Anatomy and Physiology
TCC BIO 142
EXAM 2—chapter 21, Immunity
- Describe the different surface barriers, their functions and how they perform these functions.
- Discuss the difference b/n phagocytes and NK cells and how they perform their vital functions?
- Discuss the cardinal signs of inflammation and how and why each of these occurs when an organism enters (events of inflammation).
- What is phagocyte mobilization and how does it occur?
- Discuss the major antimicrobial proteins and how they assist in our defense against pathogens.
- What is a fever and why is it important? Sometimes it can be bad…why?
- What are the 3 characteristics of adaptive immunity that distinguish it from innate?
- Define the following terms: antigen, complete antigen, hapten, antigenic determinant
- Discuss the 2 different lymphocytes and their positive and negative selection in the body.
- What do antigen presenting cells do, give some examples of these cells?
- What is hummoral immunity?
- What is clonal selection? What cell types are produced during clonal selection of B cells? T cells?
- Draw a graph representing primary and secondary immune response to 1 antigen. Why do we have a better response the second time? Be sure you can label this graph and explain it. What is a lag period?
- Discuss active and passive immunity. Give examples of each.
- Describe (or draw) a typical antibody. What is the difference between variable and constant regions? How are they formed? What are the antibody classes and basic function of each class? (Matching?)
- Describe how antibodies inactivate antigens and how they fix and activate complement. How do these lead to destruction of the pathogen?
- What are monoclonal antibodies used for?
- What is MHC and MHC restriction? How do these receptors display their pathogens?
- Discuss the differences and similarities between the 2 types of MHC and which cells they activate.
- What are the steps involved in T cell activation?
- What role do cytokines play in cellular immunity?
- Describe the roles of helper T cells and cytotoxic T cell.
- What are the 4 types of transplantation and why does rejection occur in these different types?
- What causes AIDS to develop? (Include discussion of HIV virus and its role) What are the symptoms of AIDS and how is it transmitted?
- What is an autoimmune disease and give a few examples. What are the current theories on why we start to destroy our own cells?
- What are the 4 types of hypersensitivity and why do they occur?