How to write a “Power Conclusion” (adapted from Bettina Pierce- Irvine USD and David Shellhaas- Darke County ESC, Amy Kochensparger - Eaton High School, Eaton, OH)

Your conclusion should include the following information so that your conclusion is scientifically correct and as complete as possible.  Avoid all use of pronouns.

Important Parts of the Conclusion

How to write the different parts

1.  Refers back to the prediction/hypothesis.

The hypothesis proposed that (refer to the If...then...because... idea)

2.  Answers the question/reflects on hypothesis after data collection

The data revealed that  …. . “ There was (no, some, little, great.... )support for the prediction or hypothesis”

3.  Uses specific data gathered in the experiment- refer to the data you collected and point out trends, highs/lows, outliers, etc. Try to use at least 3 data examples in the discussion.

The data showed/revealed that ….”

      Ex. The ________ was 15 cm more than the ____.

“State any statistics that support or refute the hypothesis or prediction”.

   Ex. A Chi Square value of 8.00 was greater than the chart value of 7.82 (df=3, p=0.05) therefore showing a significant difference between observed and expected values for.....

4.  Explain, in the words of the scientist, WHY you obtained the results you did.

* “The results of the experiment show that …..”

* “The reason ________ happened was …..”

* “The data/ results are supported by/ make sense in light of... (discussion of specific scientific knowledge/concepts) ______

5.  Error Analysis: Other areas/variables that could have affected the results. May also include error statistics.

The following (confounding) factors_______ could have affected the outcome/results due to ( ….”

6.   Explain how your findings are well connected to an understanding of biological concepts and/or real-world applications and share Future Research ideas.

*”The concept of _____ is demonstrated in (suggest a real world application). This ____ is important because _____.” OR “The biological concept of _____ is important because _____.”

“Additional research questions such as ….. may (add/clarify/substantiate/...)......”

7.  Do you cite all your resources?

Conclusions Checklist

What Makes for Good Conclusions?

For Good Conclusions, You Should Answer "Yes" to Every Question

Do you summarize the results and use data/results to support the findings?

Yes / No

Do your conclusions state that the hypothesis is either “supported” or “refuted/not supported” by the results/data/statistics? (Engineering & programming projects should state whether they met their design criteria.)

Yes / No

If appropriate, do you state the relationship between the independent and dependent variable?

Yes / No

Do you summarize and evaluate the experimental procedure, making comments about the experiment’s success and effectiveness?

Yes / No

Do you suggest changes in the experimental procedure and/or possibilities for further study?

Yes / No

Do you relate your findings to either the biological concept and/or to a real world application of the topic

Yes/No

Rubric for grading Power Conclusion: scored 4-1 (0= missing)

 

4

3

2

1

Lab

Conclusion

 

·        Thoroughly states scientific findings as answer to problem question

·        Clearly and thoroughly connects findings to hypothesis

·        Accurately and clearly uses data as evidence to develop and support findings & information presented

·        Thorough discussion of skewed/outlying data

·        Accurately assesses experimental errors and factors not taken into consideration

·        Findings are well connected to an understanding of biological concepts and/or real-world applications

·        Adequately states scientific findings

·        Connects findings to hypothesis

·        Uses data as evidence to develop and support findings/information presented

·        Less thorough discussion of skewed/outlying data

·        Less accurately assesses experimental errors and factors not taken into consideration.

·        Findings are connected to an understanding of biological concepts and/or real-world applications

·        Somewhat states scientific findings

·        May or may not connect findings to hypothesis

·        Uses data as evidence to develop and support findings/information presented

·        Some discussion of skewed/outlying data

·        Little to no assessment of experimental errors and factors not taken into consideration

·        Findings are poorly connected to an understanding of biological concepts and/or real-world applications

·        Does not state scientific findings

·        Does not connect findings to hypothesis

·        Ineffectively uses data as evidence to develop and support findings/information presented

·        No discussion of skewed/outlying data

·        No assessment of experimental errors and factors not taken into consideration

·        Findings are not connected to an understanding of biological concepts and/or real-world applications