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Proptech unicorn Pacaso’s meteoric rise — and fallout

The second-home marketplace wants to conquer the world. First it’ll have to get past the neighbors

National Issue @ By T.P. Yeatts December 06, 2021 03:00 PM

Pacaso’s Spencer Rascof (right) and Austin Allison

Good fences make good neighbors — unless your neighbor is an LLC and

their house is a party palace.

Yael Bernier of Healdsburg, California, an idyllic outpost in Sonoma

Valley, remembers one of the town’s first brushes with Pacaso, the

startup that sells shares of upscale houses to aspirational second-home

owners, last spring. One of the eight co-owners of a local Pacaso

sponsored property had just arrived from out of town, but the hot tub

didn’t work.

“At midnight, they got someone to come all the way from San Jose and

fix it,” she said — a nearly two-hour drive. “It’s funny, unless you live

next door in this quiet community.”

Pacaso’s meteoric rise from concept to a $1.5 billion valuation in under a

year has made the San Francisco-based startup, founded by former

Zillow executives Spencer Rascof and Austin Allison, one of proptech’s

most successful stories. Its aim to increase access to second

homeownership at a time when many can’t aford a first — and the

fierceness with which it has pursued that mission — has also made it

one of the most hated.

Pacaso’s detractors say its success comes at the expense of

communities, removing precious housing stock from already tight real

estate markets, and, in an echo of Zillow’s iBuying fiasco, dramatically

overpaying to achieve its foothold, driving up property values and

shutting out average buyers.

Pacaso says it is democratizing ownership and doing its part to boost

sustainability by filling homes that would otherwise be empty much of

the year. It is also helping to resolve the housing crisis by consolidating

demand away from the median price tier, it says. Second homebuyers

who would buy an average home can now access the luxury segment.

Bernier, like others who have opposed Pacaso’s arrival, was dismayed

by the prospect of vacationers who would not pay occupancy taxes and

who were, by all appearances, violating local zoning ordinances

prohibiting timeshares on land designated for agriculture. Pacaso’s

owners can gift their time at the properties to anyone.

It’s not just small-town locals who take issue with Pacaso and other

platforms that facilitate short-term stays. Airbnb and VRBO, who

pioneered the online vacation rental marketplace concept, have fought

for years to maintain their presence in major metropolitan areas like

New York and Paris, as government ofcials sought to limit illicit

activity by opportunistic owners, like landlords converting apartment

buildings into unregulated hotels. Pacaso’s platform, theoretically,

could be similarly exploited.

Local protests against Pacaso that began this summer have continued

into the fall, and Bernier and her neighbors have petitioned local leaders

to stop the startup’s advance. Ofcials, she said, have hunkered down,

fearing the company will sue the city just like it did nearby St. Helena.

In that case, which is ongoing, Pacaso’s lawyers maintain that its

customers have all the rights of owners, and that the startup is in the

co-ownership business, not the timeshare business.

It’s a distinction that even real estate professionals didn’t fully

appreciate until recently.

A gray area

Pacaso’s business model is new in real estate, and therefore difcult to

categorize. Through its platform, Pacaso then helps up to eight buyers

establish joint ownership through an LLC. Together, the LLC’s members

pay Pacaso to manage the property and facilitate access.

At first glance, the model looks like a timeshare, but Pacaso says equity

interest in the property makes a critical diference, and it appears to

have the support of the real estate industry.

In September, the Real Estate Standards Organization established “co

ownership” as a distinct asset type. Pacaso played a key role in bringing

the matter up for a vote, Sam DeBord, RESO’s CEO, said.

“The final vote was unanimous,” DeBord said.

Pacaso touted RESO’s decision as a win that will clear the way for more

growth, but it’s unlikely to help its case in jurisdictions like St. Helena,

where ofcials want to shut the company out, said Max Dilendorf, an

attorney who specializes in real estate and technology.

“This is something that they will be litigating for years to come,” he


No rest for the litigious

Pacaso’s legal spat in California has not prevented it from expanding. In

the last few weeks, the company has spread into Monterey Bay; three

Colorado cities; Jackson Hole, Wyoming; and its first international

market, Spain, cashing in on demand for second homes it says has been

growing for decades. It is now in about 30 markets.

The company plans to “significantly increase” its footprint

domestically and internationally over the next year, CEO Austin Allison

said in an interview.

Allison framed the company’s co-ownership ethos as a part of the same

sustainability movement that spawned the sharing economy and

steered U.S. businesses away from SUVs and cattle farms toward greener

solutions. At the same time, he touted the constitutional right to own


“By no means do we want to be in the litigation business, and it’s not

something we take lightly,” he said. “But we’ve felt obligated to stick up

for our owners.”

Pacaso has not ceased buying homes in the Sonoma and Napa Valley

enclaves where it has encountered some of the strongest resistance.

“It’s business as usual” there, he said.

Pacaso, notably, brought the suit against St. Helena in April before the

city’s representatives filed an enforcement action, local lawmakers say.

To grow its business, Pacaso has relied heavily on local real estate

agents, who are incentivized with a 3 percent referral commision on

closed deals.

Since it participates in the multiple listing services, Pacaso can put

listings from other brokerages on its website — but it has at times

stretched convention to make its co-ownership model fit. David

Appelbaum of Sonoma, who has organized local opposition to the

company, found his house, which was for sale at the time, listed on

Pacaso’s site, but with incorrect pricing and other information.

“It has all kinds of stuf that was incorrect,” he said. “And we said, ‘Get

it down, or you’re going to be in a world of hurt.’ They got it down

within an hour.”

Allison said Pacaso attributes all listings sourced from other agents,

consistent with MLS rules, and displays the “whole home price


“When a listing is of interest to our buyers, we then seek to go procure

that listing on behalf of our owners and aggregate the co-ownership

group to purchase it,” he said.

An imitator

Pacaso has already had enough success to spawn an imitator.

Kocomo, a Mexico-based startup launched this year, has raised $57

million in pre-seed funding to pursue a similar co-ownership model,

but focused on cross-border transactions — properties that require a

three-hour flight rather than a three-hour drive.

Another key diference: Kocomo, unlike Pacaso, allows owners to rent

their weeks to a third party if they don’t want to use them. The platform

also allows for short-term swaps within the network.

The company has so far brokered three property purchases in Mexico

involving U.S. buyers, but wants to expand into Latin America and

Europe. It also wants to help Latin Americans buy property in U.S.

markets like Miami.

Cross-border transactions create more legal complexity, but Martin

Schrimpf, Kocomo’s co-founder and CEO, hopes the startup’s

orientation toward vacation markets — places with hotels and resorts,

where year-round residents don’t have the same expectations for

tranquility — will spare it Pacaso’s early frustrations.

“We’re pretty careful about what kind of communities we’ll go to,”

Schrimpf said in an interview.

For Pacaso, the headache may only be beginning. Los Angeles

lawmakers are now exploring ways to thwart private equity firms,

iBuyers and other proptechs from profiting of the housing boom at the

expense of the middle class. That efort could have implications for

novel platforms like Pacaso if ofcials come to see its business as

similarly destructive.

And upstate, Sonoma County’s Board of Supervisors presented an

aggressive, united front against Pacaso at a meeting in mid-November.

No matter how it’s categorized, the startup has all the trappings of a

hospitality business, supervisor James Gore said.

“If it looks like a duck, if it walks like a duck, if it quacks like a duck,

then it is a duck.”

Contact T.P. Yeatts





















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