IB Evolution Notes
Natural Selection (5.2)
- What is necessary for natural selection to occur?
- What causes variation between individuals in a species?
- Understand and explain that species tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support.
- Explain why some individuals survive and have more offspring than others:
- Explain why individuals that reproduce pass on characteristics to their offspring.
- Explain how natural selection leads to changes within the species.
- Discuss the changes in beaks of finches on Daphne Major.
- Explain the evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
Gene Pools & Speciation (10.3)
- Describe what makes up a gene pool:
- What does evolution require in order to take place?
- Describe reproductive isolation:
- Describe how reproductive isolation of populations can be temporal, behavioral or geographic (explain each)
- Describe how speciation due to divergence of isolated populations can be gradual:
- Describe how speciation can occur abruptly:
- Identify and explain an example of directional, stabilizing, and disruptive selection:
- Explain speciation in the genus Allium by polyploidy
Evidence for Evolution (5.1)
- Describe why evolution occurs when heritable characteristics of a species change.
- Describe how the fossil record provides evidence for evolution:
- Describe how selective breeding of domesticated animals (and crops) shows that artificial selection can cause evolution.
- Describe how evolution of homologous structures by adaptive radiation explains similarities in structure when there are differences in function.
- Describe how populations of a species can gradually diverge into separate species by evolution.
- Explain the process of gradual divergence
- Explain the development of melanistic insects in polluted areas.
- Application: Comparison of the pentadactyl limb of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles with different methods of locomotion with an emphasis on evidence for evolution.
- Explain how gene sequences can provide evidence for species membership of a clade.
- Describe why there is a positive correlation between the number of differences between two species and the time since they diverged from a common ancestor.
- Explain why traits can be analogous or homologous
- Evidence from cladistics has shown that classifications of some groups based on structure did not correspond with the evolutionary origins of a group or species.
- Explain the reclassification of the figwort family using evidence from cladistics.