Anatomy and Physiology




EXAM 2—chapter 21, Immunity

  1. Describe the different surface barriers, their functions and how they perform these functions.
  2. Discuss the difference b/n phagocytes and NK cells and how they perform their vital functions?  
  3. Discuss the cardinal signs of inflammation and how and why each of these occurs when an organism enters (events of inflammation).
  4. What is phagocyte mobilization and how does it occur?
  5. Discuss the  major antimicrobial proteins and how they assist in our defense against pathogens.
  6. What is a fever and why is it important?  Sometimes it can be bad…why?
  7. What are the 3 characteristics of adaptive immunity that distinguish it from innate?
  8. Define the following terms: antigen, complete antigen, hapten, antigenic determinant
  9. Discuss the 2 different lymphocytes and their positive and negative selection in the body.
  10. What do antigen presenting cells do, give some examples of these cells?
  11. What is hummoral immunity?
  12. What is clonal selection?  What cell types are produced during clonal selection of B cells? T cells?
  13. Draw a graph representing primary and secondary immune response to 1 antigen.  Why do we have a better response the second time?  Be sure you can label this graph and explain it.  What is a lag period?
  14. Discuss active and passive immunity. Give examples of each.
  15. Describe (or draw) a typical antibody.  What is the difference between variable and constant regions?  How are they formed? What are the antibody classes and basic function of each class? (Matching?)
  16. Describe how antibodies inactivate antigens and how they fix and activate complement.  How do these lead to destruction of the pathogen?
  17. What are monoclonal antibodies used for?
  18. What is MHC and MHC restriction?  How do these receptors display their pathogens?
  19. Discuss the differences and similarities between the 2 types of MHC and which cells they activate.
  20. What are the steps involved in T cell activation?
  21. What role do cytokines play in cellular immunity?
  22. Describe the roles of helper T cells and cytotoxic T cell.  
  23. What are the 4 types of transplantation and why does rejection occur in these different types?
  24. What causes AIDS to develop? (Include discussion of HIV virus and its role)  What are the symptoms of AIDS and how is it transmitted?
  25. What is an autoimmune disease and give a few examples.  What are the current theories on why we start to destroy our own cells?
  26. What are the 4 types of hypersensitivity and why do they occur?

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