and new spaces will have to open for the newcomers. But if the individuals act creatively and find new objects, it will be possible for everyone to accept the newcomers without having to self-shrink. On the other hand, if the structured object relationship reflects a creative nature, this will cause a self expansion that is higher than that of others. On the other hand, if the increasing number of people on earth, increase the number of objects in a balanced form, the collective self has to increase the total expansion and due to the intensity of mutual relationships of the increased number of people, even if the object/person proportion stays the same, each person’s self strength increases. In other words, while selves who want to rule people come out from within where six million people live relatively rich (their objects are more than sufficient), even though there are over six billion people who will not be considered poor, even though the number of objects that fall per person is small, to total number of object are uncomparebly big looking at the first example and there will be a self that would want to not only rule people but to rule the whole universe. In the first case, if the person wants to rule the people, he will dream of ruling six million people. However, in the second situation, this number is six billion and expanding to the universe through six billion could also be dreamed of.
Externalization, The Neuro-Psychoanalytical Basis of The Developmental Self
When Bowlby described that an infant is joined to the society through maternal attachment, we were aware the fact that it was not simply an attachment. During this attachment process, mother develops a specific language between them by using vocalizations of the newborn; she produces a coordination by imitating actions of the infant, which, in part, serves as a basis for future transfer of such bonding to the society. It is a painful process as newborn tends to meet expectations for his/her psychological development, leaving his/her initial, or better to say, convenient position, urging his/her body. Newborn, at first, spends effort to lift his/her head, then walk on four feet, and then stand up.
In fact, standing upright wouldn’t occur so rapidly if there was no encouragement and awards. Upright standing evolutionarily resulted in reduction of the hip joint, and narrowing of the birth canal, so that the intrauterine life, which may have extended up to 18 to 22 months, now terminates only after completion of its half-time.
The postnatal relationship between mother and child persists for a while in a way imitating the intrauterine life. She always holds the child in her arms, wrapping him/her up (even swaddling) just like the wall of uterus. This way, child subsists in the external world as an “in” (not only as an intrauterine living being, but also as a stranger to the world of objects, at least for the beginning) until the end of first year of age [which would probably have extended until the end of intrauterine life (22 months) if the bipedal manner of walking was not acquired]. Therefore, it is appropriate to use the term “the absolute in” for the first post-natal year, which corresponds to the concept of “oceanic sense” in the psychoanalytic literature. During the “absolute in” period, child naturally confronts with objects, mother being the first one. However, child utilizes these objects, maintaining the absolute in, “crooks” and “bends” them toward himself/herself, simulating the warmness and protectivity of the uterus.
First Doubt: While objects of the postnatal absolute-self period act as full intrauterine entities (upper and lower extremities), they do not have absolute obedience as much as the extremities. They, sometimes, delay satisfying the expectations, while some other times, particularly at the beginning, they happen not to understand what is expected of them.
On the other hand, the body of the child, itself, is not an object of excellent obedience. Their intestines produce gases, and they do not have the muscle strenght to make even the simplest movement. The body, which lacks the lifting power of the amniotic fluid during the intrauterine phase, becomes heavy after delivery. Thus, neither the body of the absolute selfness period nor the objects subsequently confronted can demonstrate an absolute obedience against the subject in the way it is expected as if it is its own extremity. Here is where the first doubt arises, and where the basic disappointment is experienced: the Earth is not an endless ocean anymore, in which the infant can swim freely. On the contrary, it is rather a jail with infinite borders, which have been made so large that the infant continues to feel as if he/she has an almost endless freedom. Yet, it should be accepted that the delivery is an inrepairable trauma to the newborn.
Each newborn comes out with his/her own in, producing an “out” from his/her own inside, or better to say, an outside is created by the objects for him/her, which in fact has already rendered to an object by this new state. The process of transformation from the darkest “insideness” to the most intense “outsideness” (the entire life) is an inevitable change towards becoming one of many objects rather than being a single and omnipotent subject. It is, in fact, a process of objectivization followed with consecutive traumas. Each defeat against the objects further objectivize the subject, who is not stepping back. And, in fact each victory against the object means delaying the defeat, which, in turn, results in accumulation of defeats, and therefore, the final defeat breaks into pieces, leading to a complete objectivization.
The only state where the subject maintains his/her optimal subjectivity among so many defeats is the rejection of everything he/she owns as subject, and submission of a particular area in the body and soul to invasion of objects as early as possible. Trying to defend the whole area results in invasion of the entire area. However, the only way of defending the self for the subject is to try to separate a part, and share the rest with objects. The most common mistake is to defend the whole psychic field against the objects in all neurotic disorders, mainly in the obsessive-compulsive disorder.
The key point of externalization is making the newborn frustrated by objects. The more intense the procedure without allowing the newborn to sever its ties with the object, the more and longer takes the externalization. Therefore, if the object ties of the newborn are reinforced with higher empathy of the mother, the level of frustration that can be flexibly managed increases proportionally. Thus, efficient and persistent externalization of the newborn relies on how much the mother can strengthen the bond with her child depending on her emotional empathy, in other words, on how much power she can have in order to hold the bond extended by herself. As this bond is strengthened, frustrations are better accepted by the newborn, i.e. the power to experience new frustrations is increased.
At this point, the support provided by mother should not based on doing everything on behalf of the child in terms of relations with the objects, depriving the child of his/her life, but she should encourage the child to use his/her body, and limbs at each opportunity found. It means that mother should never precede the child in terms of relations with objects so that he/she can find courage to use his/her body and limbs.
Externalization basically means releasing yourself to outside in parts, during which an internal part is reserved for yourself to return to like a rear front any time. This internal part is used as a safe harbor (regression) in case of any failure by the individual to compete with object frustrations by means of object supports (like psychosis). Frustrations experienced with objects during externalization are always negotiated by more familiar relationships, which have been previously established with other objects. The frequently resorted object support belongs to the objects of the absolute insideness. Following the period of absolute insideness, the less the bonding with an object (if the relationship is constrained with a few objects, then it is going to be an intense relationship so that individual will come back to it almost automatically whenever he/she experiences frustation) during the externalization process (relative insideness), the more likely that there will be no fixation at objects of relative insideness period during withdrawal, and instead, objects of absolute insideness period will be retrieved.
Inside and Outside of Objects: Each living entity has two parts with borders and access to each other: inner and outer parts. The level of externalization for that entity is determined by the ratio of these parts in terms of their volume and capacity.
When a subject familiarizes with a living object, the inside of the subject gets in contact with the outside of the object once there remains no distance to cover in terms of the relationship after one-to-one contact between his/her externalized parts and the externalized parts of the object in order to complete the relationship. In human relations, it is an ”id” to “id” communication in Freudian discourse, where feeling of belonging to the same and single structure, which exists in the common self, is realized again between two objects involved in the world of objects. It precisely represents the relationship with an object: to touch the core of his/her self with the core of your own self, which is possible if both the subject and the object exceed a certain optimal level of externalization.
Getting Rid of the Objects of Absolute Insideness: It is normal that the objects crooked during the “absolute in” period cannot be differentiated from the “self” in later periods or such differentation may take a long time. Nothing can be more natural than a newborn who recognizes each object that he/she can control as a part of himsel/herself. Straightening of the objects crooked during the absolute in period is a matter of later periods. Because it may lead to a basic pathology if the crooknesss is maintained at a level not disturbing the ontogenic unity or establishment of a relationship with an uncrooked object is achieved in early period without acquiring any flexibility towards bonded objects (by skipping the level of flexibility to attempt reestablishing a relationship with an uncrooked object during the initial contact). An ideal relationship with an object occurs when a subject succeeds to use himself/herself (more correctly a part of himself/herself) also as an object; it is the time of straightening the crooked objects. However, it occurs in the very long run, and sometimes social dynamics may not have the slowness to wait until the end. Of course, the psychoanalytic psychotherapy is the most significant intervention in accelarating this process.
Externalizing-DNA Expression: Externalizing is some sort of a DNA expression. It is a matter of gaining ground in compliance with self-coding (nature) and environmental constraints (of objects). Like DNA synthesize protein to answer both of these situations, the in of human beings takes positions suitable for his/her nature when they get in contact with objects. If the objects are too compelling, one immediately learns how to mollify the principle of satisfaction, and turn it into a satisfaction over time. Externalizing, in fact, is a sum of any actions undertaken by “in” in order to achieve a stable balanced position in the world of objects. The main object is to attach objects to himself/herself, and make use of them as long as possible. Therefore, it attaches to objects, making some kind of tacit contracts with objects, “I am getting attached to you, and you are going to get attached to me.” It is the only weapon the “in” has; the “weapon of attachment”. By attaching itself to the object, the object becomes obliged to get attached to it (objects also require other objects to get attached to themselves). The child is attached to the mother through placenta, which, in return, obliges the mother to get attached to it. During the postnatal period, the mother has this set-up inside all the time: “My child”, which, in fact, is not true because she owns only half of the newborn, and the remaining half biologically belongs to someone else. However, the newborn attaches himself/herself to the mother by imposing this misinformation to the mother saying “I belong to you”, and, in turn, expects absolute attachment from the mother, and receives it anyway. Externalizing is a kind of exhange. The newborn surrenders himself/herself to the mother, while mother provides care, nurture and emotional service to the newborn.
Any pathology, which may present with a late onset, rising during externalizing is associated with one incomplete side of this mutual exchange. For example, although the newborn fully surrenders to the mother, she does not fullfill her tasks, with inefficient care, raising, and empathy services. Or the newborn cannot surrender himself/herself fully to the mother (e.g., disabled birth, autistic infants, etc. ) such that mother either provides insufficient caring or, on the contrary, exaggerate it (to compensate for the disability).
While some newborns may have some issues in surrendering, some mothers may not perceive that the newborn is capable of giving himself/herself in. In such cases, although infant gives himself/herself in, mother is unable to comprehend it, and she fails to provide proper caring service (e.g., mothers with low IQ). Furthermore, even tough she can perceive surrendering of the child, she may be unable to provide care as she is preoccupied with herself (narssistic mothers) and/or incapable of providing care (disabled mothers). As these mothers consider the care they give to their child as their loss, they provide only a minimum nursing, therefore the infant grows up believing that he/she can undertake his/her own care and/or imagining that he/she can look after himself/herself (grandiose self), even believes that he/she has the power to take care of his/her mother.
Narcissistic personalities are those who are characterized with incomplete externalizing nature, which is most probably associated with their fixation at corporeal pleasure. They are unable to develop incorporeal pleasure (mental pleasure) because the pleasure the newborn gets is not reflected on mother’s face, and newborn recognizes that his/her pleasure is not shared by the mother due to insufficent development of maternal empathy during the early infancy period. The newborn needs to feel that the pleasure he/she takes as part of a partnership should also be felt by the other part, his/her mother. If he/she cannot feel it, one becomes suspicious of his/her pleasure because the newborn has this preliminary acceptance of being an integral part of a relationship as required by the ontogenesis. This emotional asymmetry is associated with underdevelopment of a common sense of pleasure, resulting in inhibition of a life partnership.
Our biological nature is characterized with getting pleasure from other’s pleasure within a social structure where a common self thoroughly prevails, however, if this potential is not improved, pleasure of others produces a sense of envy. Therefore, personalities who biologically fail to develop taking pleasure from others’ pleasure (narcissistics) show resistance to other people taking pleasure alone throughout their life, and even they become hostile towards them. Because these individuals has no allocentric view of the world, and they are fixated at egocentric levels of thinking, they believe that others’pleasure is stolen from them. As they can not imagine a world apart from themselves, such a pleasure they are not involved in gives them the impression that the world is changing, falling apart because they feel that the self is falling apart, and the world is breaking apart from themselves. The fact that narcissistic personalities first spend effort to destroy the people who laugh separately from them, and when it fails, they attempt to suppress them by messing with them is, in fact, a denial of any centers other than themselves.
It appears that a narcissistic self constricted to the content of the collective self, which can be described as an improved version of Jung’s collective unconsciousness does not undergo a proper process of self-reduction, submission to objects and regression to a self as much as the objects contacted (self of objects). Therefore, he/she considers each object as if it belongs to him/her, even regards them as himsel/herself. Thus, externalizing is basically a process of transition from collective self to objective self.
Human mind presents itself to objects as an energy ball, which has not transsubstantiated itself, in order to be formed by objects. Each object is presented to the mind by the initial and main object, the mother, as being gradually loaded. If a mother fails to do this up to a certain age of the child, or if there is no mother figure around, an infant’s mind cannot be appropriately loaded with the world of objects as well as having a potential danger of being empty to a great extent. This can be explained by an example from eyes; If one eye of a newborn is kept closed until four years of age (e.g., closed by the eyelid), he/she won’t see even if it is opened later on because it is incapable of perceiving the entire world as stimulated by objects, and making appropriate changes in the brain, and thus, it becomes completely blunted. Neurons ranging from the ones in retina to the vision field in the occibital lobe, their pathways and the vision field should promptly adjust themselves to this world of objects, and improve their capacity. This is externalization of the visual capacity in the brain.
Similarly, mental capacity should be externalized starting a while before birth, and then progressively continuing after birth. Externalizing should be initiated as early as possible, and it should not be deteriorated with excessive exposure, and objects should be bended towards the newborn avoiding any loss of their objective features. What is important here is to make the objects subjected to bending without losing their objective features and to present them to the newborn by the mother.
Bending each object up to a certain extent and being unable to further it are associated with development of a counter-bending in subject for each object by the newborn, and subsequent establishment of an object self by means of a self exchange in parallel to the number of objects he/she encounters and total amount of counter-bending exposed by each object. A keypoint here is that bending imposed on objects by the bender (mother) is held within a certain range, and the subject is obliged to bending reaching to a certain level, and not exceeding a certain level. When these levels are exceeded, the capacity is either never improved (too much object bending, and no counter-bending by newborn) or it is overstrained (no object bending, and over counter-bending by newborn), which can be both regarded as breaking points where a pathology emerges. For example, in narcissistic personality disorder, there is too much object bending, but subject bending almost does not exist. In dependent personality disorder, the object bending is minimum, and subject bending is maximum. In paranoid patients there is object bending, but it is a reverse bending; each object is presented softer than it is, and more injurious and hurting rather than being showed as more pleasing to the subject. Thus, individual starts avoiding objects, and perceiving them as destructive potential enemies. In the insight type of obsessive compulsive disorder, the capacity of welcoming successive unbended objects is low as these individuals have a tendency to bend toward objects. More expressively, the amount of bending is small, not the degree of subject bending. The individual takes all objects as one, similarizing them as much as possible, considering the smallness of bending. For example, he/she arranges books by their height, but not by their subject or gets rid of re-evaluating each dress by wearing the same dress every day. Or in order to avoid too much bending, he/she applies proactive methods [checking that the car doors are locked against robbery, that the oven is turned off against fire in accordance with the “avoidance from over-stimulation” and constancy principle proposed by Freud in late XIXth century, because amount of bending will substantially increase after emergence of problems (items will be purchased again, insurance company will be contacted, everything will be organized again, etc), therefore the subject takes proactive action and avoids painful bending process.
Psychic Energy and Externalization: The concept of psychic energy was based on a model running with Freud’s economical principles of mind. Fundamentally accepted, this energy is considered as a structure which has a tendency to discharge at all times by Freud, who was prone to physicalistic thought due to his expertise in neurology. Therefore, he attempted to describe psychiatric disorders with more tangible mechanisms by positioning psychic energy within mental apparatus. His successors with different approaches utilized Freud’s constructions, just like he used his observations for his conventions. Even if the concept of psychic energy is considered as a metaphor, it can be used for constructing the basis of “externalization”.
After promoting the concept of libido, with a different version of psychic energy, Freud describes that it is derived from narcissistic cores and object cathexis, and then a sort of integration is experienced with objects through this libido cathexis. I think it is better to express Freud’s opinion from a different aspect. If we consider the concrete aspect of the concept, the subject becomes poor while the object becomes enriched when the energy (libido) is withdrawn from the self and loaded onto the other, and it is very difficult to convince a living body, who acts according to the sharpest enthropy principles, to act in such a way. Instead, formulating the energy in such a way that impulses of phylogenetic reservoir products are suppressed in order to prepare a nest in the self for the object for the pleasure expected from the object, and that the object is taken into the nest and convinced to be exploited will provide a problem-free solution from the physicalistic point-of-view.
We disagree with the classical theory in some aspects regarding the origins of object self. First of all, the object self (in Freudian terminology it is partly represented by ego) is transformed from common self. This transformation starts immediately upon birth once the placenta is separated. Transformation is characterized with virtual or fantastic incorporation, introjection, and identification of objects. Transformation of common self into object self from the outermost ring occurs through persuasion of organism by the object. The object, after being incorporated by mother’s presentation, most literally meets the requirements of the organism or specifically satisfies the instinct of common self. When the organism requires to meet a need for the second time, this time mother expects him/her to act gradually in the same manner with the object in order to enable the object incorporate it. When the infant acts, though in part, accordingly (when he/she takes a step toward the object self from the common self), he/she possesses the object again as a reward. As the number of objects contacted is increased, the number of rings passing from common self to object self is increased.
On the other hand, when a structure who achieved a certain level of transformation, and took shape of the object self fails to make appropriate incorporation, introjection, and identification, we observe that rings of object self are reversed this time, and returned to common self structures (regression). Lack of objects following transformation of object self is associated with failure of object self to act in the same manner with object rather than shortage of objects. An object which is incapable of acting in the same manner with the objects will soon start to fail in incorporating, introjecting and identifying the required number and quality of objects to satisfy the organism, turning to other sources of feedback (retun to common self layers-regression).
An object self with a good capacity of feedback from other objects has this desire to remain among objects. As the feedback gets lower, this desire is reduced, and when the desire is reduced, feedback is reduced, which results in getting beyond the minimum point where the subject is kept among objects, and withdrawn to a common self in an autistic world.
Our relationships with other people, social support provided, friendships established are not associated with the fact that every other person is an object for us, or beneficial to us as an object. On the contrary, it is related with the fact that they are structures completing our subject as part of the common self. This is why people don’t like being alone, and no matter how much they get bored of being with others, eventually they return to them, and look for their company. It is a basic need to see the whole of his/her subject, and to complement his/her subject.
As a result of psychoanalytic therapy, one learns to use himself/herself as an object, and becomes capable of processing his/her mental apparatus. Subsequently, he/she gets the opportunity to look at the his/her inner conflicts as well as spontaneously resolving these conflicts to some degree, and paving the way for capsuling and transporting them. In this case, any failures experienced during externalization are not attributed to the subject, but to his/her object. Reflection of these externalizing failures by the subject to his/her object, but not to himself/herself as a result of therapy provides an outstanding resolution, preventing the individual to fall one ring back in his/her object self.
The tides experienced during establishment of object self are completely subject to object suppression, endangered with a potential to leave the fields of subject entirely to the object. Particularly psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic-oriented psychotherapy divide the subject (the common self as a summary of the entire species past) into two, by rescuing some parts of fields belonging to the subject, and leaving some others totally for the object, and thus produces an organization in the mental apparatus.
Instinct: Psychic energy, in fact, is a structure modified by the pressure imposed by impulses, which are shaped on the instincts of organism. Instincts are an integrative summary of the most repeated behavioural patterns by a living body evolutionarily from the earliest periods to survive and reproduce. Say, a bird persistently sits on an pellet of concave objects just like a palm in order to keep its eggs and children warm, this very frequently repeated behaviour turns into an instinct of building a nest. Similarly, as a group of swallows survives by traveling to locations with warm climates in order to seek food and shelter, and frequently repeats this behaviour while others pass away, birds seeking for warm places repeat these actions, contributing to the development of an instinct to migration.
Thus, instinct is an automatism with a source of an individual and/or species need, and a target of individual and/or species satisfaction acquired as a result of repeated satisfaction in continuous needs of the organism. It directly originates from common self. Use of the term instinct and its meaning ascribed by Freud and psychoanalysis are inefficient due to lack of a phylogenetic background. We are supposed to be suspicious about the idea of sexual energy resources alone including libido transfering sufficient energy to an outstanding mechanism such as instinct, which keeps the organism and the species alive.
Instincts are the most observable sound structures of the psychic energy. They seek for discharge, each of them being an energy ball. However, psychic apparatus allows such discharge of energy only under certain conditions (to the extent allowed by objects and in fields left empty again by objects) with a characteristic of being aware of the facts of the outer world. Pathology results from discharge of psychic energy in various ways and amounts which can not maintain the homeostasis. For instance, in cases where the discharge of psychic energy is reduced and energy is accumulated, some rituals organized by psychic apparatus (compulsive efforts) attempt to resist the high pressure produced inside by this energy and obstruct inappropriate discharge channels (e.g., if we give a familiar example, when an obsessive compulsive patient experiences an obsession and says ”you are going to kill your mother”, psychic energy seeks relief of discharge through this action, and the patient tries to obstruct inappropriate discharge of energy by means of a compulsive ritual – say, handwashing- developed to mitigate it).
Freud states that instinct goes through four stages: instinct source, instinct aim, instinct impetus, instinct object. And, it is nourished from two roots: basic biological needs of organism and libido. We know that biological needs of an organism are confined with the organism; and if we remember that libido is defined as sexual drive, it becomes clear that libido is also confined with the organism. Consequently, Freud didn’t emphasize its phylogenetic basis while he didn’t constrain the sources from which the instinct arises, i.e., the instinct into the organism. However, the instinct has an almost universal nature, with a characteristic very common almost in human beings, even mostly in mammals, and sometimes in all living bodies. Therefore, the instinct is an energy load entirely belonging to the species, even to all living things, not to the organism as constrained by Freud, and thus it is certainly one of the most fundamental entities of common self, which may show differences in expressing itself according to the conditions the organism is in. For instance, if a man has low levels of testosteron, onset of sexual drive may not be strong enough, or expression of life instinct may be weak in someone with a poor self-power; but, this doesn’t mean that both motives are ontogenetically poor in that organism. It only indicates that instincts do not have the sufficient energy for externalizing. Because one part of energy comes from objects, and if one cannot correlate well with objects, he/she cannot respond well to the externalization as he/she cannot make sufficient transfer of energy to his/her organism. Then, we may say that externalization absorbs energy from objects. But, it should be also added that consumption rate of absorbed energy is not related with objects, but with structural features coming along with the subject from the birth.
It is certain that the self should learn language of the object in order to absorb energy from the object. Transformation of the structure brought about by common self into an object language results in formation of an object self capable of doing this competently. This structure of self resembles the bilingual stone (a tablet which was recovered during archaeological excavations, one side inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphs, and the other side with Hittite hieroglyphs on the same subject helped a linguist familiar with Egyptian hieroglyphs to decipher the Hittite hieroglyphs by comparing this bilingual text). On one side, there is the language of common self while the object language is inscribed on the other, and it translates the two language into each other just like a transformer. Process of maturing is simply the experting of transformer (object self) in this translation. It canalizes demands of common self in the form of instincts and drives (desires of satisfaction) onto objects in the language of objects (by biding its time, selecting a proper method, and demanding appropriate amount). Objects evaluate this demand on a benefit/loss ratio, and either reject the discharge or allow it; they mostly delay it.
The ultimate point of learning the object language is being able to develop a theory of mind because objects make this calculation of benefit/loss regarding the demands of others in their mind, if they have any; if the opposite object self knows how this mind works, then he/she predetermines the outcome of this calculation, and presents his/her demand by specifying the amount, method and time to the object in an acceptable form. Thus, when an object self takes a mature form, then we have a structure who knows the object language well (just as speaking good English requires directly thinking and speaking in English rather than first thinking in Turkish, and then translating it into English, speaking the language of objects means thinking and behaving like objects do). An object self with an acquired maturity is like a revolving door; it has a volume as well as an isolation both on the object side and the common self side. In other words, it accepts a limited number of demands from the common self, and introduces them to the objects, but keeps the remaining demands of common self during this process without revealing them. Similarly, it separates the satisfaction tools received from the object side from other objects, and brings the demand with the object within its own volume, “empathising” and soaking.
The keypoint here is the isolation; if there is no isolation, all drives attack on objects, and attempt to complete their discharge, where objects, in turn, retreat with a few damages, and avoid satisfying the organism for a long while. The immature object self, who freightens the objects away, and becomes deprived of them, attempts to create imaginary objects to satisfy the drives of common self (literary and artistic works, day dreaming, etc.)
The narcissistic nature has been always a basic interest of studies in psychoanalytic literature. A major part of theoretical advances has come along with resolution of the narcissistic nature. At this point, evaluations made by Hartmann emphasizing the intrapsychic and extrapsychic aspects of ego, produced a new approach in the formation of ego. While the extrapsychic aspect gets in contact with objects, the intrapsychic aspect correlates with narcissistic core, forming a contrast between them. It is important to note that the dual structure in our assumption of common self and object self is also observed here, and it is impossible to describe the development ego without establishing such a duality.
The Death Instinct is a psychic phenomenon which was linked with instinct of aggression as a result of long-term studies by Melani Klein. This robust discovery helped us to tremendeously simplify the existence. The most significant finding which supports linking the death instinct with aggression is that one who is aggressive to others is equally aggressive to himself/herself. Getting in contact with objects by means of attacking them hides the urge of getting attacked by objects in itself. Killing itself is difficult for a living body (except human beings) because it is impossible to bite its vitallly important areas (neck) by itself. Thus, satisfaction of killing itself for a living being with a death instinct is only possible by getting itself killed by another living being. And, it is only possible by attacking the other living being, and exposing yourself to an attack from the opposite side. Therefore, we can tell that evaluations by Melanie Klein are pertinent, and aggression serves to satisfy the death instinct.
Substitution of Instinct Satisfaction: We know that Freud mentioned partial instincts, and defined them as originating from pregenital areas (oral, anal). In our opinion, the basic onset mechanism of these pregenital drives is associated with the organism’s lack of support for instincts due to neoteny (the production of human offspring in its juvenile form) and heterochronicity (differential growth rate of organs when someone is born). Common self may have an instinct (let’s say, reproduction), but the organism is not mature enough to satisfy it (sexual organs and hormones are not mature yet). In this case, one meets the satisfaction of this instinct just like satisfying another instinct his/her organism is capable of. In other words, if the organism has not reached to a level of maturity that will satisfy its reproduction instinct, it relieves the pressure produced by reproduction instinct as if it satisfies the instinct (e.g. starvation instinct) it was previously capable of satisfying (probably the one lately became capable). Therefore, it should be related with the fact that a child, whose sexual organs do not grow in maturity yet, attempts to compensate his/her instinct of reproduction by urinating, defecating, and particularly sucking and biting (lacking any outfit to satisfy the instinct of reproduction brings along the attempt to satisfy the same instinct with the instinct satisfying the instinct of hunger).
If satisfaction of the instinct is substitued, we observe that the substituting behaviors (which satisfy the hunger) are delayed to the years when the substitued instinct (reproduction) is really satisfied. In other words, even tough a married man has a relationship with his wife in a way which satisfies his instinct of reproduction, we observe that he is engaged in substituting behaviors [kissing, sucking (making love)] while satisfying his urge of sex as if he is satisfying the instinct of hunger before coitus. As a matter of fact, almost all coitus satisfying the instinct of reproduction follows a foreplay. Furthermore, sometimes these substituting behaviors may entirely replace the behaviors satisfying the instincts, and eliminate the behaviors maturely satisfying the instinct. Therefore, an environment which will allow substantial use of substituting satisfying behaviors during pregenital period (mother and son sharing the bed in the absence of father, a boy being raised in a house with no male figure, etc.) is required. In this case, the instinct cannot produce the inner pressure required for diverging to the object, and instead it diverges to more easily accessible substituting behaviours (it results in disorders like fetichism, masturbation, etc.), lowering the inner tension periodically and easily, which does not allow any opportunity to discharge for the object (the organism is required to maintain the inner tension as long as possible by keeping it at a certain level in order to reach to the target object of instinct).
Substitution of instinct satisfaction is probably performed by means of the latest satisfied instinct. In other words, if the instinct of hunger is well satisfied, it would be substituted by itself (through consistent use of oral and anal ways), if the instinct of hunger is not well satisfied, then it would be substituted by a previous instinct, the instinct of survival, and it will bring violence along with coitus.
Similarities Between Externalization Approach and Psycoanalytic Approach: There has been always attempts to link psychological processes with physiological processes, which can be typically exemplified by Freud. His interest in physiological and neurological science resulted in an attempt to describe psychological processes particularly with neurological parameters. This approach is an example of reducing everything to physics. As already known, reduction leads to a loss in the reduced, and if the reduction persists in a multi-layer way, the material becomes very weak.
The system ascribed by Freud within this perception had two bases; unpleasure principle and constancy principle. The unpleasure principle is based on avoidance and keeping away particularly from unpleasing excitations, while constancy principle refers to release of accumulated energy from excitations despite avoidance, maintaining the inner balance at a constant level.
These two principles by Freud relies on a fundamental principle, which suggests that one has a psychic energy always ready to discharge. We can conclude that it doesn’t matter how much this energy is discharged, it will be filled again and again to an almost bottomless extent.
Freud’s this positioning resulted in discovery of a deep ore in composing physiological basis to the psychological phenomena. The externalizing approach sustains this positioning by Freud within a framework of the general principles.
Our main highlight is on the above mentioned outcome inferred from what Freud said: the source of psychic energy is infinitely filled in. This energy-loaded nature of our internal structure (the material carried and revealed by our phylogenetic and species past in order to establish the ego) has to externalize in order to reduce this load. Therefore, the externalizing approach anticipates that at this point it exactly coincides with the constancy principle of Freud, with a tendency to realize the principle of homeostasis in the organism.
Therefore, what the organism does is simply a transformation of its energy into a substance by object cathexis. If externalization is objectivization, then objectivization is actualization or profanation. More expressively, the psychic energy is in a struggle for learning the modern status of the world (actual form of the object) and transfer what is learnt to the DNA.
Freud implies that the psychic energy objectivizes the specific aspects prepared by psychic apparatus of the organism (delay of transformation, deposition and discharge) by using them (taking the cathexis from the “ego”, sliding it to the objects, and thus making the objects, which provide energy for, a part of the ego). For so many objects becoming a part of the ego, the concept of “ego” needs to be “enlarged”, “diffused”, and its boundaries should become uncertain. We actually observe that individuals are not loyal to the boundaries of ego as they are used to after getting familiar with objects and reaching to a certain level of maturity. This is very obvious in transition from primary narcissism to secondary narcissism in psychoanalytic literature.
The operation carried out by Freud regarding the psychoanalytic theory is like mathematics of the psychology. This approach opened the gates of an outstanding labyrinth with highly concrete and wide range of branches for the scientists, who are spending efforts to find out a physical basis for the psychodynamic model as well as providing an indirect evidence of the mathematical structure in the operation of human soul as well as further encouraging those who are interested in it.
However, upon failing to achieve quantitative results in this mathematization process, Freud started to dislocate his theory increasingly after 1900s to the field of psychology, and get further away from his “project” for which he had tangible determinations. The most important reason was the failure to achieve quantitative values as mentioned above, more expressively being unable to transcend the enormous gap between the electrical energy transmitted by neurons and the psychic energy, which still exists despite the level of knowledge achieved so far. This gap will be transcended one day, and use of numerous psychological metaphors in order to compensate for this deep hole or ignore it will not be required.
The basic mistake initially made by Freud was that he tried to equalize the psychic energy and the neuronal energy in a concrete and one-to-one manner. However, the psychic energy is a multi-layer derivative of neuronal energy, which is not possible to be calculated at present. This innumerability probably depends on unknowability of almost infinite number of alternatives resulting from combination of infinite number of small units (neuronal action potentials, neuronal postsynaptic potentials, etc.). The number of resultant alternatives is so huge that the gap can only be approximately filled in with computer simulations in the future, and therefore Freud and his theory will continue to survive as long as this gap is not closed. Considering his predictions and depending on physical principles, we can say that externalization is actually a process of using the energy to acquire information on object, and maintaining a homeostatis by this information. A human being naturally experiences a danger of losing homeostasis after born into a foreign world because he/she has a great energy and a weak bodily structure, which cannot retain this energy. So, he/she unwillingly distributes this energy onto objects, and by acquiring information on how to use them makes them carry the energy, and use his/her energy via these objects. What externalization does is basically to use the rational energy, and apply the information on finding and using an energy source which is species-specific and recorded in DNA to the objects.
During this process, a healthy organism never prefers to satisfy its instincts in one and full move. He/she always acts to keep his/her tension at a certain level behind, and force himself/herself to a relationship with the object.
The determination of Freud to link the energy used by all processes in the psychic apparatus originally to a sexual urge is apprehensible because it is only the sexual urge which can give an idea more or less about the quantity among so much unmeasurability. Quantitative values such as number of intercourses and/or masturbations per week for an adult might have seemed as a measurable aspect of the psychic energy to him. From this point of view, for a person who thinks mathematically like Freud, it is rational to replace sexual activity usually with the psychic energy, and produce concepts such as infantile sexuality and libido when it gets difficult to apply this approach.
Only a portion of the psychic energy is reserved for sexual energy, and it is still possible to have a strong psychic energy in someone whose sexuality is congenitally erased while there may be a low psychic energy in someone who is very strong in terms of both sexual hormones and sexual action.
Freud’s initial opinions on psychic energy have undergone major alterations over time both by himself and his followers, and each alteration has resulted in more ambiguous expressions, and more vague descriptions, but more “accurate” intentions. For example, the “reality” was initially described very clearly as “delay or transformation of energy discharge”, and then it was defined as “delay or transformation of psychic process as mutually conditioned by the context of intra- and intersystemic operations within the mental apparatus...(original quotes)” (Meissner 2007).
Resistance: Freud defined resistance as patient’s blocking traumatic memories from conscious memory with an active mechanism. This conclusion by Freud sheds a valuable light on what is going on in some failures experienced during externalization process. Failures occur from time to time during externalization, and the sustainable level of pleasing activity of objects is interrupted for a short or long period of time, during which recording of objects in the memory are protected. In case where such active records show gaps, the self keeps away from the potential to externalize to all objects, and the object self completes its structuring only in the presence of big gaps. Such a structure is attentive to keep the self away from overloading (intense emotional atmosphere, challenging relations with objects which require resistance, etc.), and ignore events similar to traumatic events which have brought gaps along in order to avoid probability of shrinkage of gaps and collapse of the entire construction.
Similar life experiences are numerous in the history of each organism. The life of an organism progresses by selecting something, and specifically not selecting some other things. When traumatic events are disregarded, it is, in fact, the denial of presence of events and objects which are undeniably close (in our life, our psychology, even sometimes in our body). Therefore, disregarding events that cannot be go unnoticed even with an active carelessness and continuation of memory recordings most explicitly result in a conflict. In some cases, some small events can be recorded in the form of a pallid trace with an active carelessness by memory. It has no threatening significance for the conscious memory. For example, memory has a pallid record of beggars all along the way, but may not feel guilty unless there is a particular confrontation. However, in a trauma with a very strong recording, one becomes engaged in active defense against this recording. Such a defense blocks any kind of material which will bring the trauma to conscious memory so that no externalization is possible on many objects, which are likely to be related to the trauma, and the individual cannot define the object self as required, and leaves himself/herself to a crippled functioning in life.
Incomplete externalization on a group of objects although the individual is on the area of externalization is the most significant cause of an inadequate self, and it triggers a series of pathological presentations leading to feeling of inadequacy in fortcoming years because the world is a whole, and any incomplete representation in this whole is remarkable in any experience related with the object. Ignoring a group of recorded material lowers the externalization rate of the self.
It is very common to see externalization of other objects, their becoming an object and being used at points of incomplete externalization. Being unable to use the other objects for his/her own subject, but being used by becoming an object for other subjects, not for his/her own subject determines the gap areas of externalization and the pathology developing over them.
Freud initially thought that the resistance was all about unwillingness of a patient in remembering the traumatic events experienced. However, over time he understood that the resistance is specifically obstructed in bringing the unconscious traumatic material into light (conscious memory) by an active strenght. When this active strenght is at the weakest point, it is the time of free association, where the resistance can be broken to some extent.
What we understand from the theoratical grounding paved by Freud is that; externalizing depends on the balance formed between the permission granted by objects and the internal forces (instinct, urge) which have a desire for externalization (satisfaction). If objects allow the subject to use them (satisfy the subject), in other words, if they give in themselves in favour of the internal forces, then there occurs an externalization on the basis of that object. But if the object doesn’t allow to be used by the subject, then the subject seeks for satisfaction in lower satisfaction channels. This results in subject’s waiting, postponing, changing direction, and achieving the power of contentment, and thus developing an adaptability. If the subject is not allowed to have any object discharge, then he/she tends to block his/her internal energy entirely due to failure of any satisfaction in lower satisfaction channels (depressive personality pattern). Finally, if the subject is used by the object, and becomes obliged to give satisfaction to the object while seeking for discharge by using the object (physically and sexually abused children), it means a trauma for the subject (particularly early trauma), and it may lead to onset of severe clinical manifestations.
The mental apparatus shows resistance to bring particularly early trauma to conscious memory because having this trauma in conscious memory discourages the subject for externalizing via other objects. In order to avoid entire blockage of externalization, the mental apparatus takes action on the memory (probably on the neural circuit related with the trauma in hippocampus), forming a negative feedback loop. Whenever the circuit related with trauma is activated, it immediately induces the negative feedback loop, gradually leveling down the activity in a trauma cycle, and in the long-run the trauma cycle “dies” physiologically and, of course, psychologically. However, as each persistent trauma keeps many efforts mentally active for defense purposes (mechanisms used for repression), it weakens improvement of the individual, and continuation of externalization via new objects. As the individual loads reserve cycles which will try to produce representations for new objects up to a certain limit, he/she gives up to seek for novelty.
Can We Find a Neurophysiological Basis: We are aware that each trauma disrupting the externalization process psychodynamically produces a defense mechanism. For instance, a 22 year-old girl, who was sexually abused by her father in childhood, and subsequently left her school, had developed a handwashing compulsion when she heard a voice, person or an event reminding her the trauma. She was not giving the handwashing up until reaching to a certain level of satisfaction, while consecutively developing other compulsions (touching other fingers by her thumb three times in turn, etc.). In other words, the externalization process she tried to go through with the father object resulted in a trauma, and these mechanisms that cropped up successively (compulsions) by her which were adopted in order to repress this trauma have blocked future externalizations (completing her education, meeting new people, etc.). Just as traumas which have been surmounted improved her personality, the ones which have not been surmounted impeded her.
By combining the data from clinical and psychoanalytic literature, we can conclude that each traumatic externalization results in a series of actions which will make recalling the trauma itself difficult at least during the initial period (in which the trauma has not been surmounted yet), and after these actions are repeated, the devastating/freightening effects of the trauma will be terminated either by not bringing the trauma to the conscious memory or by pushing them back even it comes to conscious memory. The most feasible neurophysiological model to fit it may be the mechanism of reverberation in the nervous system, which was proposed by Lorente de Nó(1933).
In reverberation some neuronal circuits continue to discharge in a gradual fashion of increasing activity until reaching to a certain level of satisfaction when an urge comes in, and probably terminate these activities after the change in ion channels is resumed.
We, again, know that early trauma primes the HPA axis, resulting in increased DA in the prefrontal cortex. It has been demonstrated that increased DA makes the high activity circuits more active,while making the low activity circuits less active. Then, a neuronal circuit which keeps the representation of a traumatic event may have reached to a much higher level of activity than others, and may have brought some other circuits into a hyperactive status due to the reverberation produced along with each activation. When there occurs anything reminding the trauma, upon activation of the trauma cycle, a group of circuits in the frontal cortex enhance their activities by reverberating themselves by means of a positive feedback loop, and they discharge until they enable rapid extinguishment of the main cycle by a strong positive feedback effect on the trauma cycle via a GABA interneuron. Because the initial circuit’s continuing activity, even it is lower, means that the circuits evoking a negative feedback due to reverberation go on with higher activities. Therefore, it is not possible to extinguish the circuits which provide negative feedback to the trauma cycle until the trauma cycle is extinguished.
We believe that successive development of compulsions along with an event of trauma recall causes the trauma cycle to automatically ignite the circuits representing the compulsion and expand the compulsions by jumping from one circuit to the other through reverberating.
The reverberated circuit produces a negative feedback effect on the original trauma cycle, and make it difficult to recall. The central point is that the trauma cycle is solidly repressed by consecutive activation of other circuits, which are reverberated. Therefore, recall of traumatic memories are so tightly prevented that the analyst tries to reach to the repressed material without provoking the patient to develop any additional defences as much as possible.
In that case, what circuits are activated or extinguished by the analyst? In addition to the above speculation establishing a paralellism between reverberation and repression, we are going to review Hebbian-type learning. According to Hebb (1949), "When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite a cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic changes take place in one or both cells such that A's efficiency as one of the cells firing B, is increased.”.
It is obvious that if an axon of cell repeatedly and persistently show an activity low enough to evoke the adjacent cell [which is, probably, mediated by Post Synaptic Excitator Potentials (PSEP), unknown during the time of Hebb], then microanatomic and metabolic changes, which can improve both excitatory capacity of a firing cell, and receptory capacity of an excited cell will take place. The hypothesis of Hebb introduces an important opportunity to speculate about the ways where therapist’s efforts are effective. Persistent focus on underlying trauma during analytic therapy by the therapist leads to an increase in the excitatory capacity on neurons of the loop, which produce the pathology in patient, and which has been already asleep (repressed) as well as activating the loop as a result of increased activity of the firing neuron, and awakening it from its enforced sleep.
On the other hand, therapist may gradually desensitize the patient against the stimulus, for instance, in phobic disorder in such a way that the patient may establish a gradual inhibition on the cycles of the fired automonic symptoms compared to the phobic object in the same manner with the hypothesis of Hebb (Hebb talks about a stimulus in his hypothesis, but here it is the increased pressure of inhibition. This situation, which looks like a conflict, is resolved by mediating GABAergic interneurons. Excitors with a Hebb-type learning stimulate the inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, and GABA neurons produce an inhibitory effect on the cells of the reverberating cycles, which fire the autonomic symptoms, extinguishing these cycles over time and signs occuring upon exposure to a phobic stimulus). An interesting parallel situation here is that it takes time to have a outcome in a gradual fashion from this procedure carried out by pre- and post-synaptic neurons, which are also referred in the hypothesis of Hebb just like the desensitization method applied in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. This parallelism is significant, and it is as if what psychology does on the top is repeated by physiology at the bottom.
Based on our clinical experiences, although cognitive behavioral therapy is satisfactory for the patient when it is used alone, an analytic psychotherapy may be required to eliminate the residual material even after completion of the therapy. We think that this requirement results from the easy emergence of underlying repressed material without any fear after desensitization of above mentioned cycles. For a patient whose fear associated with a phobic stimulus was relieved by a systematic desensitization, analytic disclosure of a repressed sexual trauma underlying the clinical presentation is only possible by exciting the repressed, sleeping cycle without exciting other cycles.
Decision Making: One of the key points of externalization is the affect while the other one is decision making. Orienting to objects while seeking for satisfaction of the pleasure is, of course, a task of the affect, but it is the decision making that determines to which object the externalization will be made. This life-long procedure of externalization is realized by orienting to the object through affect, and making selections through decision making.
Then, how can we discuss decison making at the level of neuronal cycles? This can be done by mathematizing each step of the procedure at the level of neuronal cycles, i.e. reducing. The best reducing can be achieved as follows: “Decision making is a cognitive process of choosing an opinion or an action among a set of two or more alternatives. First, choice alternatives involve goal-directed actions for which the expected outcomes can be assessed to some degree and taken into account in a decision process. Second, a hallmark of controlled decisions is the process of information accumulation and deliberate consideration. Third, risk is inherent in virtually all interesting decisions; indeed, one can say that the essence of decision making is to make a right choice in the face of uncertainty about its long-term consequences(Wang, 2008)”.
Please note that the proposition made by Wang can be concluded as “During decision making, information is accumulated and processed on goal-directed individual objects or various existences of a single object, and finally uncertainity is reduced as much as possible, and a reasonable choice is made for remaining uncertainity.”
We know that regarding the role of decision making in cognition, little was known about its neuronal underpinning. Therefore, based on the relevant literature and, particularly, studies by Wang, we need to develop a model by ourselves. If we start from the easiest point, we can describe the alternatives to be selected as different neuronal networks.
Let’s say, there are networks A and B. The accumulation of information for these networks showing which alternative is more beneficial, which one remains active longer and less harmfull can be found by comparing it with previous records in the hippocampus.
This is performed by the frontal cortex because decision-related activity has also been observed in the prefrontal cortex, which makes its selection on the basis of pleasure or in a psychophysiological expression; reward-based adaptation. The reward-based adaptation (are values of alternative responses learned by synapses) is inherent in choice behavior.
Then, how long it takes to make this choice and where does it result from? In human studies, mean reaction time(RT) range from tens of milliseconds to about a second in simple perceptual tasks, and RT can be related to neural activity at the single-cell level. That means the rate of selection between network alternatives varies depending on the rate of its neural activity. While making a choice takes longer in networks with very slow activity of neurons, it is faster in networks with rapid activity of neurons.
Now we know how this choice is made, then can we find a neurophysiological mechanism that can be tuned to this choice? A leading candidate mechanism for the generation of persistent activity is strong recurrent excitation in a local cortical circuit that gives rise to stimulus-selective attractor states—self-sustained population activity patterns of a neural network (Goldman-Rakic, 1995) I also think like Goldman-Rakic that, like this, an attractor state model also account for decision-making computations; most approval mechanism for accurate choice between different alternatives is recurrent excitation in a local network. That excitation within the network takes an attractor state selective to that excitation, and indicates a target by discharging until the networks satisfies itself. The psychological moment of decision making (after all information is accumulated and processed) occurs at the end of a flow of rapid sequence of thoughts added to each other as described here physiologically. In other words, physiological attractor states coincide with psychological moment of decision making.
If we move further, significant progress has been made on neural representation of reward signals and reward expectations. A seminal finding was that phasic activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area(VTA) encodes a reward prediction error (the difference between the expected and actual reward) (Roesch et al., 2007). This detection by Roesch is very important because it provides physiological response to reward expectation. Based on this, phasic activity of the dopaminergic neurons in VTA occurs when there is a difference between the expected and actual rewards.
Consistent with a prediction error signal, spiking activity of dopamine neurons increases with both reward magnitude and probability (Tobler et al., 2005; Roesch et al., 2007) ). In reinforcement learning theory, the error signal is postulated to update the reward expectation, Brain structures activated in decision making and modulated by reward signals.
We know that, many synapses for inputs to decision neurons are potentiated only if the choice is rewarded and depressed otherwise.
If we integrate all these observations up to now, we can say that prefrontal cortex has neuronal circuits which encode different decision alternatives (e.g., I should immediately buy a car, and I can buy a car later on). On one of these circuits VTA dopaminergic neurons demonstrate phasic discharges (reward prediction error), which means that: If this alternative (the alternative encoded by the circuit on which the VTA neurons discharge) is chosen during decision making, probability of the organism to get a reward is higher (then, reward expectation is higher in this alternative). As a result, decision making mechanisms of frontal cortex selects the mentioned circuit (accordingly, let’s say the alternative of “I should immediately buy a car”), and expects the reward. If there comes a reward at the end of this choice, let’s say, circuit A starts to get stronger compared to the circuit B (the synaptic connections become tigthened, excitatory transitions from synaptic connections are facilitated), and becomes prioritized in the following decision processes. If we suppose that the strenght of synaptic connections in circuit A is cA, and the strength of synaptic connections in circuit B is cB, then we have this: in the model, the synaptic strengths (cA and cB) are proportional to the returns (the average reward per choice) rather than the incomes (the average reward per trial) of the two targets. The system chooses target A more frequently, it would be exploited by the opponent, and the unrewarded outcomes from choosing A induce depression of the synapses to the neural pool A, so that the difference cA − cB decreases over time, and the system gradually chooses B more frequently (Soltani et al. 2006)
We have seen that circuit A and B are chosen during decision making process according to the level (physiologically reward prediction error) of reward expectations. What remains unknown is that how the synaptic connections in the chosen circuit are strengtened after a choice is made. Observation of decision making processes in working memory with its dynamic activity will elucidate this subject.
A key neural computation in both working memory and decision making can be conceptualized as the time integral of inputs: working memory relies on neurons that convert a transient input pulse into a self-sustained persistent activity, whereas decision making involves quasilinear ramping activity in response to a constant input for accumulation of information. In other words, selection of circuit A means a transient, short-term impulse in that circuit. This impulse, later on, gets into the mechanism of self-sustained persistent activity, which discharges until it satisfies by itself as required by the characteristic of the circuit A, and retains the circuit in a persistent state of excitation-discharge. This discharge is translated into a linearly rising activity(quasilinear ramping activity). During that process, it probably produces an inhibitory effect on the circuit B, resulting in extinguishment of the circuit B, and eliminating it as a remarkable alternative for next selections. When a circuit is involved in this activity, it necessarily facilitates its synaptic connections, while at the same time weakenening the synaptic connections of the alternative circuit due to its inhibitory effect so that it becomes prioritized in further selections, during which circuit A becomes of secondary importance only in case of lack of repeated rewards to the organism as described above.
Uncertainity: Up until now, it was all related with situations where the amount and possibility of a future reward was more or less certain through selection of a circuit A or B. However, if there is any uncertainity (not lowness) about the amount and possibility of the reward by each circuit, then one has to explore it before choosing possible options, and select a circuit C based on this research within the above described principles. It is what we call neural metrics of uncertainity. In an uncertain world, reinforcement sometimes needs to be counterbalanced by exploratory decisions(Wang 2008) It will be interesting to study how, according to behavioral demands, the brain can exploit a known environment or explore optimal options in a volatile world (Daw et al. 2006; Behrens et al. 2007).
Thus, we have clarified by which decision making mechanisms the object selections are made, and the neuropyhsiological basis these processes have. Externalization with objects is basically performed through a reward mechanism. And the reward can be defined as the organism’s satisfaction of absolute needs (e.g., potassium deficiency), of relative needs in itself (e.g., increased aldosteron hormone compared to the plasma renin activity) and of relative needs other than itself (e.g., a less attractive man for women, having lower testosteron levels than other men) in the short and long-term, achieving a stable balance (homoeostatis).
While establishing a balance, the relative nature of needs should be emphasized. For instance, when a less attractive man for women gets a smile from a woman, excitation of the circuit which was activated during this event, may continue throughout one’s life, seeking after the same reward by the frontal cortex. On the other hand, we can say that all circuits of a very attractive man for women becomes desensitized due to reward saturation.
However, if the selected circuit brings a punishment (trauma) instead of a reward, then this circuit will be inhibited (repression) in a manner not to be reawaken as previously noted. If the choices made continue to be false, and each is responded with a punishment, resulting in successive traumas, then the organism withdraws himself/herself from life in half, reducing the number of processes which require decision making. Vital significance of depression in the object self is that it dramatically reduces the number of processes which require decision making. For someone who stays in bed all day long until evening time, the number of processes which require decision making is less than someone who is actively involved in life on streets or in a work environment.
On the other hand, when the number of repressions (actively extinguished circuits) due to traumas is much, there is much load on the frontal cortex because more additional circuits will be required to repress by reverberating in order to extinguish the circuit along with secondary circuits that will activate it through associations (side connections). If we assume that a major part of frontal cortex is occupied in this way, it means that there will be no enough circuits left to modulate the active life processes. Therefore, such people have less tolerance and increased anger; and after, a full cowering mode may develop due to reduced neurophysiologic capacity.
Tolerance: At this juncture, it will be appropriate to talk about tolerance. We describe a person’s tolerance against events and other people as maximum flexibility which can be shown with an intact ego structure. It can be physiologically translated as follows: tolerance can be embodied as not undergoing depression due to the negative effect caused by the event or person to be tolerated through self-criticisms, and speaking in term of circuits; if the synaptic strenght (cA) is much on circuits, they will not extinguish as a result of pressure applied on them, and continue displaying their activities (e.g., if one has a solid self-confidence against someone who is consistently trying to humiliate him/her, he/she can endure a mutual relationship without any destructive reactions. It means if the individual agrees with the criticisms made by the other person, he/she can extinguish the circuits representing self-confidence, but if the synaptic connections in circuits representing the self-confidence are strong enough, then the criticisms cannot reach to the power that can extinguish the existing circuit). Secondly, if criticising (both from the other and the self) tends to extinguish the circuits related with self-confidence, one can activate supportive circuits in other divisions, and maintain the attacked circuit alive. For tolerance, it is important to maintain the circuit as active as possible when exposed to attacks (e.g., a person who starts to lose his/her self-confidence against someone who keeps criticising all the time may continue to keep his/her self-confidence alive through other people, dreams and events).
Repression: Prior to the traumas resulting from sexual or physical abuse, the victim has an urge toward the object which is pledged to be presented to himself/herself. This urge activates a lot of circuits around the main circuit, and connect them to each other functionally (maybe physically). When the main circuit, which is located at the center of pleasure expectation, becomes aberrant, and repressed as a result of trauma, other circuits reliant on it are likely to undergo a partial repression, but they are always ready to be activated (slips of tongue). These auxiliary circuits tend to satisfy from reactivating the repressed urge in the past in case of any failure to collect sufficient reward, particularly in further life. Therefore, when auxiliary circuits excite the main circuit probably to reawaken it, one becomes exposed with the danger of reactivating the prior trauma, which results in a feeling of anxiety. Finally, these auxiliary circuits break the repression through changes in their own neurons and neurons of the main circuit within the framework of above mentioned hypothesis by Hebb (1949). The person experiences danger of losing the integrity of his/her object self as thrown into a state of great panic. Then, in order to continue to repress the original trauma, one should rapidly continue to externalizing through objects, and support the circuits involved in repression with the power gained by this way (by new circuits formed for new object representations), enabling the involvement of new circuits into repression. This, in a way, means a relative reduction of the traumatic effect (aberrant circuit) within the whole mental apparatus, which prevents the patient from developing a resistance during the therapy.
Repression in psychoanalytic terminology is based on attempts of the common self to externalize with a false object. When the person experiences pain instead of pleasure at the end of these attempts, he/she should refrain from this, and not to try to have another externalization with this object. For this reason, he/she conditions himself/herself to avoid stepping on any traces. Each externalization failure of the common self (discharge rejected by the object) returns, and obstructs a certain amount of its energy, leaving a part of the common self in a static status without externalizing. Thus, failures to externalize block the instinctive energy from the common self, imprisoning the energy inside, and perform a discharge through explosive inappropriate object(s) by reaching to an intrapsychically pressure or if this pressure cannot find any opportunity to go out despite of everything, it turns inside, and kills vitality of the common self for a long period of time (chronic depression)
Conversion: Each externalization process (establishing a relationship with the object for taking pleasure from it, possession of the object) corresponds to an action of swallowing as phylogenetically encoded by the infant because for all animals, the satisfaction process evolutionarily starts with swallowing (even in the sexual activity). Thus, all of the externalizations performed through an object since infancy is accompanied with a fantasy of swallowing. If externalization fails, then the fantasy of swallowing turns to swallowing by the object so that it is satisfied by a fantasy where extremities (arms and legs) and organs (eyes, ears, tongue, etc.) primarily mediating the externalization on the object are swallowed by the object. The hand which touches the object most becomes paralyzed, the eye which looks at the object most becomes blind, and the ear which hears the object most becomes deaf. For conversion, Freud stated that conflicts which are not allowed to bring to conscious memory are directed to somatic innervation, resulting in stroke, blindness and sensory disorders (Meissner 2007). It is obvious from this early determination by Freud that he tried very hard to link psychology with biology. While there is no neuroscientific evidence which can predict establishment of specific link for psychic conflict with the somatosensorial and motor areas in brain, and not each patient who has a conflict with his/her arm, leg, nose (those who undergo plastic surgery) experiences a conversive psychiatric disorder. It occurs mostly when a person maintains his/her infantile characteristics and has fantasies of swallowing and being swallowed. On the other hand, in many conversion, patient’s fainting, again evolutionarily, serves the purpose of resisting to the attack by remaining still and playing dead, which eliminates being swallowing by the object.
Interestingly signs of conversion are rarely seen in people with actual disabilities (lameness, blindness etc.) as clinically observed. This is most probably a fear of developing such fantasies, and likelihood of really losing a new body part in people who have realized their fantasy of being swallowed by an object. And this fear prevents onset of such a fantasy from the beginning.
Process of seducing someone from opposite sex by histrionic persons can also be explained in the same way. Histronics keep someone from opposite sex at a distance which they can seduce and swallow him/her with a drive of urge to externalize. This distance is maintained in such a way that the patient can swallow the person whenever he/she wants, but the person cannot swallow the patient. As a matter of fact, a patient immediately recedes when the opposite person is seduced and wants to get in a close contact, and this time when the other gets away, he/she again gets closer to this person, and repeat the process of seduction. The fear of being swallowed combined with an urge to swallow keeps the distance between almost at a range that can be measured by a ruler.
Dreams: Dreams serve the purpose of confronting the material brought by the species and phylogenetic past (of the subject) with the material brought by the object self, and burying the material brought by the object self into the material of the species past. Therefore, we always have a lot of data from the species past as nested with the present data in our dreams. In exactly the same way with the primary process thinking, there is no time and space in dreams, in other words, in dreams there is no organization of objects, but of subject.
Some crucial points, which were left over from the process of externalization with objects by the object self, play a role in provoking dreams by pushing a material which was fished by the subject from the species past (and/or a background invaded into the species past). Although psychoanalytic literature insists that the content has to be a repressed material, we know form our clinical experience that many material which have not been actually repressed may appear within the content of dreams as a multi- or single-theme. Thus, the content of dreams becomes full with some material gained during the externalization process pushing the material from the entire species past of the subject or the background invaded into it. For how much person’s background invade into the species and phylogenetic past (depending on the maturation extent of the object self, we expect much invasion in the elderly and less in the young people), the content of dreams cover that much of background and species past. Therefore, we expect more background material in the dreams of elderly people. The psychoanalytic literature indicates that the content of dream changes and disintegrates while bringing it to the conscious, and takes a format partially acceptable by the conscious. However, this is not the case all the time, again based on our clinical experience, and even an unacceptable content overwhelming the patient with a feeling of guilty can fill into the dream because there is no process of conversion in the dream, which is , at most, performed during the memory recording of the material. As there is no state of consciousness during dreams (REM sleep), it is not possible that a censoring mechanism, which is an obligatory part of the conscious, converts the unconscious material into an appropriate format of conscious, which is, in my opinion, one of the weakest points of the Freudian theory.
Dreams basically arise from subject’s use of objects according to his/her own principles with his/her background as well as phylogenetic and species past; however daily memory bears the traces of use of objects according to the principles of objects.
The intense material in the subject becomes diluted in connection with objects so that the intense pressure on the subject is reduced. For instance, as externalization occurs on the sexual material from the species past and sexual objects, pressure on the mental structure is reduced. Otherwise, it puts the person under pressure to find his/her object and get satisfied. Process of dilution continues by being facilitating with successive object relations, and stops when it reaches to a steady state. We witness that people who had too much sexual relationship with opposite sex are not interested in a sexual relationship after a while.
Projection, Delusions and Hebb’s Psychological Hypothesis: The mechanism of projection is an interesting example as it shows that facts are sometimes replaced by subject’s expectations. A man who cheats on his wife saying to his wife “You cheat on me” indicates that how psychic mechanism exceeds despair, and how skillful is he in refusing a reality when living in a reality.
But, how does this happen? It can be resolved by taking the Hebb’s hypothesis (1949), and adapting it to psychology. We know that a nerve ending which consistently transmits a stimulus in the same direction and location make alterations in the same direction both on itself and the target cell. Human mental apparatus, as well, makes an alteration which facilitates resolution in the conscious when he/she produces an unconscious resolution to save himself/herself and always keeps it alive.
A mechanism which combines Freud and Hebb (which I call “psychological Hebb mechanism”) provides us an excellent opportunity to describe, not only a defense mechanism such as projection, but many psychological signs.
The Psychological Hebb Mechanism presents us a non-contradictory way of describing the formation of delusions. According to the mechanism proposed by Kohut, people with a grandiose self lack appropriate care during their infancy/childhood, and thus they evolve into a grandiose self as if they can take care of themselves. If we assume someone with a grandiose self, when this person experiences new insufficiencies in his/her adulthood, he/she employs the grandiose structure acquired during childhood, imagines and anticipates his/her superiority in any experience of insufficiency. Such an anticipation strains the conscious for a while, and consequently the person changes his/her reality in accordance with his/her subjective expecation, and announces himself/herself, let’s say, a Mahdi. In the physiological Hebb hypothesis, a consistent excitation of the nerve cell (it corresponds to the subjective expectation in the psychological Hebb hypothesis) produces an alteration in itself and the target nerve cell (in the psychological Hebb hypothesis, it objectively produces an idea of projection in conscious).
Here we observe rejection of the fact by means of a belief (Please note the short closeness between the earnest desire and the belief). The psychoanalytic literature tells us that we have traces of the primary process thinking in most of the defense mechanisms and psychotic symptoms. However, if we repeat it, it is all related with the species past of the person. The species material is not associated with reality to a great extent, and therefore the structure which was proposed as the primary process thinking does not originate from the representations when objects are formed in infant’s mind upon birth. It originates from a common material genetically inherited and belonging to the human kind. Therefore, it has no union of time and space. Because how it is possible to compress the material genetically inherited from someone who lived a hundred generation ago with the material from someone who lived in a thousand generation ago to the same timeframe? Thus, the common material genetically inherited by the subject before birth has necessarily no time and space connections, but in addition, they have a reality as a material brought from this world. This is, in fact, what is referred by psychoanalytic literature as the primary process thinking. The material originating from the cultural area what is called collective unconsciosness by Jung (beyond that the biological material we call collective self originating from the area recorded in DNA) and which provides the infant this primary process thinking is the common and single structure of this nature.
Sleep-Awakeness and A Three Compartment Structure: As a matter of fact, it would be better to have a simplified model to refer to the relationship of mental apparatus with reality. In this model, man is divided into three compartments. The first compartment is full of material belonging to the species and phylogenetic past of a person. The third compartment gets in touch with objects, and it is engaged in motor activities. The second compartment at the center brings the material from first and third compartment together, and adapts them. The second compartment is open all the time. The first compartment is closed during sleep, and open during awakaness. Thus, one cannot act under the influence of dreams during sleep as the third compartment is closed. However, he/she cannot bring the material from the species past directly into use during awakeness because the first compartment is closed at that time. Therefore, the second compartment was required as a result of adaptive and holding efforts, and it uses the material from the first compartment during sleep when it is awake, during which it transfers the material from the third compartment to the first compartment during sleep. So, by exchanging information in both directions, it sustains loyalty to the common self without separating from the world of objects, and loyalty to the world of objects without separating from the common self. Freud stated that in the central compartment (located in the subconscious in his topographic model) there is an one-sided (from the first towards the third compartment) censoring mechanism. For us, this censoring mechanism is a filter, and it works as two-sided, not one-sided. As ordinary events repeated everyday are already excessively represented within the common self mechanism, they are filtered during transfer from the third compartment towards the first compartment (during sleep). However, an extraordinary lif experience (e.g., first flight experience) easily enters in as the mostly required information without any filtering.
Preconscious: The preconcious is an area consistently used by the object self during contact with objects. This area sustains the information related with the object in a partly implicit way and accessible by some force. Thus, it is the part of conscious where it is possible to blend the information from different objects, the information is immediately used, and the information is kept ready in such a way that it has an important function in transforming the object self from the common self.
Self-induced automatism is important in processing the information on objects in the preconscious division. Because it is possible to interfere with the object repeatedly and in the same way only by keeping the information from previous repeat ready in the preconscious; in this manner the previous process facilitates the next one, resulting in an automatism on the object, and thus rapid externalization. Sometimes the object information directly goes onto the object without bringing it from the preconsicous to the conscious, and this is where the actual automatism occurs; for instance, the preconscious information, which was not activated in the conscious tells us when to shift gears while driving. As a matter of fact, our driving gets worser when this information in preconscious is brought to conscious and used there. The automatic practices in the self are transitions between two objects [the interfered object and the interfering object of the subject (body)] where the subject is not involved in.
Unconscious: Psychoanalytic theory associates the unconscious with primary process thinking; therefore, it indicates that there are no logical connections in the unconscious, and its structures always seek for satisfaction, and the conflicting elements stand side by side. However, it does not elucidate the origin of unconscious and how can such an incompatible structure, unfamiliar to the world of objects, survive in an organism, who lives in the world of objects, for a long period of time (lifelong)?
This irrational and immediate satisfaction seeking nature of the unconscious is a phylogenetic heritage from the common self. During the initial organization of men it was not possible to postpone the satisfaction as the information on object was poor as well as including the time and space in relationship with objects. Therefore, presence of the unconscious as a huge mass can only be described by attributing it to the phylogenetic heritage.
On the other hand, the phylogenetic material represented in the common self has been transferred to next generations by young people who consistently keeps seeking for satisfaction. Therefore, time of delaying the object information, and adapting the conflicts corresponds to relatively later periods of a person. However, late fertilizations are rare for the human kind, and it complicates transfer of the object information acquired in advanced periods to the next generations.
At that point, an area which was described relatively poorly by psychoanalytic theory should be discussed: regression.
Psychoanalytic theory tells that one goes back only until the intrauterine life by regression (taking the position in the mother’s womb). However, in clinical practice, we observe that regression can extend back to the period of walking on four feet, from which we obviously understand that regression is not confined to someone’s own life. Therefore, we cannot initiate the psychic world of a person from the intrauterine period, and a good comprehension of that person is only possible by tracing until discovering a material of the first living thing from which the genetic material was transferred; because this mind bears a part of the common self to which that living thing made a contribution. Thus, the relief in psychic balance felt by a patient by regression is established at the end of achieving a primitive feeling of emptiness where the mind is converted into a structure of tensions produced by instincts and saturation resulting from their satisfaction almost like an animal, but not as a result of achieving the oceanic sense from the time when mother provided infinite support. In other words, the last point that can be attainable by regression is an empty point including no sense (thus, it is where there exists no tension in relations with objects, and instinctive tensions such as hunger and sexuality are discharged through the first objects captured, and it contains no tension and satisfaction). As a matter of fact, in advanced chronic schizophrenic patients, there is feeling of a person who has been raised spiritlessly within an emptiness which contain no objects as if he/she has never experienced the feeling of over-confidence and peace rather than such feelings provided by oceanic sense. This emptiness is not familiar with psychic conflict, and it has no emotional commitment to the objects; this point of regression corresponds to a period when the common self had no contribution from homo sapiens, but from other previous homo species. If we try to see it from the viewpoint of an ethologist, the psychic life was probably an urge and a subsequent primitive satisfaction in the rings which was acquired by the common self during these periods.
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