FYI France 

File 12.73 -- An FYI France Resource List -- http://www.fyifrance.com

Gypsies in France, 1566 - 2013

A Selected Resource List

1) From 2008 to 2013

by Jack Kessler, kessler@well.com

Latest update: October 27, 2013 -- 547 entries so far, combined total for all files -- this is a work-in-progress, more entries will be added, and suggestions of emendations, additions, deletions all will be gratefully received via email to kessler@well.com

Cacophony recited angrily...

Romani people ; Lom people, in East Anatolia and Armenia ; Lyuli, in Central Asia ; Dom people, in South-West Asia ; Irish Travellers, also known as Pavee, mostly in Ireland, Great Britain, and the United States ; Sea Gypsies, a number of different peoples of Southeast Asia ; Yeniche (people), mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, and Belgium ; Banjara ; not to be confused with Romanians, a completely unrelated ethnical group ; Roma ; Gypsies ; Travellers ; Tinkers ; Tsigani (and variants) ; in France as gitans besides the dated bohémiens and manouches ; the Romani of England call themselves (in Angloromani) Romanichal, those of Scandinavia (in Scandoromani) Romanisæl ; Sinti ; Manush ; Kalo/Kale ; Kalderash ; Machvaya ; Boyash ; Lovari ; Modyar ; Xoraxai ; Lăutari, etc. ; cigány ; Bohémiens ; Rom ; "rom is a masculine noun, meaning 'man, husband', with the plural romá, Romani is the feminine adjective, while romano is the masculine adjective, some Romanies use Romá as an ethnic name, while others (such as the Sinti, or the Romanichal) do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group... ; Rommany ; Romany ; rrom ; rromani ; Romá ; Sanskrit ḍoma "a man of low caste, living by singing and music" ; ḍom ; ḍam ; Kannada ḍamāra ; Telugu ṭamaṭama ; Gypsy (or Gipsy) ; Αιγύπτιοι (Aigyptioi, whence Modern Greek γύφτοι gifti ), in the erroneous belief that the Romanies originated in Egypt, and were exiled as punishment for allegedly harboring the infant Jesus... ; gitano ; gitan ; Egipcian ; Egypcian ; 'gypcian ; égyptiens ;  "gyp" meaning "to cheat" ; New Age Travellers ; Greek τσιγγάνοι tsigani ; Hungarian: cigány [ˈtsiɡaːɲ] ; Romanian: Ţigani ; German: Zigeuner ; Italian: Zingari [and, yes, Zingarella, JK] ; French: Tsigane ; Turkish: Çingene, Çigan ; Latvian: Čigāni ; Norwegian: Sigøynere ; Swedish: Zigienare ; Polish: Cyganie ; Portuguese: Cigano ; Russian: Цыганы ; Ukrainian: Цигани ; Czech: Cikáni ; Lithuanian: Čigonai ; Byzantine Greek ατσίγγανοι (atsinganoi, Latin adsincani) or αθίγγανοι (athinganoi, literally "untouchables"), a term applied to the sect of the Melchisedechians... ; "The Adsincani appear in an 11th-century text preserved in Mt Athos, 'The Life of Saint George the Athonite' (written in the Georgian language), as 'a Samaritan people, descendants of Simon the Magician, named Adsincani, who were renowned sorcerers and villains'. In the text, emperor Constantine Monomachos employs the Adsincani to exterminate wild animals, who were destroying the game in the imperial park of Philopation... ; Bohémiens, because many Romanies living in France had come via Bohemia... ; Zott...

-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gypsy_(term)#Gypsy -- “Gypsy (term), a generic term that usually refers to Romani people but may also encompass other nomadic groups.” -- like trying to categorize “Californians”... moving-targets, both...

Preface to The List

Comment ça marche:


* The resources listed below must be "selected" -- because the perennial complaining, by gypsies against the French and by the French against gypsies, goes back very far -- it is a long & uncomfortable & impassioned & fascinating relationship, and it forms a very full & complete & sometimes-tragic, & often-joyful, & nearly-always dramatic, history. There are some in France who have worked very hard for a very long time on this, it presents a set of complex issues not easily addressed. Titles here which may be of particular interest to a beginner are prefaced by
(!).

* A few websites will be listed separately at the bottom, here, they being far easier nowadays to find and use than other resources. The other entries are listed in descending order by latest publication date, then alphabetically by author/title -- the chronological order because that seems more useful for understanding a particular culture's development than do arbitrary academic categories such as “history” or “politics”, or equally-arbitrary and increasingly-irrelevant bibliographic boxes distinguishing different “media”, such as filmstrips & movies & dvds & floppies & monographs & print journals & articles of clothing & iphones, all of which appear to be merging digitally now anyway, see,

http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2010/acoustic-fibers-0712.html,

http://www.sjquiltmuseum.org/exhibitions.html

* Because a great variety of sources is being used, all pretensions to exact bibliographic description have been abandoned, here -- standardization is attempted and not entirely achieved, but hopefully the data provided at least will help you find the thing -- the indication of a “Cote” is not meant to suggest a unique copy, other institutions may have theirs as well -- universal bibliography still being a chimæra, like universal language (Eco) and universal knowledge (Jeanneney), and hopefully we'll never become so organized and rational and stale as to arrive at any such well-ordered dystopias. The gypsies can help us all with that...

* Sources in various languages are listed, concerning various locales not all in France -- Rajasthan, Slovakia, Romania, Andalusia, etc. -- the goal here being to address the needs of someone interested in “gypsies in France” who also wants to go a little further, to Rajasthan or Slovakia or Romania or al Andaluz or elsewhere, to discover how people there, before they got from there to France or to there from France, live and work and think and play and dance and love and suffer -- a curiosity incumbent upon anyone interested in these people who do not “stay put”, and who get “sent places”, characteristics increasingly typical of all of us now in our Globalizing world.

* This also is a hesitant, tentative, very gun-shy FYI France experiment in "cloud computing"... i.e. Inside this particular “cloud”, will it rain?... and if it does, will the bits get rusty?... And the cross-platform work's still is not going so well, IE does not want to talk Chrome & Chrome does not want to talk IE, for some reason: onthefly mark-up shows readers a moving target, typical of the Internet, please refresh your screens -- and Google's mini-markup html doesn't like margin settings, so for now I've retreated reluctantly to a famously user-unfriendly format known as Microsoft Word, altho Google doesn’t translate links well from Office2Plus, grrr -- format integration'll get'em every time... please see, fyifrance.com for some ongoing generalized discussion of that...

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The List -- from 2008 to 2013 

Publisher's description, for the above, here in French and translated en américain below:

"Les femmes qui déposent leur parole dans ce livre sont singulières. Gitanes, Manouches, Yenishes, Romnia, Sinti, voyageuses, toutes sont des femmes tsiganes. Elles ont bien d'autres identités : françaises, suisses, espagnoles, roumaines. Elles auraient pu être nos voisines à l'école primaire, au fond d'une classe, ou à la sortie du village, au bout d'un champ. A la périphérie de ma ville natale, elles vont et viennent toute une vie durant, autour d'aires de stationnement ou de terrains vagues. Ce qu'elles nous disent de leur quotidien n'est pas imaginable. Pourtant pas de révélation ni de sensationnel, pas de scoop ni de grand spectacle. Non. Humilité, menus propos, craintifs et sobres. Soudain, des voix se lèvent, à l'autre bout de l'Europe. Polyphonies qui disent leurs fiertés, leurs luttes, leurs défaites, leurs forces. Dans les replis de la vie tsigane, l'émancipation des femmes aussi a frappé. Elle balaie tous les jours les pratiques archaïques. Elle rit. Elle jongle avec le parler familier des femmes d'aujourd'hui. Quarante ans après la naissance du MLF, j'ai composé ce bouquet avec mes soeurs romnia qui nous rendent le goût de la liberté, de la pugnacité et ce mélange inégalable de gravité et de légèreté."

[tr. by JK, of the remarkable statement above… there is the remarkable idea, in this, that "gypsies" are, in fact, "people"…]:

"The women who speak in this book are singular individuals. 'Gitanes', 'Manouches', 'Yenishes', 'Romnia', 'Sinti', 'travelers', all are 'gypsy' women. They have many other identities as well: French, Swiss, Spanish, Romanian. They could be our neighbors at the primary schools, at the back of the class, at the exit of the village, at the end of the lane. On the periphery of my native city, they come and go all day long, around the rest-stops or in the open fields. What they say here about their daily lives is not imaginable. But this is no revelation or sensationalism, no scoop or grand spectacle. No. Humility, small-talk, fearful and thoughtful. Suddenly their voices are rising, at the other end of our Europe. Polyphonies which declare their pride, their struggles, their defeats, their strengths. Among the trials of the gypsy life, the emancipation of women is being heard. It battles daily with archaic customs. It laughs. It resounds with the familiar talk of modern womanhood. Forty years after the birth of MLF / the Women's Movement, I have arranged this bouquet with my Romnia sisters, who present us here with a taste for liberty, a pugnacity, and an unequaled mixture of seriousness and lightness."

Publisher's description: one of a number of observations, increasingly - emerging now, that "gypsies" may, in fact, be better-considered as being, gasp, "people"… translated further below here en américain --

"A l'évocation du mot 'tsigane' est associé spontanément un ensemble de représentations dans lequel se mêlent des indices d'identification clairs. Et pourtant, d'un point de vue sociologique, rien n'est plus obscur que ce sujet qui se donne si facilement à voir et qui échappe à chaque fois que l'on tente de le saisir. Tel est l'objectif de cet ouvrage que de redéfinir les bases d'une approche satisfaisant le plus possible une exigence de prudence vis-à-vis d'un sujet trop souvent investi de sentiments ambivalents. Dans tous les cas, les Tsiganes, perçus comme l'incarnation absolue de l'altérité, sont rarement considérés pour eux-mêmes. 'C'est à peine si on les regarde. On se regarde en eux'. Plus largement, le propos de cet ouvrage vise à déterminer, à travers cet exemple, les logiques qui consistent à assigner des individus à une identité déterminée, de démontrer que les personnes ne s'y laissent jamais totalement enfermer, et quant à parler d'identité de groupe, en chercher la teneur dans les réactions mêmes de ces acteurs."

[Translation of the French version, above, en américain by JK:]

"The use of the term 'gypsy' is associated immediately with an ensemble of significations in which are mixed many precise identifications. But from a sociological point of view nothing is more obscure than this subject, which seems so easily seen yet each time escapes our grasp. The objective of this work is to redefine the bases of a satisfactory but prudent approach, to this subject too often burdened with ambivalent sentiments. In all cases, the Gypsies, perceived as the absolute incarnation of a counter-culture [Roszak, 1968, JK], rarely receive any consideration as themselves, as individuals. 'We rarely see them. We see ourselves in them.' Generally this work determines, using this example, the logic of assigning to individuals some defined identity, demonstrating that individuals never may be totally captured by a definition, and for group identity seeking that among the reactions of the actors themselves."

Publisher's description: translated further below here en américain --

"La République tchèque présente cet intérêt d'offrir à l'observation sociologique une lutte sur le choix de la politique d'intégration à prendre concernant les Tsiganes. S'opposent ainsi, les tenants d'une politique d'intégration sociale d'un côté et, de l'autre, les défenseurs d'une politique multiculturelle. Au travers des enquêtes de terrain, l'objectif de cet ouvrage est de pointer les limites et contradictions inhérentes aux deux modèles d'intégration… S'agissant d'intégration, il est admis aujourd'hui d'opposer le modèle " républicain " et le modèle " communautarien ", prétendument inconciliables sinon contradictoires dans leurs termes. A cet égard, la République tchèque présente cet intérêt d'offrir à l'observation sociologique une lutte sur le choix de la politique d'intégration à prendre concernant les Tsiganes. S'opposent ainsi, les tenants d'une politique d'intégration sociale d'un côté, qui soutiennent que le problème d'intégration des Tsiganes est avant tout un problème " social et économique " et qui raisonnent en termes d'" exclus sociaux " ; et de l'autre les défenseurs d'une politique multiculturelle qui affirment au contraire qu'il s'agit fondamentalement d'un problème " culturel et politique " et qui soutiennent le principe d'une "minorité rom". Au travers des enquêtes de terrain réalisées auprès des habitants tsiganes des localités d'"exclusion sociale ", au sein d'un musée ethnographique de la culture rom et auprès des boxeurs tsiganes et non-tsiganes du club de boxe de Ziikov à Prague, l'objectif de cet ouvrage est de pointer les limites et contradictions inhérentes aux deux modèles d'intégration. Mais au-delà de cette critique, l'exemple du club de boxe conduit à s'interroger sur les conditions qui rendent possible la revendication à la fois des différences et des similitudes. Dans cet ouvrage, la question des Tsiganes n'est plus posée sous l'angle de l'intégration, bien au contraire, c'est l'intégration qui est interrogée au regard des Tsiganes."

[Translation of the French version, above, en américain by JK: there may be some very good and sound sense to be found, here, about "cultural integration"…]

"The Czech Republic offers sociological observation an alternative in the political integration of Gypsies. Opposing one another are the proponents of social integration, on the one hand, and the defenders of multi-cultural politics on the other. The objective of this work is to examine the limits and contradictions in these two models of integration… In integration, it is admitted nowadays that the republican-model and the community-model are opposed, irreconcilable if not contradictory in their terms. In this regard, the Czech Republic offers sociological observation a choice in the integration politics of the Gypsies. Opposed, the politics of social integration on the one hand contend that the problem is above all 'social and economic' and reason in terms of 'social exclusion'; and on the other the defenders of multi-cultural politics contend, on the contrary, that this is fundamentally a problem of 'culture and politics' and argue for the principle of a 'gypsy minority'. Using inquiries undertaken among the gypsy inhabitants of 'social exclusion' locations, in an ethnographic museum of gypsy culture and among gypsy and non-gypsy boxers of the Ziikov boxing-club of Prague, the objective of this work is to point out the limits and inherent contradictions in the two models of integration. But beyond this critique the example of the boxing club suggests that we question the conditions which make possible a reconciliation of the differences and similarities. In this work, the Gypsy question is not posed from the point of view of integration, on the contrary it is the integration which is questioned from the point of view of the Gypsies."

Publisher's description: one of a number of observations, increasingly - emerging now, that "gypsies" may, in fact, be better-considered as being, gasp, "people"… translated further below here en américain --

"A l'évocation du mot 'tsigane' est associé spontanément un ensemble de représentations dans lequel se mêlent des indices d'identification clairs. Et pourtant, d'un point de vue sociologique, rien n'est plus obscur que ce sujet qui se donne si facilement à voir et qui échappe à chaque fois que l'on tente de le saisir. Tel est l'objectif de cet ouvrage que de redéfinir les bases d'une approche satisfaisant le plus possible une exigence de prudence vis-à-vis d'un sujet trop souvent investi de sentiments ambivalents. Dans tous les cas, les Tsiganes, perçus comme l'incarnation absolue de l'altérité, sont rarement considérés pour eux-mêmes. 'C'est à peine si on les regarde. On se regarde en eux'. Plus largement, le propos de cet ouvrage vise à déterminer, à travers cet exemple, les logiques qui consistent à assigner des individus à une identité déterminée, de démontrer que les personnes ne s'y laissent jamais totalement enfermer, et quant à parler d'identité de groupe, en chercher la teneur dans les réactions mêmes de ces acteurs."

[Translated of the French version above en américain by JK:]

"The use of the term 'gypsy' is associated immediately with an ensemble of significations in which are mixed many precise identifications. But from a sociological point of view nothing is more obscure than this subject, which seems so easily seen yet each time escapes our grasp. The objective of this work is to redefine the bases of a satisfactory but prudent approach, to this subject too often burdened with ambivalent sentiments. In all cases, the Gypsies, perceived as the absolute incarnation of a counter-culture [Roszak, 1968, JK], rarely receive any consideration as themselves, as individuals. 'We rarely see them. We see ourselves in them.' Generally this work determines, using this example, the logic of assigning to individuals some defined identity, demonstrating that individuals never may be totally captured by a definition, and for group identity seeking that among the reactions of the actors themselves."

Publisher's description: translated further below here en américain --

"La République tchèque présente cet intérêt d'offrir à l'observation sociologique une lutte sur le choix de la politique d'intégration à prendre concernant les Tsiganes. S'opposent ainsi, les tenants d'une politique d'intégration sociale d'un côté et, de l'autre, les défenseurs d'une politique multiculturelle. Au travers des enquêtes de terrain, l'objectif de cet ouvrage est de pointer les limites et contradictions inhérentes aux deux modèles d'intégration… S'agissant d'intégration, il est admis aujourd'hui d'opposer le modèle " républicain " et le modèle " communautarien ", prétendument inconciliables sinon contradictoires dans leurs termes. A cet égard, la République tchèque présente cet intérêt d'offrir à l'observation sociologique une lutte sur le choix de la politique d'intégration à prendre concernant les Tsiganes. S'opposent ainsi, les tenants d'une politique d'intégration sociale d'un côté, qui soutiennent que le problème d'intégration des Tsiganes est avant tout un problème " social et économique " et qui raisonnent en termes d'" exclus sociaux " ; et de l'autre les défenseurs d'une politique multiculturelle qui affirment au contraire qu'il s'agit fondamentalement d'un problème " culturel et politique " et qui soutiennent le principe d'une "minorité rom". Au travers des enquêtes de terrain réalisées auprès des habitants tsiganes des localités d'"exclusion sociale ", au sein d'un musée ethnographique de la culture rom et auprès des boxeurs tsiganes et non-tsiganes du club de boxe de Ziikov à Prague, l'objectif de cet ouvrage est de pointer les limites et contradictions inhérentes aux deux modèles d'intégration. Mais au-delà de cette critique, l'exemple du club de boxe conduit à s'interroger sur les conditions qui rendent possible la revendication à la fois des différences et des similitudes. Dans cet ouvrage, la question des Tsiganes n'est plus posée sous l'angle de l'intégration, bien au contraire, c'est l'intégration qui est interrogée au regard des Tsiganes."

[Translation of the French version, above, en américain by JK: there may be some very good and sound sense to be found, here, about "cultural integration"…]

"The Czech Republic offers sociological observation an alternative in the political integration of Gypsies. Opposing one another are the proponents of social integration, on the one hand, and the defenders of multi-cultural politics on the other. The objective of this work is to examine the limits and contradictions in these two models of integration… In integration, it is admitted nowadays that the republican-model and the community-model are opposed, irreconcilable if not contradictory in their terms. In this regard, the Czech Republic offers sociological observation a choice in the integration politics of the Gypsies. Opposed, the politics of social integration on the one hand contend that the problem is above all 'social and economic' and reason in terms of 'social exclusion'; and on the other the defenders of multi-cultural politics contend, on the contrary, that this is fundamentally a problem of 'culture and politics' and argue for the principle of a 'gypsy minority'. Using inquiries undertaken among the gypsy inhabitants of 'social exclusion' locations, in an ethnographic museum of gypsy culture and among gypsy and non-gypsy boxers of the Ziikov boxing-club of Prague, the objective of this work is to point out the limits and inherent contradictions in the two models of integration. But beyond this critique the example of the boxing club suggests that we question the conditions which make possible a reconciliation of the differences and similarities. In this work, the Gypsy question is not posed from the point of view of integration, on the contrary it is the integration which is questioned from the point of view of the Gypsies."

Contents :

* pt. 1. The national ideal -- One ideal or many? : a short history -- Colonization and resettlement : early Romanian experience -- Into the Nazis' fold -- Romanian eugenics : racism without a "race" -- Modern science and nationalism : two Romanian cases -- The population exchange with Bulgaria : "An opportunity missed"?

* pt. 2. Model province -- The new regime -- The project : "Model province" -- Cleansing the terrain, I : mass murder -- Cleansing the terrain, II : deportation -- The cost of Utopia -- What did they know? What did they do?

* pt. 3. Between the dream and reality -- Romanianization -- Deporting Roma -- Stopping deportations and changing course -- "Voluntary" population exchange with Bulgaria -- Getting ready for the world that never came : planning population exchanges -- Letting them out, and keeping them out.

Contents :

* Introduction: Romani politics in neoliberal Europe / Nando Sigona and Nidhi Trehan --

* pt. 1. The Romani political space in Europe -- EU initiatives on Roma : limitations and ways forward / Will Guy -- The Romani subaltern within neoliberal European civil society : NGOization of human rights and silent voices / Nidhi Trehan -- Beyond boundaries? : comparing the construction of the political categories : "Gypsies" and "Roma" before and after EU enlargement / Katrin Simhandl -- Romani political mobilisation from the First International Romani Union Congress to the European Roma, Sinti, and Travellers Forum / Jud Nirenbergi -- Contentious politics in Europe : experiences of desegregation policy in Hungary and the push for an EU-level strategy on Romani integration / Nidhi Trehan in conversation with MEP Viktória Mohácsi -- The limits of rights-based discourse in Romani women's activism : the gender dimension in Romani politics / Angéla Kóczé --

* pt. 2. Domestic perspectives -- The Romani movement in Romania : institutionalization and (de)mobilization / Iulius Rostas -- Social unrest in Slovakia 2004 : Romani reaction to neoliberal "reforms" / Martin Marusák and Leo Singer -- Being Roma activists in post-independence Kosovo / Nando Sigona in conversation with Avdula (Dai) Mustafa and Gazmen Salijevic -- Spanish Gitanos, Romani migrants, and European Roma identity : (re)unification or self-affirmation / Miguel Laparra and Almudena Macías -- New Labour's policies and their effectiveness for the provision of sites for Gypsies and travellers in England / Jo Richardson and Andrew Ryder -- The "problema nomadi" vis-à-vis the political participation of Roma and Sinti at the local level in Italy / Nando Sigona --

* Conclusions: A "people's Europe" for Romani citizens? / Nando Sigona and Nidhi Trehan.

* Contents : Introduction -- Towards Schengen : the abolition of internal border controls in Europe --The Schengen Information System -- New functionalities for SIS and the development of SIS II -- Other EU databases used in the field of immigration control : Eurodac and VIS -- Data processing and the right to privacy : the importance of Article 8 ECHR -- Effective remedies under data protection law -- Effective remedies in immigration procedures : ECHR -- Effective remedies under EC immigration law -- Effective remedies in the EU : a matter of basic principles -- France -- Germany -- The Netherlands -- Conclusions ;

* Subject : Emigration and immigration law -- European Union countries -- Databases -- Computer network resources -- Aliens -- Civil rights -- Privacy, Right of -- Asylum, Right of -- Data protection -- Law and legislation -- Freedom of movement.

* Footnote: Do I, personellement, "like gypsies"?... Depends on which one... It's a question I'm often asked, with my interests in them and in the French. In the US we have an old expression from our own local "racial" segregation experience: it runs, "Some of my best friends are -- Wops / Chinks / Polaks / Krauts / Micks / etc. -- but I wouldn't want my daughter to marry one..." To my mind the "gypsy" question in Europe is suspiciously similar: a highly-suspect social and political and economic classification, subject to invidious "racial" discrimination. I have known, and lived among, and worked with, people who have borne the label "gypsy" -- some proudly, some so-designated by others -- some have been foes of mine, a few have been friends. Plenty of impoverished gypsies are not certain themselves who their own forebears were, so how are The Authorities so sure, without the spurious "racial" profiling and stereotyping we all left behind scientifically a century ago?

And no, these problems are not unique to France: the French may be unique, but their problems are not -- other countries, too, have minorities and poverty and racism, and immigration issues, and ham-fisted opportunistic politicians.

For example at this very moment, outside the San Francisco donut shop where I sit writing this, a beggar is seeking alms from his wheelchair, appealing to passers-by and to us donut patrons in the shop window, his hands outstretched & trembling, lips cracked & open-sore skin discolored, head lolling & sleepy & apparently unable to dress himself & dirty & smelly & wheezing, clearly very ill from many maladies yet his fingers clutch a cigarette someone has given him and he puffs when he can draw his breath -- there are thousands like him, here, sleeping at night in the doorways of this the world's financially-richest society by far -- and next week we good citizens of San Francisco will enact a law forbidding "sleeping in doorways"... question-begging contradictions... and so, as always, the US and France have much experience to share, and much to learn from one another...

JK.

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Warning: legal stuff ahead --

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