H.&D. Folsom Arms Co., Crescent Fire Arms Co. & Tradename Guns

"The Tiffany of Sporting Goods"

Additional information and images may be found here     http://www.picturetrail.com/sfx/album/view/20091267

 

In 1888, George W. Cilley bought the assets of the defunct Bacon Arms Co. of Norwich, CT and formed an alliance with Frank A. Foster. Cilley and Foster each held several firearms patents, and both were experienced in firearms design and manufacture. Production under Cilley began with single shot tip-up shotguns that had an external side hammer. The Crescent Fire Arms Co. was incorporated in Connecticut on March 4, 1892.

THE CRESCENT FIRE ARMS COMPANY

Articles of Association of The Crescent Fire Arms Company

The undersigned hereby associate as a joint stock corporation under the Laws of this State by Articles of Agreement as follows:

ARTICLE I. The name by which this corporation shall be known is The Crescent Fire Arms Company

ARTICLE II. The purpose for which it is constituted is to manufacture and sell guns, rifles and pistols and all kinds of fire arms and to purchase and, hold and sell any property necessary or convenient for the prosecution of said business, and generally do all things incidental to said business

ARTICLE III. The corporation is to be located in the Town of Norwich, County of New London, and State of Connecticut.

ARTICLE IV. The amount of its capital stock is $27,900 divided into 1,116 shares of the par value of $25.00 each.

ARTICLE V. Each of the Incorporators agrees to take the number of shares of said capital stock annexed to his name, each share to be of the par value of $25.00 each and to pay 25% thereof in cash at the time of said subscription and the balance thereof as called for by the Directors.

Dated at Norwich this 23rd day of February 1892.

(There follows the list of stockholders.)

To all persons to whom these presents come: The undersigned being a majority of the directors of The Crescent Fire Arms Company, a corporation organized under the Laws of the State of Connecticut regulating the formation of joint stock corporations and located in the Town of Norwich, County of New London in said State of Connecticut in pursuance of said statute laws hereby certify as follows:

1. The foregoing is a true and accurate copy of the Articles of Association of said corporation, of the names and (not legible:author) residence of the subscribers to its capital stock and the amount of stock taken by each.

2. Said Articles of Association were on this 26th day of February 1892 published at full length in the Norwich Morning Bulletin, a newspaper published in New London County, the same being the county in which said corporation is located.

3. The amount of capital stock actually paid for in cash is $5,580, being 20% thereof.

4. The amount of said capital stock paid for in property is $14,000 and consists of stock, tools, machinery and fixtures and is of actual value of $14,000.

5. And in further pursuance of such statute laws we cause this certificate to be posted with the Secretary of State and a duplicate thereof with the Town Clerk of the Town of Norwich in which said corporation is to transact its business. Dated at Norwich, Connecticut this 2nd day of March A.D. 1902

H.H. Gallup, E.R. Thompson, George W. Cilley, Frank A. Foster; a majority of the Directors. Rec'd and filed by Willis A. Briscoe, Notary Public, March 4, 1892.

In 1893, the majority of Crescent stock was acquired by H.&D. Folsom,   314 Broadway New York City. Both the 1905 and 1915 Norwich City Directories listed H.H. Gallup as President of Crescent Fire Arms Co

.

 Folsom acquired the W.H. Davenport Arms Co. in 1909 and Baker Gun & Forging Co. in 1919

Henry T. Folsom, David Folsom, Anna R. Folsom, & Eleanor T. Folsom, 1916

 

According to an article in the July 3, 1900 New York Times, the previous day Henry T. was examining a pile of second hand revolvers, picked up a .38 and pulled the trigger shooting and killing a 22 year employee/salesman of Folsom Co. named Peter Koller. Henry was arrested but the shooting was determined to have been an accident.

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F20B12FD3D5B11738DDDAA0894DF405B808CF1D3 

Henry Titus Folsom (1859-1937) was President of the company, and was succeeded by his son, H. Lloyd (1888-1954) who led the company through the depression and World War II. Lloyd may have designed a pump shotgun marketed by Folsom c. 1920. Marlin made a pump shotgun (Model 16) marked 'National Fire Arms Co' for Folsom. Lloyd's son, Henry T. (Hank) Folsom, born 1927, wrote Rendezvous In the Bush about his father's and his hunts in East Africa.

Other ‘Folsoms’ of that era include Charles Folsom, Est. 1852 and in 1884 at 106 Chambers St., New York, E.A. Folsom, and N.D. Folsom & Co., New Haven, Conn.

http://books.google.ca/books?id=ZxHOAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA13&dq 

Any relationship between the companies is unknown

Courtesy of Jeff Kuss

H.& D. Folsom was established  in 1849 and distributed Birmingham and Belgian made firearms (including some marked W. Richards and T. Barker) under many trade names from 1880 until about 1932.

The Folsom “Parker Trap Gun”

From 1882 until at least 1892, Folsom contracted with Parker Brothers to create "The Parker Trap Gun"; 10g & 12g Grade 0 -  2 hammer and hammerless with Laminated Steel and Twist barrels and a special buttplate.  

The Parker order books include Folsom 12g guns with 36", 38", and 40" barrels; and four 16g with 38” barrels!  Order 14744 in 1882 were Grade 2 guns; 12g listed for $80 (net $50.01 after discount) and 10g for $85 (net $53.14).

In orders 47641 – 47645 there were five 12 gauge at 40 inches, twenty 12 gauge at 38 inches, seven 12 gauge at 36 inches and five 12 gauge at 34 inches. The stocks on the 40 inch guns were to have a length of 14 ¼ to 14½ inches and a drop of 3 to 3 ½ inches. All were to have trap butt plates.

Order 49457 May 11, 1892 was for eight hammer guns with twist barrels, four hammer guns with laminated barrels, and three hammerless guns with twist barrels. Seven were 38" and eight were 40".

Orders 53623 – 53627 was for four 12 gauge at 40 inches, two 12 gauge at 38 inches; all to have trap butt plates.

Orders 80371 – 80375 had five 12 gauge at 40 inches and ten 12 gauge at 38 inches, but no mention of the trap butt plates.

(Courtesy of Mark Conrad and the PGCA)

 

Sale of Crescent Fire Arms

The N.R. Davis Arms Co. was located in Assonet, MA starting in 1853 and from 1917 to 1930 operated under the name  Davis-Warner Arms Corp.  Brooklyn, NY and Norwich, CT.

J. Stevens Arms (owned by Savage Arms Corp. since 1920) purchased Davis-Warner in 1930 and a Stevens memo dated December 15, 1930 announced the purchase from H&D Folsom Arms Company of the assets of Crescent Fire Arms Company of Norwich, Connecticut. The Connecticut Industrial Census done in 1930 listed 100 Crescent employees. The assets of Crescent were to be merged with those of Davis-Warner Arms Corporation and that the newly formed firm would be known as The Crescent-Davis Arms Corporation, Norwich, Conn.

Catalogs thereafter carried the statement

“Today’s Greatest Value Among Popular Priced Guns”

 

On November 4, 1935, an order of dissolution was filed with the New York Secretary of State and the remains were moved to the J. Stevens Arms Co. plant in Chicopee Falls, MA.  After the move, Stevens continued to manufacture a few models of Crescent-Davis shotguns until 1943.

In 1954 Folsom was purchased by Universal Tackle and Sporting Goods Co.

Crescent Fire Arms Guns

The earliest shotgun made by Crescent was a side hammer single that was basically a continuation of the shotguns the Bacon Arms Co. made during the last few years it was in business.

This shotgun, as made by Crescent, was made in three types:

First Type: Shotguns assembled from old Bacon parts and not marked with the Crescent name. These shotguns were made until late 1892 or early 1893.

Second Type: Model 4 Sidehammer by Crescent. It was a Bacon shotgun assembled from new Crescent made parts and marked CRESCENT F.A. CO. NORWICH, CONN. This shotgun was made until the end of 1895 or early 1896.

Third Type: Model 1896. This gun was a slightly altered version of the Model 4 in order to simplify production. This version was made until 1901.

As far as is known, all three types were made in 12 gauge only with either 30" or 32" Twist steel barrel.

In early 1895 Crescent introduced it’s first hammerless double, the Triumph Hammerless, made in 12 gauge with either 30" or 32" Damascus or Twist barrels. The gun was based on patents issued to William Beesley and controlled by Charles Lancaster and was the only boxlock hammerless double ever made by Crescent.

http://www.google.com/patents?id=vAxdAAAAEBAJ&printsec=drawing&zoom=4#v=onepage&q&f=false 

They were made on order for Sears Roebuck & Co. and probably less than 750 were manufactured. It was listed in the Folsom catalog for $22 with Twist barrels, $25 with Damascus, and in the 1897 Sears catalog for $27.50

http://books.google.com/books?id=CSVIpqnFMTMC&pg=PA526&lpg 

The gun was dropped from the Crescent line in 1898 and Crescent would not produce another hammerless double until 1904 when the sidelock Model 6 was introduced.

Left side of the receiver is stamped “Triumph Hammerless Pat. June 16, 1885”

The Model O Hammer Double was introduced in 1897 and remained in production until about 1931 with serial numbers from 001 to 630,001. Originally made only in 12 and 16 gauge, the 20 gauge version appeared about 1905. The total production appears to have been over 600,000.

In 1897 Folsom listed five hammer models:

#2641 - Top lever hammer gun with Armory Steel barrels (Belgian made) in 12g only for $14.

#2650 - With damascus barrels for $15. The Fall 1902 catalog listed Twist barrels.

#2660 - Similar gun but claimed to be “all American made” for $18 (likely the Model O).

#2655 - Twist barrels and Deeley & Edge snap forend with engraving on locks and trigger guard for $18.

#2665 - Damascus barrels and more extensive engraving for $20

1900 Sears, Roebuck & Co. Catalog #110

The other shotgun introduced in 1897, the Victor proved even more popular and was made until 1937-38 by the J. Stevens Arms Company. The Victor Models 7 and 8, made until 1915, can be distinguished from later model Victors by the raised, milled frame sides. Later model Victors have completely flat frame sides, probably to cut production costs. The first ejector model Victor was introduced in 1900.

In 1904 Crescent resumed the manufacture of hammerless doubles with the introduction of the Model 6 sidelock hammerless double. This gun was an immediate success and it was offered in 12, 16 and later, 20 gauge. The Model 6 was offered initially only with Armory Steel barrels; but Damascus and Twist models were quickly added. It appears that the bulk of the Twist and Damascus barrel shotguns were sold through Sears, Roebuck catalogs.

The Crescent made Folsom Arms Co. “Knickerbocker” Hammerless No. 6 was listed from 1904 to about 1910, then the “Knickerbocker Improved” with coil spring locks until about 1916; with a serial number range from 001 to 448001. Catalog No. 18 c. 1921 listed the "American Gun Co. No. 6 Knickerbocker" with the earlier 'V-shaped main springs'.

The name was changed in Catalog No. 20 to Crescent Gun No. 6 “Peerless” (without cocking indicators)  and c. 1925 the “Empire” No. 60 appeared in Catalog No. 23.

The “New Empire” No. 88 and No. 9 were listed in Catalog No. 27 in 1929.

The “Empire” and “New Empire” serial numbers were 001-112,000.

Hammerless Disassembly

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xp_iJ_KQyx0

In 1909 Crescent acquired the W.H. Davenport Arms Co., and until 1915 produced the only 10 gauge shotgun it ever made; the Empire State Goose Gun with a 36" Laminated steel barrel. It  was the same shotgun the Davenport had made before 1909. Crescent discontinued the bulk of the Davenport line in 1915 and disposed of the tooling for this shotgun in particular. The buyer seems to have been the Meriden Fire Arms Co., a subsidiary of Sears, Roebuck & Co. With some modifications, it appears that this gun was made by Meriden until about 1918.

1910 to 1915 were strong years for Crescent as its three basic models all sold well. By 1915, however, both Crescent and Folsom were starting to suffer a declining sales. Wages were increasing related to production for the war in Europe, and other U.S. makers were producing “utility grade” guns that were perceived to be of higher quality.

In an apparent attempt to address the public’s perception of quality, or the lack thereof, a slogan appeared about 1918 and was used on almost all advertising until 1935:

“CRESCENT GUNS ARE GOOD GUNS”

Price Comparison

In 1922 the American Gun Co. Hammerless was listed at $30.

The 1918-1919 Remington-UMC catalog listed the Model 11A "Standard" Grade   $52.00; Model 10A "Standard" Grade $42.00.

The Fox Sterlingworth peaked at a price of $55 in 1919. By 1922 Fox dropped the price to $48 and in 1926 cut the price (and quality) to $36.50.

December 1, 1919 Ithaca raised the list price of the Field Grade from $41 to $45.

The L.C. Smith Field grade was listed at $50 in 1923.

Probably the last shotgun introduced by Crescent was the Handy Gun, a .410 bore pistol based on the Victor single barrel action fitted with a pistol grip and a very short barrel. Very few specimens remain.

One means employed to attempt to date a Crescent Hammerless double is the type of lock springs.  From 1904 to 1910  V shaped springs were used, then coil springs with the introduction of the “Knickerbocker Improved”.  Catalog No. 18 c. 1921 again listed the "No. 6 Knickerbocker" with the earlier 'V-shaped main springs'. c. 1927 crude U shaped springs were used on the Model 60 “Empire”.

c. 1910 catalog showing the “Improved” coil spring lock courtesy of Dave Noreen

Crude No. 60 Empire Hammerless Lock

Unfortunately, guns returned to Norwich for repairs might have parts were substituted depending upon availability;  new parts were substituted for old, or old for new. Sideplates were replaced without regard to the trade brand on the originals; and sometimes guns were rebuilt using parts that the gun did not come with originally. Guns were repaired by the cheapest and quickest methods possible even if that meant replacing undamaged parts.

Total Production

Sidehammer Model single - less than 20,000

All other single barrel guns - 900,000 +

Triumph Model hammerless double - less than 750

Sidelock Hammerless (except Empire and Quail Model) - 500,000

Empire, New Empire and Quail Model Hammerless double - 120,000

Hammer Double (except Model 44) - 650,000

Model 44 Hammer double - 40,000

This adds up to an astonishing 2.2 Million + shotguns over 43 years, not counting Rolling Block singles, Davenport marked guns, and Baker guns.

PLEASE NOTE: Production dates are an estimate based on existing Folsom catalogs which, for the most part, were numbered but not dated.

Single Barrel Guns

No. 1 - Bacon sidehammer made by Bacon Arms Co. 1887-88,

2 - Bacon sidehammer assembled by Crescent from Bacon parts 1889 to 1893,

4 - Bacon sidehammer. Made entirely by Crescent 1893 to 1895,

5 - Model 1896 sidehammer. made 1896 to 1898,

7 - Raised Frame Victor. 12, 16 or 20 gauge and .410 bore. Made 1897 to 1915,

8 - Same as Model 7 except auto ejector. Made 1902 to 1915,

10 - Flat Frame Victor. Made 1901 to 1932,

11 - Same as Model 10 except auto ejector. Made 1902 to 1928,

12 - New Field. Cheaper version of Model 11. Made 1910 to 1920,

13 - Ejector No. 2. Cheaper version of Model 11. Made 1910 to 1920,

14 - Cheaper version of Model 10/11. Made 1928 to 1932,

15 - Empire Ejector .410

Empire State Goose Gun (Davenport Model) 10 gauge. Made 1910 to 1915

Handy Gun .410 bore pistol. Made 1928 to 1932.

Several model numbers listed were never advertised, but are believed to have been used internally to designate such shotguns.

Hammer Doubles

No. 0 - 12, 16 or 20 gauge (introduced in 1905) made 1897 to about 1931. Early models were marked “H&D FOLSOM ARMS CO. N.Y.U.SA., and had “Laminated Steel” (Twist) barrels. c. 1915 guns carried the AMERICAN GUN CO. name, which was replaced with  CRESCENT FIRE ARMS CO.  after 1924.

1 -  Same as Model O, made for Sears 1904 to 1908. Marked AMERICAN GUN CO. New York or only N.Y.,

2 -  Same as Model O except Twist barrels. Made 1901 to 1915,

3 -  Same as Model O except Damascus barrels. Made 1901 to 1915,

4 -  Same as Model 1 except “Liege Damascus” barrels. Made 1904 to 1908,

5 -  Same as Model 1 except Damascus barrels. Made 1904 to 1908

Catalog No. 11 c. 1915 labeled the hammer double “American Gun Co., Machine Made Hammer Gun”. In 1924 they were called “Crescent Fire Arms Co.” guns.

In addition to the full sized models, three small bore hammer doubles were made between 1910 and 1932:

Model 28 28 gauge - 1910 to 1927,

Model 44 44/40 & .44XL c. 1910

Model 44 “Midget Field” .410 - 1915 and 1927,

Model 44 Improved .410 bore - 1927

Hammerless Doubles

No. 2 - Probably versions of Triumph Model,

No. 6 - 12, 16 or 20 gauge sidelock. The Knickerbocker was listed from 1904 to about 1910, then the Knickerbocker Improved with coil spring locks until 1916.  Catalog No. 18 c. 1921 again listed the No. 6 Knickerbocker.

The illustration on c. 1920 Folsom letterhead shows an American Gun  Co. marked No. 6 labeled “Manufactured by The Folsom Arms Co.”

The name was changed to the Crescent Gun No. 6 Peerless (without cocking indicators) in catalog No. 20 and made until about 1925.

6E - The 1920 catalog listed a “Crescent Fire Arms Co. No. 6E Peerless

Engraved”.

7 - Same as Model 6 except 12 or 16 gauge only with Twist barrels. Made 1904

to 1915,

8 - Same as Model 7 except Damascus barrels. Made 1904 to 1915,

60 - 12, 16 and 20 gauge Empiremade 1924.

The “New Empire” No. 88 and No. 9 appeared in Catalog No. 27 in 1929.

66 - 410 bore Quail Model” made 1920 to 1932

Tradename Guns

Almost every U.S. gunmaker produced guns marked with the trade name of distributors, sporting goods companies and hardware stores. None came close to the production numbers of Folsom/Crescent. It is believed that to have a shotgun trade named, all that was necessary was to pay for the stamping die and order a minimum of 12 guns.

The 1898 Folsom catalog listed the following Crescent and somewhat deceptively named imported guns:

 

Crescent Single Gun the NEW Victor

Crescent New Field Twist Barrel

Crescent Breech Loader

New York Arms Ejector #1 and #2

Crescent 'The Club' Hammerless Single

'The Trap'

J. Cooper DB Patent Fore-End

Thomas Barker Top Snap

The Celebrated Sam Holt Arms Co.

S. H. Harrington DB Top Snap

Thomas Barker Left Barrel Choked

Barker Special, Highly Engraved, Circular Hammer

Greener Action Breech Loading

Barker Bored for Nitro Powder

Folsom New American

Barker New American

Catalog No. 31 courtesy of David Noreen

The Folsom agent in Belgium, at least through 1914, was Louis Muller of Liege. Muller may have actually been in the employ of Folsom as he registered the Crescent trade marks in Belgium.

He was also a gun maker and registered twelve trademarks 1889 to 1894 including:

Acme, Club, Climax, Star, Rival, Standard, Meteor, and I.X.L.

TRADE NAMES (confirmed or possible) used by Folsom imported guns (mostly Belgian sidelocks and identified by proof marks), Crescent (sidelocks), Crescent-Davis (boxlocks), and other U.S. distributors.

THE SAME TRADE NAMES may be found on single and double barrel shotguns manufactured by Savage, Harrington & Richardson, W.H. Davenport, Hopkins and Allen, Stevens, and Iver Johnson.

Crescent made guns may be marked with the gauge followed by a G in a diamond and have barrels of "GENUINE ARMORY STEEL" and stamped "CHOKED BORE."

American Bar Lock Wonder for Sears, Roebuck & Co.,

American Boy for Townley Metal & Hdw. Co. Kansas City,

American Gun Co. New York or N.Y.,

The Model 2 Hammer Double with Twist barrels and the early rounded breech balls is listed as the  "Improved 1908 Model New England Wonder" in Sears, Roebuck & Co. Catalog No. 117

It is likely that most American Gun Co. New York guns were marketed by Sears

Later conical breech balls, Armory Steel barrels, and a different lockplate

American Nitro,

Aristocrat for Supplee-Biddle Hdw. Philadelphia,

Armory Gun Co.,

Bacon Arms,

Baker Gun Co.,

Baklmann Hardware Co.,

A. Baldwin & Co. Ltd. New Orleans, LA (Belgian maker),

Barker Gun Co.,

Barrett Gun Co.,

Bartlett & Co.,

Bellmore Gun Co.,

Berkshire No. 3000,

Black Beauty,

Bluefield Clipper,

Bluegrass Arms Co.,

Blue Whistler,

B.M.&S.H. for Blish, Mizet and Silliman Hardware Co. Atchison KS,

Bridge Gun Co., Bridge Gun Works, and Bridge Black Prince for Shapleigh Hdw. Co. St. Louis,

Bridgeport Arms Co.,

Bright Arms Co.,

Burack Special for Burhans & Black Inc. Syracuse NY,

C.G. Bonehill,

C.W. Franklin,

Canadian Belle,

Carolina Arms Co. for Smith-Wadsworth Hdw. Co. Charlotte N.C.,

Carter's Premier for Garnet-Carter Co. Chattanooga TN,

Central Arms Co. for Shapleigh (boxlock guns by Stevens),

Champion of Birmingham, English made hammer gun sold by Henry C. Squires

New York c. 1880s,

Chatham Arms Co.,

Cherokee Arms Co. for C.M. McClung & Co., Knoxville TN,

Chesapeake Gun Co.,

Chicago Long Range Wonder (in addition to an Andrew Fyrberg & Sons manufactured boxlock),

Colonial,

Columbian New York Arms Co.,

Compeer Gun Co. for Van Camp Hdw Indianapolis,

The Continental was made by Simonis, Janssen & Dumoulin and may be marked ‘Pat. June 20, 1883’

Connecticut Arms Co.,

Cumberland Arms Co. for Gray & Dudley Hdw Co. Nashville TN,

Creve Coeur,

Crancer’s Field Gun,

Cruso for Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Co.,

Daniel Boone Gun Co. for Belknap Hdw. & Mfg. Co. Louisville KY,

Daniel Boone Squirrel Gun for C.M. McClung & Co. Hdw. Knoxville,

Delphian Arms Co. for Supplee-Biddle Hdw. Co. Phila. PA,

Delphian Manufacturing Co.,

Diamond Arms Co. for Shapleigh,

Dunlap Special by Davis-Warner for Dunlap Hdw. Co. Macon GA,

E.C.M.A.Co, Eclipse Beauty, Eclipse Beaver, Eclipse Company, Eclipse Gun Co., Patent 488316 Dec 20 1892, Meteor, Giant, Giant Gun Co., GunCo, Leader Belgium, Hercules, and Star.

All are Aciens Establissment Pieper / Henri Pieper guns made for E.C. Meacham Co. St. Louis.

It is possible that Crescent produced guns have the same tradenames.

Other Pieper Trade Names registered in Belgium included: Bayard (June 9, 1892) and Bayard Arms Co., Oscar A. Baer Baltimore MD, Eagle Gun Works, E. Leroy, H. Pieper, Diana & Modified Diana, The Leader, First Arms Co, Pieper Arms Co, Premier Arms Co, National Arms Co, Henry Arms Co, A. Richards, Royal Gun Works, Le Rationnel, Schutz Marke, E-K, Metropole, and Monarch Arms Co.

Several Pieper guns are listed in the 1895 Montgomery Ward catalog

http://books.google.com/books?id=zWel51IwQ2AC&pg=PA452&lp

Elgin Arms Co. for Fred Biffar & Co. Chicago and Strauss & Schram Chicago,

Elmira Arms Co. Elmira NY,

Empire Arms Co.,

Empire State Arms Co.,

No.15 Empire Ejector and Empire Ejector,

No. 60 Empire Hammerless

Wm. Enders Oak Leaf, Enders Royal Service, Royal Field, Royal Western, Royal American, and Special Service for Shapleigh Hdw. Co. St. Louis,

Essex for Belknap,

Farwell Arms Co. for Farwell, Ozmun, Kirk & Co. St. Paul,

Faultless for John M. Smythe Hdw. Co. Chicago

Featherlight (not -lite and only 20g guns reported, possibly for Sears),

The Field (10 & 12g single barrel),

S. O. Fisher Lynchburg Virginia,

Folsom Arms Co.,

F.F. Forbes,

Forever and H.S. Brown Machine Gun,

Fort Pit Arms Co.,

C.W. Franklin,

Fremont Arms Co.,

General Arms Co. and General Arms Co. St. Louis,

Gold Medal Wonder for Sears,

W.H. Hamilton for C.M. McClung & Co. Hdw. Knoxville and Wiebusch and Hilger Co. New York,

Hanover Arms Co. made by Janssen Fils & Co.,

Harrison Arms Co. for Sickles & Preston Davenport Iowa,

S.H. Harrington,

Hartford Arms.Co. for Simmons Hdw. and Shapleigh Hdw. St Louis,

Harvard,

J.C. Henry Arms St. Paul MN,

Henry Arms Co. by Henri Pieper 

Hermitage Arms Co. for Gray & Dudley,

Hermitage Gun Co.,

H.S.B. Co., Hibbard, HibSpeBar, Gold Hibbard (by Neumann Freres and Modified Diana by Henri Pieper), Greenfield, Liege Arms Co., Newport, Pittsfield, Rev-O-Noc (Charles Conover was a Director and later President), RUSO, H.J. Sterling Arms Co., Whippet, Victor and Victor Special all for Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Co., Chicago.

In 1962 Cotter & Company purchased the assets of H.S.B.&Co. acquiring the True Value trademark.

1923 H.S.B.&Co. Catalog

Howard Arms Co. for Fred Biffar,

Hudson possibly for Hudson Sporting Goods Co. New York,

Hummer for Lee Hdw Co Salina KS,

Hunter (and Nitro Hunter) for Belknap,

Infallible by Davis-Warner

Interstate Arms Co. for Townley,

The Interchangeable and The International for E.C. Meacham St. Louis, Gus Habich Indianapolis, and others made by Simonis, Janssen & Dumoulin and Neumann Freres.

Syndicat des Pieces Interchangables was formed in 1898.

C.G. Bonehill of Birmingham made the Belmont Interchangeable,

Jackson Arms Co. for C.M. McClung,

J.H. Lau & Co.,

J. Manton & Co. (hammerguns by Lambert Dumoulin but used by Birmingham and other makers),

J.W. Stake by Neumann Freres,

John M. Smyth Merchandise Co.,

Joseph Arms Co.,

K K,

Keen Kutter for E.C. Simmons Company St. Louis,

Kingsland Special and Kingsland 10 Star for Geller, Ward & Hasner St. Louis,

Kirk Gun Co. for Farwell, Ozmun, Kirk & Co. St. Paul,

Knickerbocker and Knickerbocker Improved Hammerless

Knockabout,

Knox-All (also Iver Johnson),

Laclede Gun Co. (both Crescent and Belgian hammerguns),

Lakeside for Montgomery Ward & Co.,

Leader, C.F. Leader, and Leader Gun Co. for Chas. Williams Stores Inc. New York,

Lee's Special and Lee's Munner Special for Lee Hdw. Co. Salina KS,

Liege Arms Co. for Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett (Belgian made 10 & 12g doubles selling for $45 in 1884),

Long Range Marvel,

Long Range Winner and Long Range Wonder for Sears,

Manhattan Arms Co. was a trade name used on hammer and hammerless side by sides imported by Schoverling, Daly & Gales, Kirtland Bros. Co., and  Von Lengerke & Detmold, all of New York City. The guns were made in Belgium by Neumann Freres and Fabrique d'Armes Fs. Dumoulin & Cie, and in Germany by J.P. Sauer.

A Hunter Arms Co. Fulton named Manhattan Arms was also sold by S,D&G.

Marshwood for Chas. Williams,

Massachusetts Arms Co. for Blish, Mize & Silliman Hdw. Atchison KS,

McIntosh,

Metal & Hardware Co.,

Mears,

Metropolitan Arms Co. for Siegel Cooper Co. N.Y.,

Milwaukee Gun Co. (sideplate Hopkins & Allen hammerless double),

Minnesota Arms Co. for Farwell, Ozmun & Kirk Co.,

Mississippi Arms Co.,

Mississippi Valley Arms Co. for Shapleigh,

Mohawk for Blish, Mize & Silliman,

Mohawk Gun Co. for Janney, Semple, Hill & Co., Minn.,

Monitor for Paxton & Gallagher Omaha Neb.,

Wm. Moore & Co.,

Mt. Vernon Arms Co.,

R. Murdock National Firearms Co.,

National Arms Co. (not the Marlin branded pump gun) possibly for William Read & Sons Boston,

New Britain Arms Co.,

New Elgin Arms Co.,

New Empire No. 88 and No. 9 appeared in Catalog No. 27 in 1929

New England Arms Co. for Chas. J. Godfrey N.Y., Rohde Spencer Co. Chicago, and Simmons Hardware.

(Some are marked “Ptd. June 30, 1883” on the right sideplate and are by Simonis, Janssen & Dumoulin.)

New England Wonder for Sears,

New Haven Arms Co. for E.K.Tryon and Great Western Gun Works Pittsburgh (also Belgian unknown maker hammer guns),

New Rival for Van Camp Hdw. & Iron Co.,

New York Arms Co. for Garnet Carter Co. Chattanooga TN.,

New York Machine Made,

New York Match Gun,

New York Nitro Hammerless,

Newport for H.S.B. (Newport Model CN  by Stevens),

Nitro Bird for Richards & Conover Hdw. Co. K.C.,

Nitro Hunter for Belknap,

Nitro King for Shapleigh,

Norwich Arms Co. for Marshall Wells Hdw. Co. Duluth,

Not-Nac Manufacturing Co. for Canton Hdw. Co. Canton Ohio and Belknap,

J.H. Obold & Co. Reading PA,

Osprey for Lou J. Eppinger Detroit,

Oxford Arms Co. for Belknap,

Pagoma for Paxton, Gallagher Hdw Co.,

Palmetto and Palmetto Arms Model 11 single barrels for E.K. Tryon & Co. by J. Stevens Arms & Tool Co.,

Palmetto Arms Philadelphia PA by Crescent, Davenport Arms, Hopkins & Allen, and Stevens.

Paragon Model W.S. and C.S. on J. Stevens single barrels,

 “Parkers” made in Belgium including Parker-Smith-Williams, T. Parker, Thomas Parker (possibly by Pieper), and C. Parker & Co.,

T. Parker New York were made by Crescent, 

E.D. Parker shotguns with English proofmarks were listed in the 1895 Clabrough & Golcher catalog,

William Parker was a gunmaker from 1790 until 1840 and one of the forerunners of  Parker, Field & Sons, High Holborn, London, 1841-1876,

The lowest grade guns marketed by P. Webley were sold under the name of Thomas Parker, London c. 1900-1920

Also see T. Barker below

Crescent Firearms Co. No. 6 Peerless c. 1916-1925 and No. 6E Peerless Engraved c. 1920

No cocking indicators

Perfection for H.G. Lipscomb & Co., Nashville,

Piedmont Arms Co. for Piedmont Hdw. Co. Danville, PA,

Pioneer Arms for Kruse Hdw. Co., Cincinnati,

Pittsfield for H.S.B.,

Plymouth,

Pontiac Arms Co. Chicago,

Prize Machine Gun for Belknap,

Quail,

Queen City for Elmira Arms Co. Elmira N.Y.,

J.T. Randall (Lefaucheux action hammer doubles made by Lambert Dumoulin and Charles Clement. J.T. Randall listed as a merchant in Conway, New Hampshire in the late 1800s.)

Red Chieftan for Supplee-Biddle,

Rev-O-Noc for Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Co.,

Richards, A. Richards, W. Richards & W. Richards Norwich, Conn

Additional confusion exists related to W. Richards (Liverpool)

http://www.wrichardsguns.co.uk/history.html 

The Sept. 26 1889 issue of Forest and Stream reported a test of  H & D Folsom's cheapest doubles and observed... “W. Richards” that nonentity in the gun trade, was stamped on the plate, but they were really only those cheap bits of ordnance which come through our custom houses, pay a duty of 40 per cent., and yet may be placed on the counters of the gun shop at $5 a piece.  Forest and Stream has already in past times expressed its opinion about these pestiferous products of the penurious population clustered on Belgian soil.

“Synopsis of decisions of the Treasury Department and Board of U.S. General Appraisers on the construction of tariff, immigration, and other laws, for year ending 1891” http://books.google.com/books?id=L_xDAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA1207&dq  

It has been the custom of manufacturers to stamp fictitious names of individuals and other trade words, such as "Richards," "Western," "U.S. Armes Co.," etc., upon the lock plates or on the ribs connecting double-barrel guns imported at your port from Belgium; that in a number of recent importations of guns from Belgium there is a conspicuous absence of any words to indicate the country of origin, but on the contrary words have been found which represent to consumers that the guns are either of English or American manufacture, thus nullifying the object and intent of section 6 above referred to, and under these circumstances you request further instructions from the Department as to the marking of guns imported not only by Boker & Co., but by all others, whether in store or en route.

As it appears that it is practicable to stamp the name of the country of origin on the guns, you are hereby authorized, under and in pursuance of Department's decision of March 18. 1891 (Synopsis 10832) to deliver the guns covered by this and subsequent importations only upon such stamping, the language of said decision being that "where articles of foreign manufacture required to be marked under the provisions above referred to were ordinarily stamped at the time of the passage of said act, the name of the country of origin should be stamped thereon.

A. Richards may have been a Pieper tradename.

W. Richards marked guns made by J.P. Clabrough were sold in the U.S.

W. H. Davenport Arms Co. made an H. Richards New York single barrel,

 

Rich-Con possibly for Richards & Conover Steel Co. Kansas City,

Richmond Hardware Co.,

Charles Richter for New York Sporting Goods Co. N.Y.,

Rickard Arms Co. for Jay A. Rickard Co. Schenectady N.Y.,

Rival and New Rival for Van Camp Hdw. Indianapolis (mainly by Louis Muller. A sideplated Hopkins & Allen c.1912 with "drop forged, reinforced, one pieced breech and lug" marked Rival has also been identified ),

Rocket Special,

Rodgers Arms Co. by Henri Pieper,

Royal Service for Shapleigh,

Rummel Arms Co. for A.J. Rummel Arms Co. Toledo,

RUSO inside a rooster for H.S.B.,

Russell Arms Co. made by Joseph Cap and H. Pieper for Wiebusch & Hilger,

Salem G. Le Valley Buffalo NY,

S.H. Harrington,

St. Louis Arms Co. for Shapleigh and Sears Roebuck,

Seminole,

Sheffield Arms Co.,

Shue's Special for Ira M. Shue Hanover PA,

Sickel's Arms Co. for Robert-Sickels & Preston Co. Davenport Iowa,

Smithsonian,

Southern Arms Co. made by Joseph Janssen,

Special Service,

Spencer Gun Co. for Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Co.

 (Early Batavia Leaders with Twist barrels, R.T. Torkelson & Co. “The New America Hammerless”, Hopkins and Allen hammer doubles, and single barrel shotguns by Crescent Fire Arms Co. have all been identified),

The Sportsman for W. Bingham Co. Cleveland (also Stevens Model 315),

Springfield Arms Co. (also Stevens),

Square Deal for Stratton-Warren Hdw. Co. Memphis,

Stanley, Stanley Double Gun & Stanley Arms Co. (for Wiebusch & Hilger Co. New York) by Francois Dumoulin and Simonis, Janssen & Dumoulin,

 

Star Leader,

State Arms Co. for J.H. Lau & Co.,

H.J. Sterling Arms Co. (Belgian) for H.S.B.,

St. Louis Arms Co.,

Sullivan Arms Co.,

Superior,

Syco for Wyeth Hdw Co. St. Joseph MO,

Thomas Barker, T. Barker, and T. Barker New York,

1908 Sears, Roebuck & Co. Catalogue No. 117

Ten Star and Ten Star Heavy Duty for Geller, Ward & Hasner,

Tiger for J.H. Hall Co. Nashville,

Townley's Pal and Townley's American Boy for Townley Metal,

Trap's Best for Watkins-Cottrell Co. Richmond VA,

 Triumph - Charles Lancaster patent guns made by Crescent for Sears,

Triumph by Manufactuer Liegeoise D'Arms Feu for Schuyler, Hartley & Graham,

Tryon Special for E.K. Tryon Co.,

U.S. Arms Co. for Supplee-Biddle and Charles Godfrey,

U.S. Field,

Union Machine Co. by Pieper and Union Machine Co. New York by S.J.& D. (Albert Simonis, J. Janssen and Demoulin Brothers) and imported by S.D.&G.,

Victor & Victor Special for H.S.B.,

Virginia Arms Co. for Virginia Caroline Co. Richmond VA,

Volunteer for Belknap,

Vulcan Arms Co. for E.K. Tryon,

Walters and Son,

Warren Arms Co.,

Washington Arms Co. for E.K. Tryon,

Wauregan,

Wautauga for Wallace Hdw Co. Morristown TN,

Whippet for H.S.B.,

Wildwood,

Wilkinson Arms Co. for Richmond Hdw. Co., Richmond VA,

William Moore & Co.,

Wilmont Arms Co.,

Wiltshire Arms Co. for Stauffer, Eshleman & Co. New Orleans (by N.R. Davis & Sons and Stevens Arms & Tool Co.),

Wiltshire Arms Co.,

Winfield Arms Co.,

Winoca Arms Co. for N. Jacobi Hdw. Co. Philadelphia (or possibly Wilmington NC),

Witte Hardware Co., St. Louis,

Wm. Parkhurst by S.J.&D. for Schoverling, Daly & Gales,

Wolverine Arms Co. for Fletcher Hdw. Co. Wilmington NC,

Worthington Arms Co. for Geo. Worthington Co. Cleveland

(Worthington Special is a Stevens 330),

The Wyco for Wyeth Hdw. & Mfg. St. Joseph MO

XLCR Crescent-Davis boxlock for W. Bingham Cleveland.

There were also Crescent made shotguns with Spanish names as Folsom had salesmen in Central and South America from 1890 to 1920 and Crescent guns were likely sold long after that.

RESOURCES

Belgian Makers  http://www.littlegun.info/arme%20belge/a%20a%20artisans%20identifies%20gb.htm

Bob Hinman The Golden Age of Shotgunning; Wolfe Publishing Co. 1982 & 2nd edition 1988 

Joseph T Vorisek  http://www.cornellpubs.com/old-guns/historic-vorisek.php

http://www.cornellpubs.com/free-files/Shotgun%20Markings-Vorisek%20BW%20Portrait.pdf 

 

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