Committee: 6th WHO (World Health Organization)
Topic: Tackling organ trafficking and illegal transplantations
Delegate Name: Vasilakakis Charalampos
Organ trafficking and illegal transplantations is a disturbing trend of trading organs via coercion or abduction or deception which is emerging nowadays. It is very well known that a lot of people, after spending years on medical lists, are lead to the black market. The growth in the organ-trafficking industry can be attributed to the demand for transplantable organs. The large gap between those who require organs for their survival and the number of organs currently available has widened. Organ trafficking is a seriously debated issue, that concerns all people on a global scale.
World Health Organization (WHO) is trying to battle this illegal phenomenon for the global health. In Resolution WHA 40.13 (the decision making body of WHO), the World Health Assembly expressed its concern regarding trafficking in organs and the need for global standards for transplantation. The resolution was adopted by the 40th World Health Assembly in May 1987, while Resolution WHA 42.5 that puts emphasis on preventing the purchase and sale of human organs was adopted by the 42nd World Health Assembly in May 1989. In response to these resolutions, the World Health Assembly in 1991 adopted Resolution WHA 44.25 endorsing a set of Guiding Principles on Human Organ Transplantation. These Guiding Principles – whose priorities include voluntary donation, non-commercialization, genetic relation of recipients to donors and a preference for deceased over living donors as sources – have considerably influenced professional codes, legislation and policies.
Combating organ trafficking is one of Hungary’s priorities for protecting and promoting human rights and fighting against organized crime. Therefore, our Health Ministry has established Hungarotransplant, a non-profit public service responsible for the coordination of the activities for national organ donor service and the organization and distribution of organs suitable for transplants. It also maintains a register of patients awaiting new organs and has joined the Eurotransplant organization, which coordinates the search for and registration of donor hearts, livers, and kidneys in Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Unfortunately, Hungary, with a population of 10 million, is one of the countries with a small percentage, when it comes to legal organ transplantations with only 12 donors per million people. As it is referred to our constitution, Article 3/1, Hungary strives for the complete ban of organ trafficking. We attempt to increase the number of the donors and try to help the poor people who sell their organs because of destitution. We are aware of the needs for improvement that increase in the number of transplants and establish the foundations of donor and transplant programmes for better quality, with more transparent and economic methods. We really want to pursue this path in the next few years for the patients who do not have any other chance for satisfying life.
We, therefore, believe and work towards educating people and promoting organ donation as a first step to improve the number of transplantations. Education about organ donation needs to be part of specialist training of intensive care staff on the one hand, and on the other, people obtaining knowledge regarding donor management.
The delegation of Hungary strongly believes that it would be best to impose national and international laws in order to affirm the infliction of the international laws and the protection of the donors. However, people in charge like police officers and doctors could be bribed in order to let an illegal trade of transplants. This threat could be easily eliminated by activating a system of constant attendance between each and every person in charge of this program. This will also ensure the decrease of organ sale in the black market since illegal action can never completely come to an end.
NGOs and IGOs can cooperate in order to address the issue under question via taking into consideration every agreement and international law that has been signed and ratified over the past years and taking into consideration all the trespasses that have taken place over the following years starting from the Member States and moving to the countries with the highest illegal organ trafficking rate.
Member States can ensure that no donors' right is being abused by constantly recording and watching the whole procedure from the time of the agreement to the time of the operation. Member States can also impose superstitious and oppressive measures in order to avert possible illegal transplantations, such as decreasing the cost and waiting time for a legal transplantation and having a strict system of security for the possible donors. Furthermore, a healthcare center can be developed for people who have been subjects of organ trafficking by violence or by deception, meaning that they can report the incident in order for legal action to take place.
The Republic of Hungary supports this program and strongly believes that all nations should contribute to this generous act, on the one hand to eliminate this pestilence, that is organ trafficking which has taken enormous size during the 21st century, and on the other hand to protect its victims.