National University of Singapore
LSM2251 Ecology and the Environment
"The Map Prac"
PART I - Points of a compass
Part I TASKS: Points of a compass
The four cardinal directions correspond to the following degrees of a compass:
An ordinal, or intercardinal, or intermediate, direction is one of the four intermediate compass directions located halfway between the cardinal directions.
TASK 1: Draw a compass rose, indicate the cardinal and inter-cardinal points in 1/8 points.
Use a piece of paper and a ruler (we will accept an approximate drawing to save time). Note: your orienteering compass has a ruler's edge and can be used with a ruler, or second compass to draw right angles. Show this to your TA.
TASK 2: Increase the inter-cardinal points to 1/16 points.
TASK 3: "Boxing the Compass" is the ability to repeat all 32 points of the compass. This was a basic skill of any sailor. You will attempt a less ambitious recital, using the 16-point compass, with the assistance of your partner and present to another group.
TASK 4: A paper map and a compass are used in tandem to orientate, determine distance and relative positioning. Identify the areas listed in Part II on the paper map and measure the relative bearing and distances between them.
Part II - Introduction to a compass, bearing and heading
Part II TASK: Find the bearing.
Courtesy of Kjetil Kjernsmo,
Bearing and heading
A bearing is the the angle between a line connecting two points and a north-south line, or simply, the direction provided by a compass of your target in relation to your position. The term is also used for the direction of travel required to reach the intended destination.
Your heading, is the actual direction in which you are traveling. For example, having secured a bearing, you are forced to navigate around obstacles. In such an instance, you would have to adjust your heading and in the process, the bearing will change (as it always points at the destination).
From a position in the corridor along S2 and S3, identify the prominent buildings and geographic features within your field of vision. Record the bearing to the points and sketch a map of their relative locations. Be careful about your description as an imprecise description can point to the incorrect object.
Next, identify the locations using your position and recorded bearings on the paper map. Measure the relative distance and adjust your sketch map accordingly. Discuss the relationships between these measures.
Points from S2 corridor:
Points from S3 corridor
Note: Your compass must be held perpendicular to the ground - the needle must be able to float freely.
Your TAs will check the bearings and relative position of various points.
Part III - Introduction to Google Earth & Annotating a map
TASK: Explore Singapore and Making your map.
Go to Google Maps at http://maps.google.com
Search for the suggested prominent points in Singapore listed below. You can use these points to characterise any map of Singapore and help you get orientated and make comparisons. As you find these maps, mark them in your map. To do this, you need to enter "Edit mode"
Making your map.
Points to consider
Exploring Singapore - note the cardinal point with respect NUS
Your TAs will check your grasp of relative position between various points.
Part IV - Further exploration and use
ASSIGNMENT (CA1 (Using Google Maps)/Individual submission)
You have been introduced to a potent tool that will help you in your appreciation of ecology. You will be asked to use Google Maps to supplement your Kent Ridge and Pulau Ubin practical reports. We will use a GPS to collect points along the route, and observe prominent points that you will be able to integrate into your report.
Keep the map you submitted to add points that we encounter during lectures. I will also post maps that you will be welcome to share and annotate.
With your new familiarity with prominent points in Singapore (many of you explored much more) here are two suggestions:
Using Google Maps, prepare a Singapore map marked with the following 22 placemarks:
Remember to label and describe the map and placemarks accurately.
To submit your completed project, do the following:
Add placemarks for the rivers of Singapore; differentiate the following by using a unique symbol or colour:
Special tasks: Why is the Sungei Mandai Besar, which drains near Woodlands, named as such? To find out why, draw a line to trace the river to its source and mark relevant points along the way.