Intellectual outputs:

 

Intellectual Output 1: Conceptual Framework

Demand and Supply of skills on the labour market:

The conceptual framework demonstrates that due to the nature of the composite industry and its identified requirements the main driving principle was to focus regional level without losing the EU vision. This means that the majority of composite companies are producing composite products for larger EU market, however, they all mainly concentrate to attract local/regional workforce (i.e. composite laminators) and to operate in accordance with local/regional expectations, regulations and labour market supply. This presents a challenge for CompoHUB project as follows:

1.           CompoHUB trainings need to be developed in a specific manner to address local and regional needs (integration of local/regional environment, community, municipality);

2.           In order to ensure sustainability and multiplication effect, CompoHUB trainings have to be furthermore transferred to different contexts and environments (e.g. different sectors such as boat building industry, aeronautics, pharmaceutical etc. and furthermore different geographical environments).

To summarize, the developed conceptual framework has identified several implications that need to be considered when developing, evaluating and dissemination/exploiting the CompoHUB training programme, common across all composite sectors and geographical environments. Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 demonstrate some of the main findings from the needs analysis.

Table 1: Society and regional community perspective

Society and regional community perspective and requirements

-          Traditional industrial sectors are labour intensive and characterized by high levels of long-term unemployment (wooden and textile industries).

-          The recent economic crisis caused industrial restructuring and impacts are felt at regional levels.

-          Fighting rising levels of unemployment and re-skilling of citizens according to the labour market needs has become one of the most urgent tasks for the local governments.

-          Occupational standard and qualification do not exist in the area of composite manufacturing (composite laminator/fabricator).

-          VET system not responsive to real demands of local/regional industry.

-          Lack of properly skilled instructors and VET trainers to deliver trainings in the area of composite manufacturing.

 

Table 2: Composite industry perspective

Composite industry perspective and requirements (demand side)

-          High-added value industry sector with stable and sustainable growth

-          High complexity of manual work (manual skills, working habits, working experiences)

-          Many different applications involving a wide range of different sectors (aerospace, automotive, construction, marine, renewables etc.)

-          Transferability and sharing of knowledge between sectors (training programme suitable for different sectors in the broad area of composite manufacturing). Adapting the knowledge to new environments and specific requirements.

-          Unavailability of properly skilled composite manufacturers and laminators and skills shortages.

-          Industry is searching for people who already have certain manual skills (e.g. joiners, textile workers, tailors, hair dressers etc.).

-          3 main characteristics of a composite laminator: positive attitude, manual skills and theoretical knowledge on composite manufacturing. The level of formal education is not so important.

-          Sector focused composite skills landscape with fragmented and reactive delivery by a very limited number of training providers.

-          Intensive in-house and on-the-job training programmes to equip new employees with required skills (which are proven to be costly and timely ineffective for smaller companies, plenty of internal control needed).

-          People (job seekers) are not familiar with the nature, typical tasks and work requirements of composite manufacturing.

-          Delivery of trainings in the field of Composite Manufacturing by VET institutions (external supply outside companies) would to some extent unburden composite industry being able to outsource their training activities (e.g. ABC of composites (fibres and fabrics, resin systems, matrices, tools etc.), basic manufacturing processes (lamination, post-lamination)).

-          Problem of fluctuation (people changing their jobs and companies after receiving in-house education).

-          Flexibility of trainings (e.g. difficult for employed people to go to school), e.g. on-line learning portal.

-          Demand for occupational standard, qualification and catalogue that would define the “composite laminator/fabricator”, i.e. identify required skills and knowledge, working tasks, assessment techniques etc.

-          Group work: learners should be also connected and should work as a team.

-          Practical exams at the end of trainings to demonstrate if learners have gained the knowledge and developed the required skills.

-          Trainers should also possess some pedagogical skills how to appropriately pass the knowledge to learners (in general experts are short on those skills).

-          Modules on safety issues (skin safety, eye and face safety, respiration and ingestion safety, solvents and fire safety) should be included.  

-          Challenge: how to identify and capture the knowledge and skills of experts and masters and transfer it into training programme (especially tacit, uncodified knowledge).

-          High support towards CompoHUB project objectives and training programme (letters of support – see Annex 9).

 

Table 3: Target training group perspective

Target training group perspective and requirements (supply side)

-          Unemployed people are already possessing certain manual skills required by the composite industry and composite manufacturing process (e.g. manual skills of joiners, wood cabinet makers, textile workers, sewing, hardware cutlery tools, dental care, hairdressing).

-          Heterogenous group (sex, age, education levels, pre-existing knowledge and skills, work experiences).

-          Motivation: to enhance employability potential and to become more competitive on the labour market (e.g. industry is searching for pre-existing knowledge and experiences related to composite manufacturing).

-          A need for practical trainings and receiving hands-on experiences.

-          Workshop settings for training delivery, ideally situated in composite companies.

-          Theory together with theoretical concepts should be explained in a clear and well-structured manner, together with practical case-studies and demonstrations.  

-          Theoretical knowledge should be delivered together with practice and just-in time, e.g. when laminating in a workshop learners should be also exposed to theoretical explanations from a trainer.

-          Trainings should be focused on developing the skills that are required by the industry; should enhance the employability of learners.

-          Small group of learners so that everybody can get individual treatment.

-          Trainers should also possess some pedagogical skills how to appropriately pass the knowledge to learners (in general experts are short on those skills).

-          Flexibility of trainers: they should be able to adopt to different requirements and knowledge background of individual learners.

-          E-portal should be user-friendly and customized to needs of users (i.e. simple, straight forward, simple and understandable language, plenty of pictures, photos and graphical representations, well-structured knowledge, summary and explanation of key terms and concepts, simple and effective navigation).         

 

 

Intellectual Output 2: Model of Work Experience

The need analysis suggests that an effective training approach should consider several key strategies:

1.           encourage the learners to start working very quickly on meaningful, realistic tasks (in the context of their future daily work);

2.           reduce the amount of reading and other passive learning activities;

3.           use prior knowledge to advantage;

4.           make possible errors pedagogically productive;

5.           experiences in applying what has been learned should be presented in realistic contexts;

6.           engaging learners in problem-solving activities, rather than passively digesting course content would increase their motivation.          

The developed cognitive framework presents the key part of the model of work experience. The core of suggested cognitive framework is based on the “attitude, knowledge, skills” structure of the learning method, which has been extended to include “competence” as their accumulation (see Figure 1). The first three blocks (attitudes, knowledge and skills) will be addressed already in the frame of pilot trainings. The needs analysis (O1: Conceptual Framework) demonstrated that due to its complexity and long-term orientation (more than 1 or 2 years of working experiences) the forth block (competences) could only be addressed and achieved in the actual working environment in a specific composite manufacturing company (specific on-the-job trainings). Additional reason is the company-specific knowledge which is in most cases protected and therefore unavailable and not accessible by external organizations.

 

Figure 1: The cognitive framework

-        ATTITUDE

The “attitude” is the very first building block of the learning process that is addressed by the innovative model of work experience. Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents the degree of an individual’s likes or dislikes of an item; positive or negative views concerning a person, place, a thing or an event. The corresponding aim of the suggested cognitive framework would be to increase the motivation to learn and facilitate the future adoption of changes, which the new knowledge on composite manufacturing will bring to the real-life work practices. In this context, the key aims of the learning process will be to 1) raise awareness and attention in terms of composite lamination and manufacturing process in general; 2) attract the interest of learners to the respective topics in hand; 3) eliminate their possible concerns or/and negative views to a “change” (upgrading their existing skills); and 4) help to define the economic and societal potential of the emerging area of composite manufacturing. The indicative means of addressing the attitude related needs will include demonstration of real-case studies and success stories with their environmental, economic and societal impact.

-        KNOWLEDGE

When the personal attitudes related to implementing changes towards composite manufacturing become positive, the next major building bock of the learning process to be addressed is the transfer of knowledge itself. Knowledge is our case is understood as the outcome of assimilating information, facts, concepts and theories through learning. The tacit knowledge will be gained as a result of the experience of performing certain tasks and putting theory into practice within the working environment. The relevant aims of the suggested cognitive framework will be to: 1) depict, organize and classify the relevant knowledge in a similar way to the ways of learners’ thinking and working; 2) provide access to this knowledge, as well as the capability of effective and efficient information and data retrieval; and 3) transfer and facilitate the comprehension of the technical essence of the new knowledge and its relevance with every day’s work and practice. The indicative means of addressing the related needs for knowledge transfer will include well-prepared and organized lectures and demonstration activities from experts in the respective fields.

-        SKILLS

Demonstrating the new knowledge, making it available and accessible, and turning it into a usable asset is not enough. Skills are obtained through practicing and, together with knowledge, they comprise a major building block of competences. Thus, training for the development of skills is another major learning asset to be addressed by the suggested cognitive framework. Skills in our context are understood as the ability to apply knowledge and use the know-how for the effective and successful completion of working tasks. One of the main aims of the training is to prepare learners to be able to effectively operate within their specific future work context in a composite manufacturing company. The training aims to develop the cognitive skills (that involve the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) as well as practical skills (involving manual dexterity, and the use of methods, materials and tools). The relevant aim of the suggested cognitive framework will be to support the comprehension and use of the new knowledge obtained through practicing. Training for the development of skills will be carried out by employing simulated, “safe” but close to reality working conditions; and 2) trial and error approaches and hands-on practice. The indicative means of addressing the related needs for the development of skills will include: skill-based training; demonstrating real-case working problems that require decision making and actions from learners in the workshop setting and reality; learning from experience; case-based reasoning; experiential learning.

-        COMPETENCE

In our case, competences are understood as holistic units that include complex behaviours and are referred to as the demonstrated abilities to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes for achieving observable results. The effective demonstration of competence can only happen by combining experience, knowledge, personal attributes (e.g. motivation, creativity, reasoning etc.) and appropriate use of resources.

Recommendations for training development

Based on the analysis of results from Conceptual Framework (IO1) we provide 11 different recommendations (see Table 4) that should be taken into account when developing, organizing and implementing trainings in the area of composite manufacturing:

Table 4: Recommendations for training development

Recommendation 1

 

Practice first / theory to follow (just-in-time)

Recommendation 2

 

Learning through practice: development of skills

Recommendation 3

Theory with graphical representations (examples from practice, case studies)

Recommendation 4

 

Tests after each module

Recommendation 5

 

Simple structure / effective navigation

Recommendation 6

 

Dictionary with basic definitions (close to text)

Recommendation 7

 

Delivery in national languages

Recommendation 8

 

Combination of workshop settings and lecture rooms (e-portal)

Recommendation 9

Additional modules on communication/attitudes/group dynamics and ICT

Recommendation 10

 

Small groups (max. 8)

Recommendation 11

Trainers with pedagogical skills & flexibility (different groups of learners)

 

 

 

Intellectual Output 3: Syllabus and Training Programme

General CompoHUB learning modules are demonstrated in Table 5.

Table 5: CompoHUB learning modules

MODULE

NAME

LEARNING HOURS (45 min)

MODULE 1

Introduction to composite materials and manufacturing

2

MODULE 2

Communication methods and techniques (team formation and team building)

16

MODULE 3

Preparation for work, safety and quality issues

4

MODULE 4

Tools, fabrics, ply schedule, vacuum bagging

8

MODULE 5

Resins and lamination

8

MODULE 6

Cutting, trimming and surface finishing

4

MODULE 7

Assembly, bonding and repairs

8

MODULE 8

On-line learning platform (ABC composites, basic manufacturing process and advanced manufacturing process)

10

TOTAL

 

60

 

 

In addition, Table 6 and Table 7 demonstrate the knowledge and skills areas, together with fields of work and key tasks in the area of composite manufacturing – IV level of difficulty. Table 8 provides the overview of the Small craft building (boat building) curricula, with the upgraded CompoHUB composite manufacturing module: “Building of small craft from composite materials”.    

Table 6: Knowledge and skills areas

Knowledge and skills areas

1.          Preparing and sorting fabrics as well as resins and other materials

2.          Collecting and preparing data as well as basic and supplemental materials for composite production

3.          Preparing work-related accessories

4.          Producing composite elements, assemblies as well as semi-manufactured and finished products

5.          Cutting, trimming and assembling composite parts

6.          Surface altering of composite elements, assemblies as well as semi-manufactured and finished products

7.          Planning, preparing, carrying out and controlling their own work

8.          Using energy, materials and time rationally

9.          Safeguarding health and environment

 

Table 7: Fields of work, key tasks and required skills and competences

Field of work

Key tasks

Skills and competences

 

Analysis, planning and organizing work

prepares a product – work-related documentation

      Accepting work-related instructions and documentation (plan, bill of materials, technical description, lamination plan)

      Reading sketches, technical plans, bills of materials and technical descriptions

      Drawing, preparing bills of materials, details, sketches

      Measuring actual dimensions in real space

      Calculating consumption of materials

      Calculating cost price

      Ability to read and understand work-related documentation

      Calculating, writing and preparing technical documentation for a product, including calculations

 

Preparation of work or work space

Determines the procedure for individual production of an element, assembly, semi-manufactured and finished composite product

      Choosing means of work for the chosen production procedure

      Choosing the right tools and accessories

      Checking suitability and state of working equipment

      Independently setting up machines or a production line

      Setting up or checking safety devices

      Transporting work pieces to the work space

      Sorting work pieces according to given criteria

      Knowledge of means of transportation and operating them in accordance with regulations

      Knowledge of the purpose of and ability to use protection and safety devices on the machines

      Knowledge of the basics of ergonomic design of work spaces

Produces work-related accessories

      Producing work accessories (templates for cutting, cutting patterns, cutting layouts, moulds etc.)

      Knowledge of the technological production process of composite products and ability to adapt the accessories to said processes

      Knowledge of the technological characteristics of machines and devices for composite technology

 

Gathers and prepares materials needed to produce composite products based on the lay-up plybook

 

·         Knowledge of fabric materials and their technological characteristics and ability to distinguish between them

      Knowledge of different types of weaving and area densities of fabrics as well as the ability to distinguish between them and knowledge of their characteristics

      Sorting fabrics according to types of weaving and area densities

Operations tasks

Prepares and sorts fabric, cutting patterns, resins and supporting materials as well as laminates them manually and inserts them into vacuum bags if applicable

 

      Ability to prepare cutting pattern to cut a fabric optimally regarding consumption of materials

      Marking and drawing cutting patterns

      Basics knowledge of resins’ characteristics

      Knowledge of the basics of mass and volume mixing ratios of resins and the ability to calculate them

      Preparing resins

      Knowledge of and ability to use tools for lamination of fabrics

      Preparing fabrics for impregnation

      Cutting a fabric according to drawn cutting patterns

      Impregnates a fabric

      Laminating layers of a fabric

      Knowledge of basic characteristics of other materials (foam, core, honeycomb or other filling materials)

      Knowledge of the processes to prepare supporting materials for lamination

      Preparing supporting materials

      Knowledge of the basics of vacuum bagging

      Making vacuum bags and sealing them

      Vacuum bagging a product

      Knowledge of the basics of hardening a composite material product

      Post-curing products in a heat oven or curing at room temperature

      Knowledge of the basics of the resin infusion process and/or an RTM procedure

      Familiarity with the basics of working with an autoclave

Cuts, trims and bonds composite products

 

      Knowledge of the characteristics of cutting composite products and the effects of waste, generated during such processes, on health and the environment

      Knowledge of the techniques for cutting composite products

      Familiarity with tools for cutting composite products

      Making final cuts in accordance with the dimensions given in the technical documentation

      Produces other elements in accordance with the dimensions and positions given in the technical documentation (extrusions, holes …)

      Familiarity with the structure, workings and methods of using processing machines

      Familiarity with the bonding technologies and characteristics of bonding materials

      Longitudinal, latitudinal and areal bonding of elements

      Familiarity with the buffing technologies as well as the technological characteristics and applicability of means of polishing

      Polishing workpieces with different buffing machines

      More demanding polishing of composite workpieces

      Ability to independently, safely, economically and with good quality produce composite products

Carries out surface treatment of composite elements, assemblies as well as semi-manufactured and finished composite products

 

      Preparing products for the final processing

      Using different techniques of applying materials for surface treatment

      Choosing the most suitable type, quality and tone of the surface treatment agent (filling material - mastic, varnish, dye etc.)

      Surface treatment and post-processing of composite products

      Knowledge of different technologies of surface treatment of elements

      Differentiating between surface treatment agents according to applicability and technological characteristics

      Familiarity with machines for surface treatment of composite products, and their workings

Assembling and installing finished and semi-manufactured composite products

      Assembling composite semi-manufactured products

      Assembling finished composite products

      Carrying out complaint-related work

      Familiarity with the technological order of composite products assembly

Maintains and carries out small- and large-scale repairs of composite products

      Determining the state of an element, assembly and/or product

      Determining used process materials

      Carrying out more demanding repairs of semi-manufactured and finished products

      Choosing and carrying out maintenance procedures (cleaning, sewing, replacing parts, surface treatment)

      Familiarity with the basics of repair and maintenance of composite products

Administrative tasks

completes work-related documentation

      Managing and completing work-related documentation

      Using ICT-tools

      Knowledge of managing and completing work-related documentation

      Knowledge about the importance and value of work-related documentation

 

Managing and monitoring work

Organizes their work and work of a small team

      Organizing and monitoring own work with accordance to instructions from superiors

      Managing work of a small team at the workspace

      Estimating production times

      Ability to delegate tasks and form instructions for team work

      Ability to solve problems, regarding organization and execution of certain group tasks

 

Quality assurance

Checks materials and products

      Monitoring quantities, dimensions, quality and other parameters of production materials

      Evaluating the results of own work or a product, by comparing it against technological and technical requirements. Determining possible deviations and faults, and causes there-of as well as eliminating them if possible

      Monitoring suitability of individual elements and products, regarding dimensions, quality and quantity

      Monitoring results of own work and that of the team

      Ensuring economical handling of materials and working equipment

      Awareness of the importance of aesthetics of the product

      Knowledge of methods and conditions of storing materials and working equipment

      Familiarity with quality standards

 

Maintenance and repair

Regularly maintains and cleans working equipment

      Checking, cleaning and lubricating devices, machines and tools, used during work

      Sharpening and maintaining handheld cutting tools

      Acting according to technical instructions

      Knowledge of the rules for basic maintenance of machines and devices

      Familiarity with the means of sharpening the tools

      Ability to check and/or set required parameters for devices, machines and tools, in accordance with standards and/or manufacturer’s technical data

 

Communication

Communicates with superiors and co-workers

      Receiving instructions as well as relaying them to and communicating about them with co-workers

      Using technical terminology

      Creating professional, clear and unambiguous written and verbal statements

      Ability to choose a proper way of communication regarding problem-solving

 

Communicates with customers

      Receiving order-related data

      Relaying required information

      Acting in accordance with business etiquette

      Familiarity with techniques and types of communication

      Familiarity with the basics of professional communication

      Proper and responsible communication with customers

      Ability to choose a proper way of communication regarding problem-solving and carrying out individual tasks

 

Safeguarding health and the environment

Protects themselves and co-workers from injuries and adverse environmental effects

      Using safety equipment on machines and personal protective equipment

      Working in accordance with occupational safety rules

      Respecting basic principles of health and safety at work

      Knowledge of possible injuries due to mishandling of work equipment

      Acting exactly in accordance with regulations regarding safety at work, when planning, preparing and executing tasks at the workspace

      Considering well-being of co-workers and their working environment

      Familiarity with regulations regarding safety at work, fire protection, environment protection and safe handling of chemicals

      Familiarity with safe handling of chemicals, work-related protective actions and first aid

      Familiarity with protective equipment for handling with chemicals

 

Knows and uses different materials and chemical substances

          Using different materials and chemicals as well as other equipment for production of composite materials

          Familiarity with chemicals and their danger-related characteristics

 

Sorts and stores waste

      Sorting waste, generated during production

      Taking measures for harmless storing and disposing of waste

      Using and storing substances that are harmful and dangerous for the environment in accordance with regulations

      Familiarity with environmental safety regulations

      Familiarity with harmful impacts of improper sorting, storing and disposing of waste

      Awareness of the need for rational use of materials and energy, from the viewpoint of environmental protection.

 

 

Table 8: Small craft building (boat building) curricula – Module: Building of small craft from composite materials

Key tasks                

 

Skills

Knowledge

Producing the elements of hull, deck constructions and reinforcement of small craft according to drawings

-Preparation of moulds

-Moulding of composite details

-Processing (cutting, grinding) of composite details

-Assembling of composite small craft from moulded details

-Producing the moulds for producing the composite small craft

1) materials (polymers, fibre, wax, solvents, stainless steel)

2) tools (rollers, brushes, applicators)

3) technologies (moulding with closed and open moulds; cutting; grinding; milling)

Lamination

- Preparation of moulds

- Moulding of composite details

- Processing of composite details

1) materials (polymers, fibre, wax, solvents, stainless steel)

2) tools (rollers, brushes, applicators)

Finishing of hull of small craft

- preparation of surface

- coating of surface with paint, varnish, wax etc

1) materials (polymers, fibre, wax, solvents, stainless steel)

2) tools (rollers, brushes, applicators)

3) technologies (moulding with closed and open moulds; cutting; grinding; milling)

Producing and finishing of interior elements

- processing of surfaces

- preparation of surfaces

- finishing of interior elements

1) materials (polymers, fibre, wax, solvents, stainless steel)

2) tools (rollers, brushes, applicators)

3) technologies (moulding with closed and open moulds; cutting; grinding; milling)

Installation/mounting of  interior elements

- matching of interior elements

- mounting of interior elements

1) materials (polymers, fibre, wax, solvents, stainless steel)

2) tools (rollers, brushes, applicators)

3) technologies (moulding with closed and open moulds; cutting; grinding; milling)

Occupational Standard and Catalogue

- zadnje verzije standarda in kataloga (so v priponki)

 

 

 

 

CompoHUB Target Groups: (to naj gre v Project Description po innovation  naslov na enak način)

Target group

 

Motivation

Specific Tools

VET providers

 

Enriching their existing portfolio of education and training programmes.

New in-house training delivery opportunities.

Outsourcing (internal experts delivering training for other VET organizations).

Hiring external experts to deliver specific training.

Teachers and students participating as trainees to acquire new knowledge and skills in the specific field.

Capturing and codifying the existing (tacit) knowledge and skills of experts.  

Newsletters

Dedicated seminars and workshops

Face-to-face dissemination (meetings)

 

Composite industry

 

New employees with specific skills.

Access to training material.

Hiring external VET or other training organizations to deliver specific training for new and existing employees.

Identifying, capturing, codifying and structuring the existing in-house (tacit) knowledge and skills of experts.

Train-the-trainers activities.

Apprentices

Face-to-face (meetings)

Phone

Dedicated workshops and seminars

Professional Articles

 

Employment service

 

New training and employment opportunities for unemployed people.

Face-to-face (meetings)

Phone

Workshops

Passive dissemination (newsletters, articles, Facebook posts etc.)

Chambers  (commerce, craft and small business)

Growth of the composite industry.

Supply of new education and training for their members.

Train-the-trainers activities.

Face-to-face (meetings)

Phone

Seminars

 

Accreditation, recognition and validation centres

New standards in line with current and emerging needs and trends of industry and society.

Face-to-face (meetings)

Phone

Workshops

Passive dissemination (newsletters, articles, Facebook posts etc.)

Municipalities and regional authorities

Promoting employment opportunities, business and innovation growth, economic and societal development.

Face-to-face (meetings)

Phone

 

Associations and EU-wide networks

Promotion of new developments in the field.

Acquiring new members.

Aligning supply (training opportunities) and demand (training needs).

New training opportunities.

Train-the-trainers activities.

E-mail

Seminars

 

Schools (primary and secondary level)

Access to new developments and knowledge in the specific field.

Teachers and students participating as trainees to acquire new knowledge and skills in the specific field.

Apprentices.

Dedicated seminars and workshops

Passive dissemination (newsletters, articles, Facebook posts etc.)

 

Higher education institutions

 

Access to new developments and knowledge in the specific field.

New modules, education programmes and curricula adjustments.

Train-the-trainers activities.

E-mail

Conferences and seminars

 

Target training group (e.g. joiners, wood cabinet makers, textile workers, students)

New knowledge, skills development and requalification.

New work, job or business opportunities.

Employment service

Dedicated seminars and workshops

Training activities

Passive dissemination (newsletters, articles, Facebook posts etc.)

Trainers (in-company, VET)

New knowledge, skills and experiences (pedagogics, composite manufacturing).

New training opportunities.

Access to new developments and knowledge in the specific field.

Network of trainers

Dedicated seminars and workshops

Training activities

 

 

 

 

Intellectual outputs:

 

Intellectual Output 1: Conceptual Framework

Demand and Supply of skills on the labour market:

The conceptual framework demonstrates that due to the nature of the composite industry and its identified requirements the main driving principle was to focus regional level without losing the EU vision. This means that the majority of composite companies are producing composite products for larger EU market, however, they all mainly concentrate to attract local/regional workforce (i.e. composite laminators) and to operate in accordance with local/regional expectations, regulations and labour market supply. This presents a challenge for CompoHUB project as follows:

1.           CompoHUB trainings need to be developed in a specific manner to address local and regional needs (integration of local/regional environment, community, municipality);

2.           In order to ensure sustainability and multiplication effect, CompoHUB trainings have to be furthermore transferred to different contexts and environments (e.g. different sectors such as boat building industry, aeronautics, pharmaceutical etc. and furthermore different geographical environments).

To summarize, the developed conceptual framework has identified several implications that need to be considered when developing, evaluating and dissemination/exploiting the CompoHUB training programme, common across all composite sectors and geographical environments. Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 demonstrate some of the main findings from the needs analysis.

Table 1: Society and regional community perspective

Society and regional community perspective and requirements

-          Traditional industrial sectors are labour intensive and characterized by high levels of long-term unemployment (wooden and textile industries).

-          The recent economic crisis caused industrial restructuring and impacts are felt at regional levels.

-          Fighting rising levels of unemployment and re-skilling of citizens according to the labour market needs has become one of the most urgent tasks for the local governments.

-          Occupational standard and qualification do not exist in the area of composite manufacturing (composite laminator/fabricator).

-          VET system not responsive to real demands of local/regional industry.

-          Lack of properly skilled instructors and VET trainers to deliver trainings in the area of composite manufacturing.

 

Table 2: Composite industry perspective

Composite industry perspective and requirements (demand side)

-          High-added value industry sector with stable and sustainable growth

-          High complexity of manual work (manual skills, working habits, working experiences)

-          Many different applications involving a wide range of different sectors (aerospace, automotive, construction, marine, renewables etc.)

-          Transferability and sharing of knowledge between sectors (training programme suitable for different sectors in the broad area of composite manufacturing). Adapting the knowledge to new environments and specific requirements.

-          Unavailability of properly skilled composite manufacturers and laminators and skills shortages.

-          Industry is searching for people who already have certain manual skills (e.g. joiners, textile workers, tailors, hair dressers etc.).

-          3 main characteristics of a composite laminator: positive attitude, manual skills and theoretical knowledge on composite manufacturing. The level of formal education is not so important.

-          Sector focused composite skills landscape with fragmented and reactive delivery by a very limited number of training providers.

-          Intensive in-house and on-the-job training programmes to equip new employees with required skills (which are proven to be costly and timely ineffective for smaller companies, plenty of internal control needed).

-          People (job seekers) are not familiar with the nature, typical tasks and work requirements of composite manufacturing.

-          Delivery of trainings in the field of Composite Manufacturing by VET institutions (external supply outside companies) would to some extent unburden composite industry being able to outsource their training activities (e.g. ABC of composites (fibres and fabrics, resin systems, matrices, tools etc.), basic manufacturing processes (lamination, post-lamination)).

-          Problem of fluctuation (people changing their jobs and companies after receiving in-house education).

-          Flexibility of trainings (e.g. difficult for employed people to go to school), e.g. on-line learning portal.

-          Demand for occupational standard, qualification and catalogue that would define the “composite laminator/fabricator”, i.e. identify required skills and knowledge, working tasks, assessment techniques etc.

-          Group work: learners should be also connected and should work as a team.

-          Practical exams at the end of trainings to demonstrate if learners have gained the knowledge and developed the required skills.

-          Trainers should also possess some pedagogical skills how to appropriately pass the knowledge to learners (in general experts are short on those skills).

-          Modules on safety issues (skin safety, eye and face safety, respiration and ingestion safety, solvents and fire safety) should be included.  

-          Challenge: how to identify and capture the knowledge and skills of experts and masters and transfer it into training programme (especially tacit, uncodified knowledge).

-          High support towards CompoHUB project objectives and training programme (letters of support – see Annex 9).

 

Table 3: Target training group perspective

Target training group perspective and requirements (supply side)

-          Unemployed people are already possessing certain manual skills required by the composite industry and composite manufacturing process (e.g. manual skills of joiners, wood cabinet makers, textile workers, sewing, hardware cutlery tools, dental care, hairdressing).

-          Heterogenous group (sex, age, education levels, pre-existing knowledge and skills, work experiences).

-          Motivation: to enhance employability potential and to become more competitive on the labour market (e.g. industry is searching for pre-existing knowledge and experiences related to composite manufacturing).

-          A need for practical trainings and receiving hands-on experiences.

-          Workshop settings for training delivery, ideally situated in composite companies.

-          Theory together with theoretical concepts should be explained in a clear and well-structured manner, together with practical case-studies and demonstrations.  

-          Theoretical knowledge should be delivered together with practice and just-in time, e.g. when laminating in a workshop learners should be also exposed to theoretical explanations from a trainer.

-          Trainings should be focused on developing the skills that are required by the industry; should enhance the employability of learners.

-          Small group of learners so that everybody can get individual treatment.

-          Trainers should also possess some pedagogical skills how to appropriately pass the knowledge to learners (in general experts are short on those skills).

-          Flexibility of trainers: they should be able to adopt to different requirements and knowledge background of individual learners.

-          E-portal should be user-friendly and customized to needs of users (i.e. simple, straight forward, simple and understandable language, plenty of pictures, photos and graphical representations, well-structured knowledge, summary and explanation of key terms and concepts, simple and effective navigation).         

 

 

Intellectual Output 2: Model of Work Experience

The need analysis suggests that an effective training approach should consider several key strategies:

1.           encourage the learners to start working very quickly on meaningful, realistic tasks (in the context of their future daily work);

2.           reduce the amount of reading and other passive learning activities;

3.           use prior knowledge to advantage;

4.           make possible errors pedagogically productive;

5.           experiences in applying what has been learned should be presented in realistic contexts;

6.           engaging learners in problem-solving activities, rather than passively digesting course content would increase their motivation.          

The developed cognitive framework presents the key part of the model of work experience. The core of suggested cognitive framework is based on the “attitude, knowledge, skills” structure of the learning method, which has been extended to include “competence” as their accumulation (see Figure 1). The first three blocks (attitudes, knowledge and skills) will be addressed already in the frame of pilot trainings. The needs analysis (O1: Conceptual Framework) demonstrated that due to its complexity and long-term orientation (more than 1 or 2 years of working experiences) the forth block (competences) could only be addressed and achieved in the actual working environment in a specific composite manufacturing company (specific on-the-job trainings). Additional reason is the company-specific knowledge which is in most cases protected and therefore unavailable and not accessible by external organizations.

Figure 1: The cognitive framework

-        ATTITUDE

The “attitude” is the very first building block of the learning process that is addressed by the innovative model of work experience. Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents the degree of an individual’s likes or dislikes of an item; positive or negative views concerning a person, place, a thing or an event. The corresponding aim of the suggested cognitive framework would be to increase the motivation to learn and facilitate the future adoption of changes, which the new knowledge on composite manufacturing will bring to the real-life work practices. In this context, the key aims of the learning process will be to 1) raise awareness and attention in terms of composite lamination and manufacturing process in general; 2) attract the interest of learners to the respective topics in hand; 3) eliminate their possible concerns or/and negative views to a “change” (upgrading their existing skills); and 4) help to define the economic and societal potential of the emerging area of composite manufacturing. The indicative means of addressing the attitude related needs will include demonstration of real-case studies and success stories with their environmental, economic and societal impact.

-        KNOWLEDGE

When the personal attitudes related to implementing changes towards composite manufacturing become positive, the next major building bock of the learning process to be addressed is the transfer of knowledge itself. Knowledge is our case is understood as the outcome of assimilating information, facts, concepts and theories through learning. The tacit knowledge will be gained as a result of the experience of performing certain tasks and putting theory into practice within the working environment. The relevant aims of the suggested cognitive framework will be to: 1) depict, organize and classify the relevant knowledge in a similar way to the ways of learners’ thinking and working; 2) provide access to this knowledge, as well as the capability of effective and efficient information and data retrieval; and 3) transfer and facilitate the comprehension of the technical essence of the new knowledge and its relevance with every day’s work and practice. The indicative means of addressing the related needs for knowledge transfer will include well-prepared and organized lectures and demonstration activities from experts in the respective fields.

-        SKILLS

Demonstrating the new knowledge, making it available and accessible, and turning it into a usable asset is not enough. Skills are obtained through practicing and, together with knowledge, they comprise a major building block of competences. Thus, training for the development of skills is another major learning asset to be addressed by the suggested cognitive framework. Skills in our context are understood as the ability to apply knowledge and use the know-how for the effective and successful completion of working tasks. One of the main aims of the training is to prepare learners to be able to effectively operate within their specific future work context in a composite manufacturing company. The training aims to develop the cognitive skills (that involve the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) as well as practical skills (involving manual dexterity, and the use of methods, materials and tools). The relevant aim of the suggested cognitive framework will be to support the comprehension and use of the new knowledge obtained through practicing. Training for the development of skills will be carried out by employing simulated, “safe” but close to reality working conditions; and 2) trial and error approaches and hands-on practice. The indicative means of addressing the related needs for the development of skills will include: skill-based training; demonstrating real-case working problems that require decision making and actions from learners in the workshop setting and reality; learning from experience; case-based reasoning; experiential learning.

-        COMPETENCE

In our case, competences are understood as holistic units that include complex behaviours and are referred to as the demonstrated abilities to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes for achieving observable results. The effective demonstration of competence can only happen by combining experience, knowledge, personal attributes (e.g. motivation, creativity, reasoning etc.) and appropriate use of resources.

Recommendations for training development

Based on the analysis of results from Conceptual Framework (IO1) we provide 11 different recommendations (see Table 4) that should be taken into account when developing, organizing and implementing trainings in the area of composite manufacturing:

Table 4: Recommendations for training development

Recommendation 1

 

Practice first / theory to follow (just-in-time)

Recommendation 2

 

Learning through practice: development of skills

Recommendation 3

Theory with graphical representations (examples from practice, case studies)

Recommendation 4

 

Tests after each module

Recommendation 5

 

Simple structure / effective navigation

Recommendation 6

 

Dictionary with basic definitions (close to text)

Recommendation 7

 

Delivery in national languages

Recommendation 8

 

Combination of workshop settings and lecture rooms (e-portal)

Recommendation 9

Additional modules on communication/attitudes/group dynamics and ICT

Recommendation 10

 

Small groups (max. 8)

Recommendation 11

Trainers with pedagogical skills & flexibility (different groups of learners)

 

 

 

Intellectual Output 3: Syllabus and Training Programme

General CompoHUB learning modules are demonstrated in Table 5.

Table 5: CompoHUB learning modules

MODULE

NAME

LEARNING HOURS (45 min)

MODULE 1

Introduction to composite materials and manufacturing

2

MODULE 2

Communication methods and techniques (team formation and team building)

16

MODULE 3

Preparation for work, safety and quality issues

4

MODULE 4

Tools, fabrics, ply schedule, vacuum bagging

8

MODULE 5

Resins and lamination

8

MODULE 6

Cutting, trimming and surface finishing

4

MODULE 7

Assembly, bonding and repairs

8

MODULE 8

On-line learning platform (ABC composites, basic manufacturing process and advanced manufacturing process)

10

TOTAL

 

60

 

 

In addition, Table 6 and Table 7 demonstrate the knowledge and skills areas, together with fields of work and key tasks in the area of composite manufacturing – IV level of difficulty. Table 8 provides the overview of the Small craft building (boat building) curricula, with the upgraded CompoHUB composite manufacturing module: “Building of small craft from composite materials”.    

Table 6: Knowledge and skills areas

Knowledge and skills areas

1.          Preparing and sorting fabrics as well as resins and other materials

2.          Collecting and preparing data as well as basic and supplemental materials for composite production

3.          Preparing work-related accessories

4.          Producing composite elements, assemblies as well as semi-manufactured and finished products

5.          Cutting, trimming and assembling composite parts

6.          Surface altering of composite elements, assemblies as well as semi-manufactured and finished products

7.          Planning, preparing, carrying out and controlling their own work

8.          Using energy, materials and time rationally

9.          Safeguarding health and environment

 

Table 7: Fields of work, key tasks and required skills and competences

Field of work

Key tasks

Skills and competences

 

Analysis, planning and organizing work

prepares a product – work-related documentation

      Accepting work-related instructions and documentation (plan, bill of materials, technical description, lamination plan)

      Reading sketches, technical plans, bills of materials and technical descriptions

      Drawing, preparing bills of materials, details, sketches

      Measuring actual dimensions in real space

      Calculating consumption of materials

      Calculating cost price

      Ability to read and understand work-related documentation

      Calculating, writing and preparing technical documentation for a product, including calculations

 

Preparation of work or work space

Determines the procedure for individual production of an element, assembly, semi-manufactured and finished composite product

      Choosing means of work for the chosen production procedure

      Choosing the right tools and accessories

      Checking suitability and state of working equipment

      Independently setting up machines or a production line

      Setting up or checking safety devices

      Transporting work pieces to the work space

      Sorting work pieces according to given criteria

      Knowledge of means of transportation and operating them in accordance with regulations

      Knowledge of the purpose of and ability to use protection and safety devices on the machines

      Knowledge of the basics of ergonomic design of work spaces

Produces work-related accessories

      Producing work accessories (templates for cutting, cutting patterns, cutting layouts, moulds etc.)

      Knowledge of the technological production process of composite products and ability to adapt the accessories to said processes

      Knowledge of the technological characteristics of machines and devices for composite technology

 

Gathers and prepares materials needed to produce composite products based on the lay-up plybook

 

·         Knowledge of fabric materials and their technological characteristics and ability to distinguish between them

      Knowledge of different types of weaving and area densities of fabrics as well as the ability to distinguish between them and knowledge of their characteristics

      Sorting fabrics according to types of weaving and area densities

Operations tasks

Prepares and sorts fabric, cutting patterns, resins and supporting materials as well as laminates them manually and inserts them into vacuum bags if applicable

 

      Ability to prepare cutting pattern to cut a fabric optimally regarding consumption of materials

      Marking and drawing cutting patterns

      Basics knowledge of resins’ characteristics

      Knowledge of the basics of mass and volume mixing ratios of resins and the ability to calculate them

      Preparing resins

      Knowledge of and ability to use tools for lamination of fabrics

      Preparing fabrics for impregnation

      Cutting a fabric according to drawn cutting patterns

      Impregnates a fabric

      Laminating layers of a fabric

      Knowledge of basic characteristics of other materials (foam, core, honeycomb or other filling materials)

      Knowledge of the processes to prepare supporting materials for lamination

      Preparing supporting materials

      Knowledge of the basics of vacuum bagging

      Making vacuum bags and sealing them

      Vacuum bagging a product

      Knowledge of the basics of hardening a composite material product

      Post-curing products in a heat oven or curing at room temperature

      Knowledge of the basics of the resin infusion process and/or an RTM procedure

      Familiarity with the basics of working with an autoclave

Cuts, trims and bonds composite products

 

      Knowledge of the characteristics of cutting composite products and the effects of waste, generated during such processes, on health and the environment

      Knowledge of the techniques for cutting composite products

      Familiarity with tools for cutting composite products

      Making final cuts in accordance with the dimensions given in the technical documentation

      Produces other elements in accordance with the dimensions and positions given in the technical documentation (extrusions, holes …)

      Familiarity with the structure, workings and methods of using processing machines

      Familiarity with the bonding technologies and characteristics of bonding materials

      Longitudinal, latitudinal and areal bonding of elements

      Familiarity with the buffing technologies as well as the technological characteristics and applicability of means of polishing

      Polishing workpieces with different buffing machines

      More demanding polishing of composite workpieces

      Ability to independently, safely, economically and with good quality produce composite products

Carries out surface treatment of composite elements, assemblies as well as semi-manufactured and finished composite products

 

      Preparing products for the final processing

      Using different techniques of applying materials for surface treatment

      Choosing the most suitable type, quality and tone of the surface treatment agent (filling material - mastic, varnish, dye etc.)

      Surface treatment and post-processing of composite products

      Knowledge of different technologies of surface treatment of elements

      Differentiating between surface treatment agents according to applicability and technological characteristics

      Familiarity with machines for surface treatment of composite products, and their workings

Assembling and installing finished and semi-manufactured composite products

      Assembling composite semi-manufactured products

      Assembling finished composite products

      Carrying out complaint-related work

      Familiarity with the technological order of composite products assembly

Maintains and carries out small- and large-scale repairs of composite products

      Determining the state of an element, assembly and/or product

      Determining used process materials

      Carrying out more demanding repairs of semi-manufactured and finished products

      Choosing and carrying out maintenance procedures (cleaning, sewing, replacing parts, surface treatment)

      Familiarity with the basics of repair and maintenance of composite products

Administrative tasks

completes work-related documentation

      Managing and completing work-related documentation

      Using ICT-tools

      Knowledge of managing and completing work-related documentation

      Knowledge about the importance and value of work-related documentation

 

Managing and monitoring work

Organizes their work and work of a small team

      Organizing and monitoring own work with accordance to instructions from superiors

      Managing work of a small team at the workspace

      Estimating production times

      Ability to delegate tasks and form instructions for team work

      Ability to solve problems, regarding organization and execution of certain group tasks

 

Quality assurance

Checks materials and products

      Monitoring quantities, dimensions, quality and other parameters of production materials

      Evaluating the results of own work or a product, by comparing it against technological and technical requirements. Determining possible deviations and faults, and causes there-of as well as eliminating them if possible

      Monitoring suitability of individual elements and products, regarding dimensions, quality and quantity

      Monitoring results of own work and that of the team

      Ensuring economical handling of materials and working equipment

      Awareness of the importance of aesthetics of the product

      Knowledge of methods and conditions of storing materials and working equipment

      Familiarity with quality standards

 

Maintenance and repair

Regularly maintains and cleans working equipment

      Checking, cleaning and lubricating devices, machines and tools, used during work

      Sharpening and maintaining handheld cutting tools

      Acting according to technical instructions

      Knowledge of the rules for basic maintenance of machines and devices

      Familiarity with the means of sharpening the tools

      Ability to check and/or set required parameters for devices, machines and tools, in accordance with standards and/or manufacturer’s technical data

 

Communication

Communicates with superiors and co-workers

      Receiving instructions as well as relaying them to and communicating about them with co-workers

      Using technical terminology

      Creating professional, clear and unambiguous written and verbal statements

      Ability to choose a proper way of communication regarding problem-solving

 

Communicates with customers

      Receiving order-related data

      Relaying required information

      Acting in accordance with business etiquette

      Familiarity with techniques and types of communication

      Familiarity with the basics of professional communication

      Proper and responsible communication with customers

      Ability to choose a proper way of communication regarding problem-solving and carrying out individual tasks

 

Safeguarding health and the environment

Protects themselves and co-workers from injuries and adverse environmental effects

      Using safety equipment on machines and personal protective equipment

      Working in accordance with occupational safety rules

      Respecting basic principles of health and safety at work

      Knowledge of possible injuries due to mishandling of work equipment

      Acting exactly in accordance with regulations regarding safety at work, when planning, preparing and executing tasks at the workspace

      Considering well-being of co-workers and their working environment

      Familiarity with regulations regarding safety at work, fire protection, environment protection and safe handling of chemicals

      Familiarity with safe handling of chemicals, work-related protective actions and first aid

      Familiarity with protective equipment for handling with chemicals

 

Knows and uses different materials and chemical substances

          Using different materials and chemicals as well as other equipment for production of composite materials

          Familiarity with chemicals and their danger-related characteristics

 

Sorts and stores waste

      Sorting waste, generated during production

      Taking measures for harmless storing and disposing of waste

      Using and storing substances that are harmful and dangerous for the environment in accordance with regulations

      Familiarity with environmental safety regulations

      Familiarity with harmful impacts of improper sorting, storing and disposing of waste

      Awareness of the need for rational use of materials and energy, from the viewpoint of environmental protection.

 

 

Table 8: Small craft building (boat building) curricula – Module: Building of small craft from composite materials

Key tasks                

 

Skills

Knowledge

Producing the elements of hull, deck constructions and reinforcement of small craft according to drawings

-Preparation of moulds

-Moulding of composite details

-Processing (cutting, grinding) of composite details

-Assembling of composite small craft from moulded details

-Producing the moulds for producing the composite small craft

1) materials (polymers, fibre, wax, solvents, stainless steel)

2) tools (rollers, brushes, applicators)

3) technologies (moulding with closed and open moulds; cutting; grinding; milling)

Lamination

- Preparation of moulds

- Moulding of composite details

- Processing of composite details

1) materials (polymers, fibre, wax, solvents, stainless steel)

2) tools (rollers, brushes, applicators)

Finishing of hull of small craft

- preparation of surface

- coating of surface with paint, varnish, wax etc

1) materials (polymers, fibre, wax, solvents, stainless steel)

2) tools (rollers, brushes, applicators)

3) technologies (moulding with closed and open moulds; cutting; grinding; milling)

Producing and finishing of interior elements

- processing of surfaces

- preparation of surfaces

- finishing of interior elements

1) materials (polymers, fibre, wax, solvents, stainless steel)

2) tools (rollers, brushes, applicators)

3) technologies (moulding with closed and open moulds; cutting; grinding; milling)

Installation/mounting of  interior elements

- matching of interior elements

- mounting of interior elements

1) materials (polymers, fibre, wax, solvents, stainless steel)

2) tools (rollers, brushes, applicators)

3) technologies (moulding with closed and open moulds; cutting; grinding; milling)

Occupational Standard and Catalogue

- zadnje verzije standarda in kataloga (so v priponki)

 

 

 

 

CompoHUB Target Groups: (to naj gre v Project Description po innovation  naslov na enak način)

Target group

 

Motivation

Specific Tools

VET providers

 

Enriching their existing portfolio of education and training programmes.

New in-house training delivery opportunities.

Outsourcing (internal experts delivering training for other VET organizations).

Hiring external experts to deliver specific training.

Teachers and students participating as trainees to acquire new knowledge and skills in the specific field.

Capturing and codifying the existing (tacit) knowledge and skills of experts.  

Newsletters

Dedicated seminars and workshops

Face-to-face dissemination (meetings)

 

Composite industry

 

New employees with specific skills.

Access to training material.

Hiring external VET or other training organizations to deliver specific training for new and existing employees.

Identifying, capturing, codifying and structuring the existing in-house (tacit) knowledge and skills of experts.

Train-the-trainers activities.

Apprentices

Face-to-face (meetings)

Phone

Dedicated workshops and seminars

Professional Articles

 

Employment service

 

New training and employment opportunities for unemployed people.

Face-to-face (meetings)

Phone

Workshops

Passive dissemination (newsletters, articles, Facebook posts etc.)

Chambers  (commerce, craft and small business)

Growth of the composite industry.

Supply of new education and training for their members.

Train-the-trainers activities.

Face-to-face (meetings)

Phone

Seminars

 

Accreditation, recognition and validation centres

New standards in line with current and emerging needs and trends of industry and society.

Face-to-face (meetings)

Phone

Workshops

Passive dissemination (newsletters, articles, Facebook posts etc.)

Municipalities and regional authorities

Promoting employment opportunities, business and innovation growth, economic and societal development.

Face-to-face (meetings)

Phone

 

Associations and EU-wide networks

Promotion of new developments in the field.

Acquiring new members.

Aligning supply (training opportunities) and demand (training needs).

New training opportunities.

Train-the-trainers activities.

E-mail

Seminars

 

Schools (primary and secondary level)

Access to new developments and knowledge in the specific field.

Teachers and students participating as trainees to acquire new knowledge and skills in the specific field.

Apprentices.

Dedicated seminars and workshops

Passive dissemination (newsletters, articles, Facebook posts etc.)

 

Higher education institutions

 

Access to new developments and knowledge in the specific field.

New modules, education programmes and curricula adjustments.

Train-the-trainers activities.

E-mail

Conferences and seminars

 

Target training group (e.g. joiners, wood cabinet makers, textile workers, students)

New knowledge, skills development and requalification.

New work, job or business opportunities.

Employment service

Dedicated seminars and workshops

Training activities

Passive dissemination (newsletters, articles, Facebook posts etc.)

Trainers (in-company, VET)

New knowledge, skills and experiences (pedagogics, composite manufacturing).

New training opportunities.

Access to new developments and knowledge in the specific field.

Network of trainers

Dedicated seminars and workshops

Training activities