ICS Calendar Title: What Is This Thing Called Religion? Spiritual Difference, Secular Critique, and Human Maturity

ICS Course Code: ICS 2400AC W13

Instructors: ICS Faculty (Nik Ansell [co-ordinator], Doug Blomberg, Shannon Hoff, Bob Sweetman)

Term and Year: Thursdays, 5:30-8:30 pm, Winter 2013

Last Updated: January 16, 2013 *Note: This is not a final version.

Contents

1. Course Description

2. Reading Schedule

3. Course Requirements

4. Description and Weighting of Elements to be Evaluated

5. Required Readings

6. Some Recommended Readings

1. Course Description

Our attitudes and approaches towards interfaith dialogue are fundamentally shaped by our understanding of the nature of religion. Is religion primarily a matter of faith, of beliefs, or of praxis? If religions are multi-dimensional phenomena, are some dimensions more important than others? Is religious commitment an authentic and indispensable facet of what it means to be fully human or a sign of inauthenticity and/or malformation? How might a distinction between true faith and false faith relate to a distinction between mature faith and immature faith? Is the category of ‘quasi-religion’ helpful? Do all religious (or would-be secular) positions have inclusive, exclusive, and pluralistic characteristics? Can human flourishing function as a criterion for evaluating different religious traditions? Can we formulate a vision of human maturity outside of a religious or quasi-religious tradition? In allowing questions such as the above to multiply and interact, we will explore the possibility that any viable model of religion that can help us find our way in a religiously complex and diverse world must resist premature reductionism and must be aware of the self-referential nature and implications of its investigations.

Keywords: belief, exclusivism, faith, faith development, humanistic critique of religion, inclusivism, maturity, pluralism, quasi-religion, reductionism, religion, secularism, truth  

Learning goals

1. To develop an appropriately multi-dimensional yet focused definition of religion

2. To discern the insights (as well as lacunae) of leading secular and non-secular analyses of religion

3. To probe the limits of the ‘exclusivism-inclusivism-pluralism’ model of religious difference

2. Reading Schedule

Draft schedule (for abbreviations and fuller publication details, see required readings, below)

 

1. Jan 17 Smart, chap 1; Clouser, chap 2. Supplementary reading: Alles, Schilbrack

2. Jan 24 Pals, IR chaps 1–3 or ETR chaps 1–2 [Tyler, Frazer, Freud] [3 JM respondents]

3. Jan 31 Pals, IR chaps 4–5 or ETR chaps 3–4 [Durkheim, Marx] [2 JM respondents]

4. Feb 7 Pals, IR chaps 6–7 [James, Otto] [2 JM respondents]

5. Feb 14 Pals, IR chaps 8–9 or ETR chaps 5–6 [Weber, Eliade] [2 JM respondents]

 [note: IR is largely a collection of primary sources while ETR gives Pals’ overview and analysis. Participants can choose which of these two complementary texts they would prefer to read. For any given class, the SM and JM respondents would arrange to cover all the material between them, JMs covering the primary sources/IR]

reading week (Feb 18–22)

 

6. Feb 28 Pals, IR chaps 10–11 or ETR chaps 7–8; and ETR 9 [Evans-Pritchard, Geertz, Conclusion] [2 JM respondents]

7-11. Mar 7–April 3; dates/times chosen by each subgroups. Three groups to meet for five sessions to discuss a core text. Suggested topics with suggested text:

(a) faith development

James W. Fowler, Faith Development: The Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning (1981; repr., HarperOne, 1995) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: ON ORDER]

(b) religious pluralism

John Hick, Clark H. Pinnock, Alister E. McGrath et al., Four Views of Salvation in a Pluralistic World, ed. Dennis L. Okholm and Timothy R. Phillips (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BT759 .M67 1996]

(c) the secular

Charles Taylor, A Secular Age (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007)

 

Other (recommended!) texts, shortlisted for possible subgroup attention:

(d) The distinction and relationship between faith and belief

W. Cantwell Smith, Faith and Belief: The Difference between Them (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979; Oxford: Oneworld, 1998) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL626.3 .S58]

(e) Derrida, Vattimo and Gadamer on religion 

Jacques Derrida and Gianni Vattimo, eds., Religion (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL21 .R39513 1998 c.1-2]

(f) Islam

Miroslav Volf, Allah: A Christian Response (New York: HarperOne, 2011) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BP166.2 .V65 2011]

(g) quasi-religion

John E. Smith, Quasi-Religions: Humanism, Marxism and Nationalism (Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1994) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL2747 .S64 1994]

 

12. April 4 Plenary feedback from subgroups; student essay proposals due. Preparatory reading: Hick, “Introduction to the Second Edition”; Olthuis, “Faith Development in the Adult Life Span”; Taylor “Why We Need a Radical Redefinition of Secularism”

13. April 11 Discussion of: Richard Rorty and Gianni Vattimo, The Future of Religion, ed. Santiago Zabala (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf (Pragmatism & Religion Reserves) BL48 .R54 2005] [2 JM respondents]; Conclusions         

3. Course Requirements

a. Total reading: 1250 pages total, including research for paper, of which approximately 60-70 pages per week is required to prepare for class

b. In seminar leadership: In addition to participating in the discussion of the assigned readings, junior members will be responsible for at least two class presentations, one in a plenary session (Maximum: 2pp single-spaced, 12-point, please!), one in a subgroup. Your presentation should be an analysis of and response to the reading, not a summary. Please also provide a question or two for discussion

c. Description of course papers: Essay of 4-5000 words (MA), 5-7000 words (PhD) on a figure, text or theme that is relevant to questions raised in the course description or in the class discussions and that emerges from your participation in the course

4. Description and Weighting of Elements to be Evaluated

class participation: 20% [TST 25%]

class presentations: 20% [TST 25%]

research paper: 60% [TST 50%]

5. Required Readings

[* Note: The following titles may be borrowed for 24 hours. Please ensure those due to respond to a text in class do not need it before you borrow it!]

Texts for plenary sessions:

Georges Alles, “Kinds, Classes, and Clumps: A Preliminary Typology of Concepts and Some Implications for the Study of Religion.” Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 41, no. 1 (2012): 12–23

Roy A. Clouser, The Myth of Religious Neutrality: An Essay on the Hidden Role of Religious Belief in Theories, rev. ed. (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005), chap. 2 [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL240.3 .C56 2005]

Mick Gordon and Chris Wilkinson, eds. Conversations on Religion (London: Continuum, 2008) [short extracts will be read in class]  ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL48 .C66 2008 ; Regis Library: BL48 .C66 2008]

John Hick, “Introduction to the Second Edition,” in An Interpretation of Religion: Human Responses to the Transcendent, 2nd ed. (Basingstoke, UK: Pelgrave Macmillan,  2004), xvii–xlii [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL48 .H45 2004 ; SMC bl48 .H45 2004]

James H. Olthuis, “Faith Development in the Adult Life Span,” Studies in Religion/ Sciences Religieuses 14 (1985): 497–509

Daniel L. Pals, Eight Theories of Religion (Oxford University Press, 2006) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL41 .P36 2006]

––––––––, ed., Introducing Religion: Readings from the Classic Theorists (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL51 .I6565 2009]

Richard Rorty and Gianni Vattimo, The Future of Religion, ed. Santiago Zabala (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL48 .R54 2005 (see Pragmatism & Religion Reserve Shelf)]

Ninian Smart, The Religious Experience, 5th ed. (Upper Sadle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996), chap. 1. [Victoria University, E.J. Pratt Library: BL80.2 .S6 1996]

Charles Taylor “Why We Need a Radical Redefinition of Secularism,” in Judith Butler, Jurgen Habermas, Charles Taylor and Cornel West, The Power of Religion in the Public Sphere, ed. Eduardo Mendieta and Jonathan Vanantwerpen (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), 34–59 [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL98.5 .P69 2011]

Texts for subgroups:

James Fowler, Faith Development: The Psychology of Human Development and the Quest for Meaning (repr., 1981; HarperOne, 1995) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: ON ORDER ; 1981: BV4037 .F664 1981]

John Hick, Clark H. Pinnock, Alister E. McGrath et al., Four Views of Salvation in a Pluralistic World, ed. Dennis L. Okholm and Timothy R. Phillips (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BT759 .M67 1996]

Charles Taylor, A Secular Age (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007)

6. Some Recommended Readings [this list will be annotated]

[*Note: The following titles may be borrowed for five days.]

[note: this list does not (yet) include texts by authors selected by Pals (Durkheim, Marx, Eliade, Geertz, etc.). See Pals 2006; 2009 for key works.]

Rubem Alves, What Is Religion?, trans. Don Vinzant (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis: 1984) [ROBA: BL48 .A48313 1984]

Robert Banks, And Man Created God: Is God a Human Invention? (Oxford: Lion, 2011) [not located at UTL]

Stephen Beasley-Murray, Towards a Metaphysics of the Sacred. NABPR Special Studies Series, no. 8 (Macon, GA: Mercer, 1982) [DOWNSVIEW: BL48 .B375 1982]

Peter L. Berger, A Rumor of Angels: Modern Society and the Rediscovery of the Supernatural (New York: Doubleday, 1970) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL100 .B43]

––––––––––, The Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion (New York: Doubleday, 1967) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL60 .B42 1969a ; ROBA: BL60 .B42]

Joseph Dabney Bettis, ed., Phenomenology of Religion: Eight Modern Descriptions of the Essence of Religion (New York: Harper and Row, 1969) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL51 .B547]

Jonathan A. C. Brown, Muhammad: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011) [SMC: BP136 .B76 2011]

Richard Lyman Bushman, Mormonism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008) [ROBA: BX8635.3 .B87 2008X]

Judith Butler, Jurgen Habermas, Charles Taylor and Cornel West, The Power of Religion in the Public Sphere, ed. Eduardo Mendieta and Jonathan Vanantwerpen (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL98.5 .P69 2011]

Walter H. Capps, Religious Studies: The Making of a Discipline (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL41 .C36 1995 ; ROBA: BL41 .C36 1995X]

John D. Caputo, On Religion (London: Routledge, 2001)

Denise Lardner Carmody and John Tully Carmody, Mysticism: Holiness East and West (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996) [ROBA: BL626 .C33 1996X]

Michael Carrithers, Buddha: A Very Short Introduction (1983; repr., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001) [SMC: BQ882 .C37 2001]

A. F. Chalmers, What Is This Thing Called Science? 3rd ed. (Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press, 1999)

Roy A. Clouser, The Myth of Religious Neutrality: An Essay on the Hidden Role of Religious Belief in Theories, rev. ed. (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL240.3 .C56 2005]

––––––––, Knowing with the Heart: Religious Experience and Belief in God (1999; repr., Eugene: OR: Wipf and Stock, 2007)

John B. Cobb, Jr. and Christopher Ives, eds., The Emptying God: A Buddhist-Jewish-Christian Conversation (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1990) [ROBA: BR128 .B8 E578 1990]

Michael Cook, The Koran: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) [ROBA: BP130.4 .C66 2000]

John M. Cooper, Pursuits of Wisdom: Six Ways of Life in Ancient Philosophy from Socrates to Plotinus (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B111 .C67 2012 ; ROBA: B111 .C6 2012X]

Harvey Cox, Many Mansions: A Christian’s Encounter with Other Faiths (London: Collins, 1988) [ROBA: BR127 .C66 1988]

Joseph Dan, Kabbalah: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007) [SMC: BM525 .D355 2007]

Lorne L. Dawson, Comprehending Cults: The Sociology of New Religious Movements (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) [ROBA: BL60 .D369 1998]

Gavin D’Costa, John Hick’s Theology of Religions: A Critical Evaluation (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1987)

––––––––, Theology and Religious Pluralism: The Challenge of Others Religions (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986)

–––––––– ed., Christian Uniqueness Reconsidered: The Myth of a Pluralistic Theology of Religions (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1990) [ROBA: BR127 .C472 1990]

Jacques Derrida, Acts of Religion, ed. Gil Anidjar (New York: Routledge, 2002) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B2430 .D484 D46 2002 (this can be found on the Deconstruction & Politics Reserve Shelf)]

–––––––– and Gianni Vattimo, eds., Religion (Stanford, CA: Standford University Press, 1998) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL21 .R39513 1998 ; REGIS: BL21 .R43413 1998]

Eliot Deutch and Ron Bontekoe, eds., A Companion to World Philosophies (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1999) [SMC: B121 .C664 1999 and e-resource]

Richard Henry Drummond, Toward a New Age in Christian Theology (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1985) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BT28 .D78 1985]

Donald Evans, Struggle and Fulfillment: The Inner Dynamics of Religion and Morality (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979) [ROBA: BJ1012 .E9]

Jay L. Garfield and William Edelglass, eds., The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011) [UTL e-resource]

Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays (New York: Basic Books, 1973)

Terryl Givens, The Book of Mormon: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) [ROBA: BX8627 .G57 2009X]

Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen and Hendrik M. Vroom, eds., Religions View Religions: Explorations in Pursuit of Understanding (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL410 .R45 2006]

Paul J. Griffiths, ed., Christianity through Non-Christian Eyes (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis: 1990) [ROBA: BR127 .C47515 1990]

Rudyard Griffiths, ed., Hitchens vs. Blair: Be It Resolved Religion Is a Force for God in the World. The Munk Debates (Toronto: Anansi, 2011) [SMC: BJ1188 .H58 2011]

T. William Hall, Richard B. Pilgrim, and Ronald R. Cavanagh, Religion: An Introduction (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1986) [not at UTL]

Chris Hedges, When Atheism Becomes Religion [formerly titled,  I Don’t Believe in Atheists] (New York: Free Press, 2008) [SMC: BL85 .H35 2008]

S. Mark Heim, Salvations: Truth and Difference in Religion (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1995) [ROBA: BR127 .H42 1995X]

Irving Hexham, Understanding World Religions: An Interdisciplinary Approach (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2011) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL80.3 .H49 2011 ; not at UTL]

John Hick, Dialogues in the Philosophy of Religion (2001; repr., Basingstoke, UK: Pelgrave Macmillan, 2010) [SMC: BR127 .H53 2010]

––––––––––, An Interpretation of Religion: Human Responses to the Transcendent, 2nd ed. (Basingstoke, UK: Pelgrave Macmillan,  2004) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL48 .H45 2004 ; SMC bl48 .H45 2004]

–––––––––– and Paul F. Knitter, eds., The Myth of Christian Uniqueness: Toward a Pluralistic Theology of Religion (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1987) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BR127 .M97 1987]

Brennan R. Hill, Paul Knitter and William Madges, Faith, Religion and Theology: A Contemporary Introduction (Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications, 1990) [SMC: BV4637 .H55 1990]

Damien Keown, Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) [2000 ed. SMC: BQ4022.K46 2000]

––––––––––, Buddhist Ethics: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) [UTL e-resource]

J. Andrew Kirk, Loosing the Chains: Religion as Opium and Liberation (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1992) [not at UTL]

Kim Knott, Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction (1998; repr., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) [UTL e-resource]

Hans Küng, Freud and the Problem of God, trans. Edward Qunn. Enlarged ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale, 1980)

––––––––––, Islam: Past, Present and Future, trans. John Bowden (Oxford: Oneworld, 2007) [ROBA: BP161.3 .K8513 2007]

––––––––––, Tracing the Way: Spiritual Dimensions of the World Relgions, trans. John Bowden (London: Continuum, 2002) [ROBA: BL80.2 .K86 2002]

––––––––––, Joseph van Ess, Heinrich von Stietencron, and Heinz Bechert, Christianity and the World Religions: Paths of Dialogue with Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism, trans. Peter Heinegg, 2nd ed. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1993) [TRIN: BR127 .C46513 1986]

Stephen Law, Humanism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011) [not at UTL]

James R. Lewis, ed., Scientology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009)

John Macquarrie, Mediators between Human and Divine: From Moses to Muhammad (New York: Continuum, 1999) [SMC: BL72 .M33 1996]

Ian S. Markham, ed., A World Religions Reader, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000) ROBA: BL80.2 .W673 2000]

–––––––––– and Tinu Ruparell, eds., Encountering Religions: An Introduction to the Religions of the World (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001) [ROBA: BL80.2 .E493 2001]

Abraham H. Maslow, Religions, Values, and Peak-Experiences (New York: Viking, 1964)

Tomoko Masuzawa, The Invention of World Religions: Or, How European Universalism Was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005) [SMC: BL80.3 .M27 2005]

Moojan Momen, The Phenomenon of Religion: A Thematic Approach (Oxford: Oneworld, 1999) [ROBA: BL60 .M633 1999]

Jacob Needleman, The New Religions (1979; repr., New York: Penguin, 2009) [ROBA: BR516.5 .N4 1970]

Eleanor Nesbitt, Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) [UTL e-resource]

Harold A. Netland, Dissonant Voices: Religious Pluralism and the Question of Truth (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1991)

Kai Nielsen and Hendrik Hart, Search for Community in a Withering Tradition: Conversations between a Marxian Atheist and a Calvinian Christian (Lanham, MD: University of America, 1990) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B995 .N543]

Brent Nongbri, Before Religion: A History of a Modern Concept (New Haven: Yale, 2013)

James H. Olthuis, “Visions of Life and Ways of Life: The Nature of Religion,” in Toward a Biblical View of Man: Some Readings, ed. James H. Olthuis and Arnold H. DeGraaf (Toronto: Institute for Christian Studies, 1978), 162–90

William E. Paden, Interpreting the Sacred: Ways of Viewing Religion. Revised and updated ed. (Boston: Beacon: 2003) [ROBA: BL48 .P215 2003X]

Terence Penelhum, ed., Faith (New York: Macmillan, 1989)

Herman Philipse. God in the Age of Science? A Critique of Religious Reason. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL51 .P5243 2012]

J. Samuel Preus, Explaining Religion: Criticism and Theory from Bodin to Freud (1987; repr., Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1996)

Stephen Prothero, God Is Not One: The Eight Rival Religions That Run the World (New York: HarperOne, 2010) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL803 .P76 2010 ; ROBA: BL80.3 .P76 2010X]

Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge, The Future of Religion: Secularization, Revival and Cult Formation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985)

––––––––––, A Theory of Religion (1985; repr., New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996)

Malise Ruthven, Islam: A Very Short Introduction. 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012) [ROBA: BP 161.2 R86 2012]

Ben-Ami Scharfstein, A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads to Kant (Albany, NY: SUNY, 1998) [UTL e-resource]

Friedrich Schleiermacher. The Christian Faith. Edited by H.R. Mackintosh and J.S. Stewart. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BT75 .S5 C52 v.1-2]

––––––––––, On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers, trans. John Oman. Introduction by Rudolf Otto. (New York: Harper and Row, 1958).

––––––––––, On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers, trans. and ed., Richard Crouter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Arvind Sharma, ed., Our Religions (New York: HarperCollins, 1993) [TRIN: BL80.2 .O87 1993]

Ninian Smart et al. World Philosophies, ed., Oliver Leaman. 2nd ed. (Oxford: Routledge, 2008) [TRIN: B72 .S62 2008]

W. Cantwell Smith, Faith and Belief: The Difference between Them  (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979; Oxford: Oneworld, 1998) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL626.3 .S58]

John E. Smith, Quasi-Religions: Humanism, Marxism and Nationalism (Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1994) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL2747 .S64 1994 ; ROBA: BL2747 .S64 1994]

Norman Solomon, Judaism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011) [SMC: BM561 .S65 2000]

William Sweet and Hendrik Hart, Responses to the Enlightenment: An Exchange on Foundations, Faith, and Community (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2012) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL51 .S935 2012]

James Thrower, Religion: The Classical Theories (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL51 .T54 1999 ; ROBA: BL51 .T54 1999]

Paul Tillich, Dynamics of Faith (New York: Harper and Row, 1957)

Miroslav Volf, Allah: A Christian Response (New York: HarperOne, 2011) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BP166.2 .V65 2011]

Hendrik Vroom, No Other Gods: Christian Belief in Dialogue with Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam, trans. Lucy Jansen (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1996)

––––––––, Religions and Truth: Philosophical Reflections and Perspectives, trans. J. W. Rebel (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989)

Merold Westphal, Suspicion and Faith: The Religious Uses of Modern Atheism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1993) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BR128 .A8 W47]

Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lectures and Conversations on Aesthetics, Psychology and Religious Belief. Compiled from Notes Taken by Yorick Smythies, Rush Rhees and James Taylor, ed. Cyril Barrett (1967; repr., Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B3376 .W561 B3]

––––––––––, On Certainty, ed. G. E. M. Anscombe and G. H. von Wright, trans. Denis Paul and G. E. M. Anscombe (New York: Harper and Row, 1972)

R. C. Zaehner, Mysticism: Sacred and Profane (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961) [ROBA: BL625 .Z18 1961]

––––––––––, Zen, Drugs, and Mysticism (1972; repr., Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1989) [ROBA: BL65 .D7Z3 1989]


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