Now for the first time in BG Arjuna started speaking in a prolonged sequence, earlier he has spoken Sanayor Ubayor Madhya now he will speak several verses over here.

Bg 1.28

arjuna uvāca

dṛṣṭvema sva-jana kṛṣṇa
īdanti mama gātrāṇi
 ca pariśuyati

Word for word: 

arjuna uvāca — Arjuna said; dṛṣṭvā — after seeing; imam — all these; sva-janam — kinsmen; kṛṣṇa — O Kṛṣṇa; yuyutsum — all in a ghting spirit; samupasthitam — present; sīdanti — are quivering; mama — my; gātrāṇi — limbs of the body; mukham — mouth; ca — also; pariśuyati — is drying up.


Arjuna said: My dear Kṛṣṇa, seeing my friends and relatives present before me in such a ghting spirit, I feel the limbs of my body quivering and my mouth drying up.

So now we can see that Arjuna’s whole perception is changed earlier he was saying dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher
yuddhe priya-cik

Who are the friends of the evil minded Duryodhana who have come to assist him so the idea was those who come to assist the evil minded are also evil minded, so those whom he was earlier talking as dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher now he is telling them sva-jana, they are my people so earlier he was saying they are Duryodhana’s people now he is saying they are my people dṛṣṭvema sva-jana kṛṣṇa, this is also first reference to Krishna in BG. Krishna has been referred as Achyuta, Keshava many names but Krishna is very affectionate name generally in Mahabharat the name Krishna doesn’t come as frequently as Keshava, Keshava is little bit formal, Vasudeva name also comes, Yadava is there, Krishna comes but not that frequently, Krishna is very intimate name.

dṛṣṭvema sva-jana kṛṣṇa, dṛṣṭve I am seeing and what happens by seeing

yuyutsu samupasthitam, they are my people but they are ready to fight against me, yuyutsu samupasthitam

and what happens by this?

sīdanti mama gātrāṇi, all my limbs are quivering.

mukha ca pariśuyati, and my mouth is dried up.

So here we can see that Arjuna is showings symptom of an emotional breakdown, Kripaya Paryavistam as said in the previous verse now that overwhelming compassion that has come over him that is having a physical effect. The physical effect is trembling sīdanti mama gātrāṇi and throat is dried up.

So the important lesson from BG here is  Pratayaksha puts us in illusion and Sabda removes from illusion.

He came in the battlefield for fighting but he said Aveksheham, I wanted to see, that desire for Pratakshaya Praman and not just Pratakshaya Praman but over-reliance on Pratakshaya Praman that is the problem. We all have to use Pratayaksha Praman, it is not that Pratakshaya Praman is rejected but Pratakshaya Praman should not be treated all important, Pratakshaya Praman is that knowledge which we get from sensory perception, Praman means it is valid so Pratakshaya Praman is also valid source of knowledge but it is not the final source of knowledge. What if a thief says that since pratayaksha pramana is not there so I was not thieving, so Pratakshaya is valid way of knowledge but it is not final way ….particularly in transcendental matters where Pratakshaya is not possible, Pratakshaya becomes useless largely speaking unless there is Divya Pratakshaya that means our consciousness is awaken and we perceive at spiritual level, so when there is over reliance on Pratakshaya then it cause forgetfulness of Sabda then it is serious problem. So Arjuna is overwhelmed by emotion and this disconnects him from scriptural roots, he has been uprooted from the grounds of spiritual knowledge where he has been rooted till now and he has just tossed around by emotions.

So all of us also if we rely too much on Pratakshaya then we will get unduly affected, overly affected, certainly we don’t have to close our eyes we don’t have to reject seeing but we have to remember that what we see from our eyes we have to connect to scripture and based on scripture make sense of things otherwise we will get overwhelmed and we will get mislead so whole point is connect our experience with the scriptures and learn from that so Pratakshaya has to be subordinated with Sabdya so Pratakshaya puts him in illusion and sabda takes him out of illusion. Arjuna’s credit is when Pratayaksha started bewildering him he doesn’t immediately act on this what he does is, he consults.

 This can be contrasted by Arjuna’s response with Kaikai's response, when Manthera started speaking with Kaykai through ears her whole perception is changed, her error was she did not consult anyone, through prataksha she got information, here prataksha came through ear but it is Prataksha in the sense that it comes from sensory perception it is not scriptural knowledge and instead of consulting anyone she decided to act on it, in this world we cannot avoid sensory perception we have to use sensory perception as we are living in the world but some time sensory perception is misleading and such time we have to consult scriptures we have to consult Guru, Sadhu and Shastra and understand proper situation so Arjuna sets that example that he now moves towards proper understanding.

So Srila Prabhupada mentioned in purport that since Arjuna is a pure devotee so he is feeling compassion, it is a noble emotion to be compassionate when we see others suffer