Makes about 1 1/2 cups

Adapted from my book “Nonna’s Italian Kitchen”.

4 cups packed-down fresh basil leaves

1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil (see Variation #2 below for low-fat version)

1/4 cup lightly-toasted pine nuts, or chopped walnuts, filberts (hazelnuts), almonds, or Brazil nuts

(If you are allergic to nuts, you can omit them, or use shelled, lightly-toasted sunflower and/or pumpkin seeds instead)

2 tablespoons light-colored miso (can be chickpea miso for soy-free)

2 to 4 cloves garlic (NOTE: the garlic should not overwhelm the basil in authentic pesto.)

OPTIONAL: 1/2 tablespoon lemon juice to preserve the color

Place everything in a food processor and process until a paste forms. Place the paste in two or three small containers (the less air the pesto is exposed to, the better). Cover the pesto with a thin film of olive oil or a piece of plastic wrap (touching the pesto), to prevent discoloration, and cover tightly. Refrigerate. Use this up within two or three days (you can halve or even quarter the recipe). After that, you should freeze it in small containers or make frozen cubes of it, but don't leave it in the freezer for more than a month or so, or it loses flavor.



Use only hemp seed oil or 1/2 hemp seed oil and half olive oiil. Omit the nuts or seeds and use 1/3 cup hemp seed butter instead. Everything else is the same.

#2.) FOR A LOWER-FAT VERSION that is still quite delicious, omit all or some of the oil and substitute instead an equal quantity medium-firm or silken tofu, OR mashed cooked or canned white kidney beans (or use 1/2 and 1/2).

#3.) WINTER PESTO: This is an authentic method of stretching expensive storebought fresh basil during the winter months. Use 2 cups of fresh basil and 2 cups fresh Italian parsley leaves, instead of 4 cups basil. It is traditional in Liguria to add 2 tablespoons of chopped fresh marjoram to this winter version.