World History AP with Mr. Duez - Learning Targets


CHAPTER 18 Revolutions of Industrialization

Learning Targets:


1.   What was revolutionary about the Industrial Revolution?

2.   What was common to the process of industrialization everywhere, and in what ways did that process vary from place to place?

3.   What did humankind gain from the Industrial Revolution, and what did it lose?

4.   In what ways might the Industrial Revolution be understood as a global rather than simply a European phenomenon?

Margin Review Questions:

1.   In what respects did the roots of the Industrial Revolution lie within Europe? In what ways did that transformation have global roots?

2.   What was distinctive about Britain that may help to explain its status as the breakthrough point of the Industrial Revolution?

3.   How did the Industrial Revolution transform British society?

4.   How did Britain’s middle classes change during the nineteenth century?

5.   How did Karl Marx understand the Industrial Revolution? In what ways did his ideas have an impact in the industrializing world of the nineteenth century?

6.   What were the differences between industrialization in the United States and that in Russia?

7.   Why did Marxist socialism not take root in the United States?

8.   What factors contributed to the making of a revolutionary situation in Russia by the beginning of the twentieth century?

9.   In what ways and with what impact was Latin America linked to the global economy of the nineteenth century?

10.   Did Latin America follow or diverge from the historical path of Europe during the nineteenth century?


bourgeoisie: Term that Karl Marx used to describe the owners of industrial capital; originally meant “townspeople.” (pron. boor-zwah-ZEE)

British Royal Society: Association of scientists established in England in 1660 that was dedicated to the promotion of “useful knowledge.”

Caste War of Yucatán: Long revolutionary struggle (1847–1901) of the Maya people of Mexico against European and mestizo intruders.

caudillo: A military strongman who seized control of a government in nineteenth-century Latin America. (pron. kow-DEE-yohs)

Crimean War: Major international conflict (1854–1856) in which British and French forces defeated Russia; the defeat prompted reforms within Russia.

dependent development: Term used to describe Latin America’s economic growth in the nineteenth century, which was largely financed by foreign capital and dependent on European and North American prosperity and decisions.

Díaz, Porfirio: Mexican dictator from 1876 to 1911 who was eventually overthrown in a long and bloody revolution. (pron. por-FEAR-ee-oh DEE-ahz)

Duma, the: The elected representative assembly grudgingly created in Russia by Tsar Nicholas II in response to the 1905 revolution. (pron. DOO-mah)

Indian cotton textiles: For much of the eighteenth century, well-made and inexpensive cotton textiles from India flooded Western markets; the competition stimulated the British textile industry to industrialize, which led to the eventual destruction of the Indian textile market both in Europe and in India.

Labour Party: British working-class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and a peaceful transition to socialism, in time providing a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis of Marxism.

Latin American export boom: Large-scale increase in Latin American exports (mostly raw materials and foodstuffs) to industrializing countries in the second half of the nineteenth century, made possible by major improvements in shipping; the boom mostly benefited the upper and middle classes.

Lenin: Pen name of Russian Bolshevik Vladimir Ulyanov (1870–1924), who was the main leader of the Russian Revolution of 1917. (pron. vlad-EE-mir ool-YAHN-off )

lower middle class: Social stratum that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century and that consisted of people employed in the service sector as clerks, salespeople, secretaries, police officers, and the like; by 1900, this group comprised about 20 percent of Britain’s population.

Marx, Karl: The most influential proponent of socialism, Marx (1818–1883) was a German expatriate in England who advocated working-class revolution as the key to creating an ideal communist future.

Mexican Revolution: Long and bloody war (1911–1920) in which Mexican reformers from the middle class joined with workers and peasants to overthrow the dictator Porfirio Díaz and create a new, much more democratic political order.

middle-class values: Belief system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century; it emphasized thrift, hard work, rigid moral behavior, cleanliness, and “respectability.”

Model T: The first automobile affordable enough for a mass market; produced by American industrialist Henry Ford.

Owens, Robert: Socialist thinker and wealthy mill owner (1771–1858) who created an ideal industrial community at New Lanark, Scotland.

Peter the Great: Tsar of Russia (r. 1689–1725) who attempted a massive reform of Russian society in an effort to catch up with the states of Western Europe.

populism: Late-nineteenth-century American political movement that denounced corporate interests of all kinds.

progressivism: American political movement in the period around 1900 that advocated reform measures to correct the ills of industrialization.

proletariat: Term that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class; originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest part of the urban population. (pron. proh-li-TARE-ee-at)

Russian Revolution of 1905: Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country’s defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905; the revolution was suppressed, but it forced the government to make substantial reforms.

socialism in the United States: Fairly minor political movement in the United States, at its height in 1912 gaining 6 percent of the vote for its presidential candidate.

steam engine: Mechanical device in which the steam from heated water builds up pressure to drive a piston, rather than relying on human or animal muscle power; the introduction of the steam engine allowed a hitherto unimagined increase in productivity and made the Industrial Revolution possible.