SCIENCE/ GRADE 1                                                                                        Page  of

Unit Title

Unit 1:  Patterns of Changes in the Sky

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 15

Unit Summary

                                         Can we predict how the sky will change over time?

In this unit of study, students observe, describe, and predict some patterns in the movement of objects in the sky. The crosscutting concept of patterns is called out as an organizing concept for the disciplinary core ideas. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in planning and carrying out investigations and analyzing and interpreting data. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on 1-ESS1-1 and 1-ESS1-2.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

What patterns of change can be predicted when observing the sun, moon, and stars?

What is the relationship between the amount of daylight and the time of year?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Science assumes that natural events happen today as they happened in the past.
  • Many events are repeated.
  • Patterns in the natural world can be observed, used to describe phenomena, and used as evidence.
  • Patterns in the motion of the sun, moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, and predicted.
  • Seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset can be observed, described, and predicted.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Science assumes that natural events happen today as they happened in the past.
  • Many events are repeated.
  • Patterns in the natural world can be observed, used to describe phenomena, and used as evidence.
  • Patterns in the motion of the sun, moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, and predicted.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Observe, describe and predict some patterns of the movement of objects in the sky.
  • Develop the understanding that natural events happen today as they happened in the past and many events are related.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts can:

  • Observe and use patterns in the natural world as evidence and to describe phenomena.
  • Use observations (firsthand or from media) to describe patterns in the natural world in order to answer scientific questions.
  • Use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe patterns that can be predicted. Examples of patterns could include:
  1.  The sun and moon appear to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set.
  2. Stars other than our sun are visible at night but not during the day. (Assessment of star patterns is limited to stars

                             being seen at night and not during the day.)

  • Observe and use patterns in the natural world as evidence and to describe phenomena.
  • Make observations (firsthand or from media) to collect data that can be used to make comparisons
  • Make observations at different times of the year to relate the amount of daylight to the time of year. (Note: The emphasis is on relative comparisons of the amount of daylight in the winter to the amount in the spring or fall; assessment is limited to relative amounts of daylight, not to quantifying the hours or time of daylight.)

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Look for patterns as they plan and carry out investigations and analyze and interpret data.
  • Observe and use patterns in the natural world as evidence to describe phenomena.
  • Ask questions and use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe apparents changes in each.

In this unit of study, students observe, describe, and predict some patterns of the movement of objects in the sky. Throughout the unit students look for patterns as they plan and carry out investigations and analyze and interpret data.

In this unit’s progression of learning, students develop the understanding that natural events happen today as they happened in the past, and that many events are repeated. In addition, they observe and use patterns in the natural world as evidence and to describe phenomena. First graders ask questions and use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe apparent patterns of change in each. These patterns are then used to answer questions and make predictions. Some examples of patterns include:

  1. The sun and moon appear to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set.
  2. The shape of the moon appears to change over a period of time in a predictable pattern.
  3. Stars, other than our sun, are visible at night but not during the day.

After students observe and document these types of patterns over a period of time, they need opportunities to describe the patterns and to make predictions about the changes that occur in the objects in the sky. It is important that they use observed patterns as evidence to support predictions they might make about the sun, moon, and stars.

In this unit, students also learn that seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset can be observed, described, and predicted. They relate the amount of daylight to the time of year by making observations at different times of the year. Over time, they collect and use data in order to identify the relationship between the amount of sunlight and the season. Grade 1 students are expected to make relative comparisons of the amount of daylight from one season to the next, and assessment should be limited to relative amounts of daylight, not quantifying the hours or time of daylight.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

SCIENCE RESOURCES 

At A Glance

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

The Dynamic Trio: In this lesson, students will learn about the stars, planets, and moons found in our solar system and how they relate to one another. The video segment enhances the learning. After a non-fiction read aloud, students work in groups to create models of the Solar System.

Our Super Star: This is a three part lesson where students use observations, activities, and videos to learn basic facts about the Sun. Students also model the mechanics of day and night and use solar energy to make a tasty treat. One of the videos is a time-lapse video of a sunrise and a sunset.

Keep a Moon Journal: The National Wildlife Federation's "Keep a Moon Journal" page allows students to get acquainted with the phases of the moon by keeping a moon journal to record their nightly observations for one month. The page has links to diagrams, a student printable, and activities connecting the journal to other content. The page is set up as a "family activity" and could be used as nightly homework for students then discussed weekly in class.

Patterns of Daylight: This is a mini-unit that can be taught directly after Space Part 1 or independently. The author chose to teach the Space Part 1 unit (also available on Better Lesson! at http://betterlesson.com/lesson/613469/introduction-and-pre-assessment ) during January, and follows up at the end of the year in a recap in May. This lesson uses prior student knowledge and a video simulation.

Observing the Sun: This lesson is an activity where students create a sun tracker and monitor the sun's position over the course of a day. Examples of student journals and connections within a larger unit are provided.

Standards

Content Statement

Use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe patterns that can be predicted. [Clarification Statement: Examples of patterns could include that the sun and moon appear to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set; and stars other than our sun are visible at night but not during the day.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of star patterns is limited to stars being seen at night and not during the day.] (1-ESS1-1)

Make observations at different times of year to relate the amount of daylight to the time of year. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on relative comparisons of the amount of daylight in the winter to the amount in the spring or fall.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to relative amounts of daylight, not quantifying the hours or time of daylight.] (1-ESS1-2)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). (1-ESS1-1),(1-ESS1-2) W.1.7

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (1-ESS1-1),(1- ESS1-2) W.1.8

Mathematics

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (1-ESS1-2) MP.2

Model with mathematics. (1-ESS1-2) MP.4

Use appropriate tools strategically. (1-ESS1-2) MP.5

Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations to represent the problem. (1-ESS1-2) 1.OA.A.1

Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. (1-ESS1-2) 1.MD.C.4

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4. Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP6. Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7. Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8. Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

By the end of 4th grade,  

  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.3 Compare the common uses of at least two different digital applications and identify the advantages and disadvantages of using each.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Future Learning

Grade 3 Unit 2: Forces and Motion

Grade 5 Unit 6: Interactions within the Earth, Sun, Moon Systems

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

  • Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.
  • Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures, illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).
  • Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).
  • Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple representation and multimodal experiences).
  • Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate their understandings.
  •  Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.
  • Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.
  • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.
  • Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.
  • Restructure lesson using UDL principles (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).  

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe patterns that can be predicted. [Clarification Statement: Examples of patterns could include that the sun and moon appear to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set; and stars other than our sun are visible at night but not during the day.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of star patterns is limited to stars being seen at night and not during the day.] (1-ESS1-1)

Make observations at different times of year to relate the amount of daylight to the time of year. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on relative comparisons of the amount of daylight in the winter to the amount in the spring or fall.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to relative amounts of daylight, not quantifying the hours or time of daylight.] (1-ESS1-2)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

    Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

    Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

    Analyzing and Interpreting Data

   ESS1.A: The Universe and its Stars

   ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

   Patterns

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

            Connections to Nature of Science

   Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and

    Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Science assumes natural events happen today as they happened in the past. (1-ESS1-1)
  • Many events are repeated. (1-ESS1-1)

Unit Title

  Unit 2:  Characteristics of Living Things

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 15

Unit Summary

In this unit of study, students develop an understanding of how plants and animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs, as well as how the behaviors of parents and offspring help offspring survive. The understanding that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly the same as, their parents is developed. The crosscutting concept of patterns is called out as an organizing concept for the disciplinary core ideas. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information and constructing explanations. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on 1-LS3-1 and 1-LS1-2.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How are young plants and animals alike and different from their parents?

What types (patterns) of behavior can be observed among parents that help offspring survive?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Patterns in the natural world can be observed, used to describe phenomena, and used as evidence.
  • Individuals of the same kind of plant or animal are recognizable as similar but can also vary in many ways.
  • Young animals are very much, but not exactly, like their parents.  Plants also are very much, but not exactly, like their parents.
  • Scientists look for patterns and order when making observations about the world.
  • Patterns in the natural world can be observed, used to describe phenomena, and used as evidence.
  • Adult plants and animals can have young.
  • In many kinds of animals, parents and the offspring themselves engage in behaviors that help the offspring survive.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
  • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
  • When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
  • A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.
  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
  • Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Discover and compare the effects of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.
  • Learn that pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
  • Learn that pushing and pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
  • Learn that when objects touch or collide, the object’s motion can be changed.
  • Learn that the force of the push or pull will make things speed up or slow down more quickly.
  • Discover and compare the effects of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.
  • Learn that pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
  • Learn that pushing and pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
  • Learn that when objects touch or collide, the object’s motion can be changed.
  • Learn that the force of the push or pull will make things speed up or slow down more quickly.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts can:

  • Observe and use patterns in the natural world as evidence and to describe phenomena.
  • Make observations (firsthand or from media) to construct an evidence-based account for natural phenomena.
  • Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly like, their parents.
  1. Examples of patterns could include features plants or animals share.
  2.  Examples of observations could include that leaves from the same kind of plant are the same shape but can differ in

                             size and that a particular breed of puppy looks like its parents but is not exactly the same.

                               [Note: Assessment does not include inheritance or animals that undergo metamorphosis or hybrids.]

  • Observe and use patterns in the natural world as evidence and to describe phenomena.
  • Read grade-appropriate texts and use media to obtain scientific information to determine patterns in the natural world.
  • Read texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive. Examples of patterns of behaviors could include:
  1. The signals that offspring make, such as crying, cheeping, and other vocalizations.
  2. The responses of the parents, such as feeding, comforting, and protecting the offspring.

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Observing and comparing external features of organisms, looking for patterns in what they observe
  • Observe a variety of plants and animals in order to look for similarities and differences in their feature
  • Students observe organisms in order to recognize that many types of young plants and animals are like, but not exactly the same as, their parents

In this unit of study, students observe organisms in order to recognize that many types of young plants and animals are like, but not exactly the same as, their parents. Students also observe how organisms use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs, and how the behaviors of parents and offspring help offspring survive. Throughout the unit, students will look for patterns; obtain, evaluate, and communicate information; and construct explanations.

People look for patterns in the natural world and use these patterns as evidence to describe phenomena. Students begin this unit by observing and comparing external features of organisms, looking for patterns in what they observe. They will need opportunities to observe a variety of plants and animals in order to look for similarities and differences in their features. For example, when comparing the shape, size, color, or number of leaves on plants, students begin to notice that plants of the same kind have leaves that are the same shape and color, but the leaves of one plant may differ from another in size or number. When comparing body coverings; number, size, and type of external features (legs, tail, eyes, mouth parts); body size, body coloring, or eye color of animals, students learn that animals of the same kind have the same type of body covering and the same number and types of external features, but the size of the body, the size of external features, body color, and/or eye color of individuals might differ. Making observations like these helps students recognize that young plants and animals look very much, but not exactly, like their parents, and that even though individuals of the same kind of plant or animal are recognizable as similar, they can also vary in many ways.

In addition to observing and documenting similarities and differences in the external features of organisms, students also need opportunities to make direct observations, read texts, or use multimedia resources to determine patterns in the behaviors of parents and offspring that help offspring survive. While both plants and animals can have young, it is the parents of young animals who might engage in behaviors that help their young survive. Some examples of these patterns of behaviors could include the signals that offspring make, such as crying, cheeping, and other vocalizations, and the responses of parents, such as feeding, comforting, and protecting their young.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

SCIENCE RESOURCES 

At A Glance

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental  Resources

Chip Off the Old Block: In this lesson students compare adult plants with young plants and then match pictures of adult animals with their young. They then are asked to identify specific physical traits of plants and animals that can be used to identify them. Note: The Parent/Offspring photo collection on page three incorrectly states the offspring of a horse is a pony.

Eat Like a Bird! January: This lesson and activity is one of several lessons about birds. In this lesson, students learn that bird beaks come in many different sizes and shape. Each beak has a specific shape and function to help the bird to get and eat food.

Why So Yummy? In this lesson students will investigate how fruits help some plants survive. The background information is important to the overall goals of this lesson. It states, "fruit-bearing plants can be distinguished from other plants, because they contain a reproductive structure that develops into an edible fruit. This reproductive structure is the shelter that protects the seeds until they are mature. This is important, because seeds are not distributed to the earth for germination until they are ripe." The teacher will need to purchase some fruits ahead of time for this lesson. Identifying a variety of fruits and especially fruits children might have less experience with will enhance the experience

Standards

Content Statement

Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence that plants and animals have traits inherited from parents and that variation of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms. [Clarification Statement: Patterns are the similarities and differences in traits shared between offspring and their parents, or among siblings. Emphasis is on organisms other than humans.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include genetic mechanisms of inheritance and prediction of traits. Assessment is limited to non-human examples.] (1-LS3-1)

Read texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive. [Clarification Statement: Examples of patterns of behaviors could include the signals that offspring make (such as crying, cheeping, and other vocalizations) and the responses of the parents (such as feeding, comforting, and protecting the offspring).] (1-LS1-2)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (3-LS3-1) RI.3.1

Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. (3-LS3-1) RI.3.2

Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (3-LS3-1) RI.3.3

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). (1-LS1-1) W.1.7

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (3-LS3-1) SL.3.4

Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. (3-LS3-1) W.3.2

Mathematics

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (3-LS3-1) MP.2

Model with mathematics. (3-LS3-1) MP.4

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units—whole numbers, halves, or quarters. (3-LS3-1) 3.MD.B.4

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5. Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6. Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7. Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8. Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.3 Compare the common uses of at least two different digital applications and identify the advantages and disadvantages of using each.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Future Learning

     Grade 3 Unit 6: Organisms and the Environment

     Grade 4 Unit 3: Structures and Functions

  • Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction.

     Grade 4 Unit 4: How Organisms Process Information

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

  • Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.
  • Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures, illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).
  • Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).
  • Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple representation and multimodal experiences).
  • Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate their understandings.
  • Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.
  • Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.
  • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.
  • Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.
  • Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).  

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence that plants and animals have traits inherited from parents and that variation of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms. [Clarification Statement: Patterns are the similarities and differences in traits shared between offspring and their parents, or among siblings. Emphasis is on organisms other than humans.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include genetic mechanisms of inheritance and prediction of traits. Assessment is limited to non-human examples.] (1-LS3-1)

Read texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive. [Clarification Statement: Examples of patterns of behaviors could include the signals that offspring make (such as crying, cheeping, and other vocalizations) and the responses of the parents (such as feeding, comforting, and protecting the offspring).] (1-LS1-2)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

     Analyzing and Interpreting Data

     Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating

     Information

 

     LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits

     LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

 

     Patterns

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Connections to Nature of Science

    Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical

    Evidence

  • Scientists look for patterns and order when making observations about the world. (1-LS1-2)

Unit Title

Unit 3:  Mimicking Organisms to Solve Problems

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 25

Unit Summary

In this unit of study, students develop an understanding of how plants and animals use their parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs. Students also need opportunities to develop possible solutions. As students develop possible solutions, one challenge will be to keep them from immediately implementing the first solution they think of and to instead think through the problem carefully before acting. Having students sketch their ideas or make a physical model is a good way to engage them in shaping their ideas to meet the requirements of the problem. The crosscutting concept of structure and function is called out as an organizing concept for the disciplinary core ideas. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in constructing explanations, designing solutions, and in developing and using models. Students are expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on 1-LS1-1 and K-2-ETS1-2.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How can humans mimic how plants and animals use their external parts to help them survive and grow?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Every human-made product is designed by applying some knowledge of the natural world and is built using materials derived from the natural world.
  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).
  • All organisms have external parts. Different animals use their body parts in different ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and seek, find, and take in food, water, and air. Plants also have different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits) that help them survive and grow.
  • Animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information needed for growth and survival. Animals respond to these inputs with behaviors that help them survive. Plants also respond to some external inputs.
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Every human-made product is designed by applying some knowledge of the natural world and is built using materials derived from the natural world.
  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).
  • All organisms have external parts. Different animals use their body parts in different ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and seek, find, and take in food, water, and air. Plants also have different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits) that help them survive and grow.
  • Animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information needed for growth and survival. Animals respond to these inputs with behaviors that help them survive. Plants also respond to some external inputs.
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Investigate how plants and animals use their external structures to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.
  • Observe and describe how the shape and stability of organisms’ structures are related to their functions.
  • Observe that different animals use their body parts in different ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and seek, find, and take in food, water, and air.
  • Describe how the shape and stability of that structure is related to its function.
  • Engage in engineering design.  

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts are able to:

  • Observe and describe how the shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their functions.
  • Use materials to design a device that solves a specific problem or [design] a solution to a specific problem.
  • Use materials to design a solution to a human problem that mimics how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs: Examples of human problems that can be solved by mimicking plant or animal solutions could include:
  1. Designing clothing or equipment to protect bicyclists by mimicking turtle shells, acorn shells, and animal scales.
  2. Stabilizing structures by mimicking animal tails and roots on plants.
  3. Keeping out intruders by mimicking thorns on branches and animal quills.
  4. Detecting intruders by mimicking eyes and ears.
  • Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a proposed object or tool.
  • Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Make a physical model
  • Apply their learning to design a solution to a human problem that mimics how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.
  • Make direct observations and use media resources to find relevant examples for both plants and animals
  • Use materials to design a device that solves a specific human problem.
  • Students participate in shared research to find examples of human-made products that have been designed and built by applying knowledge of the natural world.
  • Brainstorm possible human problems that can be solved by mimicking how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.

In this unit of study, students investigate how plants and animals use their external structures to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs. Then students are challenged to apply their learning to design a solution to a human problem that mimics how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.

In order to recognize ways in which animals and plants use their external structures, students need opportunities to observe and describe how the shape and stability of organisms’ structures are related to their functions. Students can make direct observations and use media resources to find relevant examples for both plants and animals. They should observe that different animals use their body parts in different ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and seek, find, and take in food, water, and air. In addition, animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information from the environment, enabling them to respond to these inputs in ways that aid in survival. Plants, like animals, have different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits) that each serve specific functions in survival and growth, and plants also respond to external inputs. For each structure that students observe, they should describe how the shape and stability of that structure is related to its function.

The next step in this unit is to engage in engineering design. Students need opportunities to use materials to design a device that solves a specific human problem. Designs should mimic how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive and grow. The engineering design process students engage in should include the following steps:

·         As a class or in small groups, students participate in shared research to find examples of human-made products that have been designed and built by applying knowledge of the natural world. For each example, students identify the human problem(s) that the product solves and how that solution was designed using an understanding of the natural world.

  • Students brainstorm possible human problems that can be solved by mimicking how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs. Examples could include:
  1. Designing clothing or equipment to protect bicyclists that mimics turtle shells, acorn shells, and animal scales.
  2. Stabilizing structures that mimic animal tails and plant roots.
  3. Keeping out intruders by mimicking thorns on branches and animal quills.
  4. Detecting intruders by mimicking eyes and ears.
  • In small groups, students use sketches, drawings, or physical models to convey a design that solves a problem by mimicking one or more external structures of plants and/or animals.
  • Use materials to create the design solution.
  • Share the design solution with others in the class.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

SCIENCE RESOURCES 

At A Glance

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

Eat Like a Bird! January: This lesson and activity is one of several lessons about birds. In this lesson, students learn that bird beaks come in many different sizes and shape. Each beak has a specific shape and function to help the bird to get and eat food.

Why So Yummy: In this lesson students will investigate how fruits help some plants survive. The background information is important to the overall goals of this lesson. It states, "fruit-bearing plants can be distinguished from other plants, because they contain a reproductive structure that develops into an edible fruit. This reproductive structure is the shelter that protects the seeds until they are mature. This is important, because seeds are not distributed to the earth for germination until they are ripe." The teacher will need to purchase some fruits ahead of time for this lesson. Identifying a variety of fruits and especially fruits children might have less experience with will enhance the experience.

Standards

Content Statement

Use materials to design a solution to a human problem by mimicking how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of human problems that can be solved by mimicking plant or animal solutions could include designing clothing or equipment to protect bicyclists by mimicking turtle shells, acorn shells, and animal scales; stabilizing structures by mimicking animal tails and roots on plants; keeping out intruders by mimicking thorns on branches and animal quills; and, detecting intruders by mimicking eyes and ears.] (1-LS1-1)

Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem. ( K-2-ETS1-2)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). (1-LS1-1)

Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (K-2-ETS1-2) SL.2.5

Mathematics

None listed...

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.3 Compare the common uses of at least two different digital applications and identify the advantages and disadvantages of using each.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Future Learning

  Grade 4 Unit 3: Structures and Functions

   Grade 4 Unit 4: How Organisms Process Information

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

  • Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.
  • Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures, illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).
  • Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).
  • Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple representation and multimodal experiences).
  • Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate their understandings.
  • Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.
  • Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.
  • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.
  • Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.
  • Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).  

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Use materials to design a solution to a human problem by mimicking how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of human problems that can be solved by mimicking plant or animal solutions could include designing clothing or equipment to protect bicyclists by mimicking turtle shells, acorn shells, and animal scales; stabilizing structures by mimicking animal tails and roots on plants; keeping out intruders by mimicking thorns on branches and animal quills; and, detecting intruders by mimicking eyes and ears.] (1-LS1-1)

Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.

( K-2-ETS1-2)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

     Analyzing and Interpreting Data

     Constructing Explanations and Designing

     Solutions

     Developing and Using Models

   LS1.A: Structure and Function

   LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

   LS1.D: Information Processing

   ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

     Patterns

     Structure and Function

  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s). (1-LS1-1)
  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s). (K-2-ETS1-2)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                      Applications of Science

   Influence of Science, Engineering and

   Technology on Society and the Natural World

Unit Title

Unit 4:  Light and Sound

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 20

Unit Summary

In this unit of study, students develop an understanding of the relationship between sound and vibrating materials as well as between the availability of light and the ability to see objects. The idea that light travels from place to place can be understood by students at this level by placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light and determining the effect of the different materials.

The crosscutting concept of cause and effect is called out as an organizing concept for the disciplinary core ideas. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in planning and carrying out investigations, constructing explanations, and designing solutions. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How can you prove that you can only see something when someone shines a light on it or if the object gives off its own light?What happens to a beam of light when you put different kinds of things in front of it?

How would you design an experiment to prove your thinking?

How do instruments (band) make sound?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

• Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.

• Objects can be seen if light is available to illuminate them or if they give off their own light.

• Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.

• Some materials allow light to pass through them, others allow only some light through, and others block all the light and

   create  a dark shadow on any surface beyond them, where the light cannot reach.

• Mirrors can be used to redirect a light beam. (Boundary: The idea that light travels from place to place is developed through

   experiences with light sources, mirrors, and shadows, but no attempt is made to discuss the speed of light.)

• Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating matter can make sound.

• Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • Objects can be seen if light is available to illuminate them or if they give off their own light.
  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • Some materials allow light to pass through them, others allow only some light through, and others block all the light and create a dark shadow on any surface beyond them, where the light cannot reach.
  • Mirrors can be used to redirect a light beam. (Boundary: The idea that light travels from place to place is developed through experiences with light sources, mirrors, and shadows, but no attempt is made to discuss the speed of light.)
  • Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating matter can make sound.
  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  •  Plan and conduct investigations and make observations as they explore sound and light energy.
  •  Describe the relationships between sound and vibrating materials and the availability of light and the ability to see objects.
  •  Investigate the effect on a beam of light when objects made of different materials are placed in its path.
  •  Understand that objects can be seen only when illuminated, either from an external light source or by when they give off

               their own light

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts can:

  • Design simple tests to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about cause and effect relationships.
  • Make observations (firsthand or from media) to construct an evidence-based account for natural phenomena.
  • Make observations (e.g., in a completely dark room, using a pinhole box, using video of a cave explorer with a flashlight) to construct an evidence-based account that objects can be seen only when illuminated (from an external light source or by an object giving off its own light).
  • Design simple tests to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about cause and effect relationships.
  • Plan and conduct investigations collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer a question.
  • Plan and conduct an investigation to determine the effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light. Materials can be:

                     − Transparent (clear plastic, glass)

                     − Translucent (wax paper, thin cloth)

                     − Opaque (cardboard, construction paper)

                     − Reflective (a mirror, a shiny metal spoon)

  • Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate.
  • Examples of vibrating materials that make sound could include tuning forks and plucking a stretched string.
  • Examples of how sound can make matter vibrate could include holding a piece of paper near a speaker making sound and holding an object near a vibrating tuning fork.

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Students will use their observations and data as evidence to determine cause-and-effect relationships in the natural world.
  • Observations could be made in a completely dark room, or students can use a pinhole box to observe objects.
  • Watch videos of cave explorers deep in the earth, using light from a single flashlight

In this unit of study, students plan and conduct investigations and make observations as they explore sound and light energy. Students describe the relationships between sound and vibrating materials and the availability of light and the ability to see objects. They also investigate the effect on a beam of light when objects made of different materials are placed in its path. Throughout the unit, students will use their observations and data as evidence to determine cause-and-effect relationships in the natural world.

Students begin this unit by observing objects with and without available light. They need opportunities to observe a variety of objects in both illuminated and non-illuminated settings. For example, observations could be made in a completely dark room, or students can use a pinhole box to observe objects. Students can also watch videos of cave explorers deep in the earth, using light from a single flashlight. With experiences such as these, they will come to understand that objects can be seen only when illuminated, either from an external light source or by when they give off their own light.

Next, students plan and conduct simple investigations to determine what happens to a beam of light when objects made of various materials are placed in its path. Students need the opportunity to explore the interaction of light with a variety of materials, and they should record what they observe with each one. When selecting materials to use, teachers should choose some that allow all light to pass through (transparent), some that allow only a portion of the light to pass through (translucent), some that do not allow any light to pass through (opaque), and some that redirect the beam of light (reflective). Examples could include clear plastic, glass, wax paper, thin cloth, cardboard, construction paper, shiny metal spoons, and mirrors.

As students observe the interaction between light and various materials, they should notice that when some or all of the light is blocked, a shadow is created beyond the object. If only a portion of light is blocked (translucent materials), a dim shadow will form, and some light will pass through the object. If all the light is blocked (opaque materials), students will see only see a dark shadow beyond the object. They will also observe that shiny materials reflect light, redirecting the beam of light in a different direction. Students should use their observations as evidence to support their explanations of how light interacts with various objects.

After investigating light energy, students continue to plan and conduct investigations to develop an understanding of some basic properties of sound. Students can use a variety of objects and materials to observe that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate. Students need multiple opportunities to experiment with a variety of objects that will make sound. Some opportunities could include:

         Gently tapping various sizes of tuning forks on a hard surface.

         Plucking string or rubber bands stretched across an open box.

         Cutting and stretching a balloon over an open can to make a drum that can be tapped.

         Holding the end of a ruler on the edge of a table, leaving the opposite end of the ruler hanging over the edge, and then plucking the hanging end

             of the ruler.

         Touching a vibrating tuning fork to the surface of water in a bowl.

         Placing dry rice grains on a drum’s surface and then touching the drum with a vibrating tuning fork or placing the drum near the speaker of a

           portable sound system.

         Holding a piece of paper near the speaker of a portable sound system.

As students conduct these simple investigations, they will notice that when objects vibrate (tuning forks that have been tapped and string, rubber bands, and rulers that have been plucked), sound is created. They will also notice that sound will cause objects to vibrate (sound from a speaker causes rice grains to vibrate on the surface of a drum, the vibrating tuning fork causes ripples on the surface of water, and sound from the speaker also causes paper to move). Students should use these types of observations as evidence when explaining the cause and effect relationship between sound and vibrating materials

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide  

SCIENCE RESOURCES 

At A Glance

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

The “What it Looks Like in the Classroom” section of this document describes several student sense-making tasks.

The Utah Education Network has created several resources for fourth grade science teachers.

Michigan NGSS Moodle:   The purpose of this website to provide K-5 Science teachers with resources, lessons, and activities based on the NGSS which were created by teachers in our region. 

Standards

Content Statement

Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that objects in darkness can be seen only when illuminated. [Clarification Statement: Examples of observations could include those made in a completely dark room, a pinhole box, and a video of a cave explorer with a flashlight. Illumination could be from an external light source or by an object giving off its own light.] (1-PS4-2)

Plan and conduct investigations to determine the effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light. [Clarification Statement: Examples of materials could include those that are transparent (such as clear plastic), translucent (such as wax paper), opaque (such as cardboard), and reflective (such as a mirror).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the speed of light.] (1-PS4-3)

Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of vibrating materials that make sound could include tuning forks and plucking a stretched string. Examples of how sound can make matter vibrate could include holding a piece of paper near a speaker making sound and holding an object near a vibrating tuning fork.] (1-PS4-1)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure. (1-PS4-2) W.1.2

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). (1-PS4-1),(1-PS4-2),(1-PS4-3) W.1.7

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (1-PS4-1),(1-PS4-2),(1-PS4-3) W.1.8

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. (1-PS4-1),(1-PS4-2),(1-PS4-3) SL.1.1

Mathemetics

N/A

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.3 Compare the common uses of at least two different digital applications and identify the advantages and disadvantages of using each.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

8.1.2.A.5 Enter information into a spreadsheet and sort the information.

8.1.2.A.6 Identify the structure and components of a database.

8.1.2.A.7 Enter information into a database or spreadsheet and filter the information.

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Future Learning

By the end of Grade 2, students understand that:

  • Different  kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified

          by its observable properties.

  • Different properties are suited to different purposes.
  • A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces.

By the end of Grade 4, students understand that:

  • An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

Teacher Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. The unneeded modifications can then be deleted from the list.

  • Restructure lesson using UDL principles (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA)  
  • Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.
  • Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures, illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).
  • Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).
  • Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple representation and multimodal experiences).
  • Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate their understandings.
  • Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.
  • Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.
  • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.
  • Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that objects in darkness can be seen only when illuminated. [Clarification Statement: Examples of observations could include those made in a completely dark room, a pinhole box, and a video of a cave explorer with a flashlight. Illumination could be from an external light source or by an object giving off its own light.] (1-PS4-2)

Plan and conduct investigations to determine the effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light. [Clarification Statement: Examples of materials could include those that are transparent (such as clear plastic), translucent (such as wax paper), opaque (such as cardboard), and reflective (such as a mirror).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the speed of light.] (1-PS4-3)

Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of vibrating materials that make sound could include tuning forks and plucking a stretched string. Examples of how sound can make matter vibrate could include holding a piece of paper near a speaker making sound and holding an object near a vibrating tuning fork.] (1-PS4-1)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

     Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

     Constructing Explanations and Designing

     Solutions

     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  

         Connections to Nature of Science

 Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

  • Science investigations begin with a question. (1-PS4-1)

  • Scientists use different ways to study the world. (1-PS4-1)

 

     PS4.A: Wave Properties

     PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

     PS4.C: Information Technologies and  

     Instrumentation

     Cause and Effect

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -    Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

   Influence of Engineering, Technology, and

   Science, on Society and the Natural World

 

Unit Title

Unit 5:  Communicating with Light and Sound 

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 25

Unit Summary

How would we communicate over a distance without the use of any of the devices that people currently use?

In this unit of study, students continue to develop their understanding of the relationship between sound and vibrating materials as well as between the availability of light and the ability to see objects. Students apply their knowledge of light and sound to engage in engineering design to solve a simple problem involving communication with light and sound. The crosscutting concepts of structure and function and influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are called out as organizing concepts for the disciplinary core ideas. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in constructing explanations and designing solutions, asking questions and defining problems, and developing and using models. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on 1-PS4-4, K-2-ETS1-1, and K-2-ETS1-2.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How can light or sound be used to communicate over a distance?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).
  • People depend on various technologies in their lives; human life would be very different without technology.
  • People also use a variety of devices to communicate (send and receive information) over long distances.
  • A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering.
  • Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems.
  • Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem.
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).
  • People depend on various technologies in their lives; human life would be very different without technology.
  • People also use a variety of devices to communicate (send and receive information) over long distances.
  • A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering.
  • Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems.
  • Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem.
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance
  • Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.
  • Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts are able to:

•   Describe how the shape and stability of structures are related to their function.

•   Ask questions based on observations to find more information about the natural and/or designed world.

•   Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

•   Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change in order to define a

     simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

•   Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a proposed object or tool.

•   Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to

     solve a given problem.

•   Use tools and materials provided to design a device that solves a specific problem.

•   Use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a

     distance. Examples of devices could include:  A light source to send signals  Paper cup and string telephones  A pattern of

     drum beats

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Engage in the engineering design process in order to design and build a device that uses light or sound to communicate over a distance
  • Students brainstorm a list of ways that people communicate over a distance. Some examples include telephones, cellular phones, email, and video conferencing (by computer).
  • Ask students, “How would we communicate over a distance without the use of any of the devices that people currently use?”
  • Use that question to guide the class to define the problem: Design and build a device that allows us to communicate over a distance.
  • As a class, determine the criteria that will be used to evaluate the design solutions. One criterion MUST be that the device uses either light or sound.

Students continue to develop their understanding of the relationship between sound and vibrating materials as well as between the availability of light and the ability to see objects. Students will apply their knowledge of light and sound to solve a simple problem involving communication with light and sound. During this unit, students learn that people depend on various technologies in their lives, and that life would be very different without technology. Technology plays an important role in the development of devices that allow us to communicate (send and receive information) over long distances. Engineers design and build many kinds of devices, such as those used for communication. Like engineers, students engage in the engineering design process in order to design and build a device that uses light or sound to communicate over a distance.

This process should include the following steps:  

  • Students brainstorm a list of ways that people communicate over a distance. Some examples include telephones, cellular phones, email, and video conferencing (by computer).  
  • Ask students, “How would we communicate over a distance without the use of any of the devices that people currently use?”  Use that question to guide the class to define the problem: Design and build a device that allows us to communicate over a distance.  
  • As a class, determine the criteria that will be used to evaluate the design solutions. One criterion MUST be that the device uses either light or sound.
  • Also as a class, determine possible constraints, such as available materials and amount of time allotted for designing and building the device.  Small groups conduct research, looking for examples of devices that use light or sound to communicate over a distance.
  • Small groups can then use tools and materials to design and build their devices. Examples could include a light source that sends a signal, paper cup and string telephones, or a pattern of drumbeats.  
  • Groups should prepare a sketch or drawing of their device. They should label the components and describe, in writing, how each component relates to the function of the device.  
  • Groups should present their devices to the class, demonstrating how they work.  
  • Students then determine which devices work as intended based on the criteria, using data as evidence to support their thinking.

Students should ask questions, make observations, gather information, and communicate with peers throughout the design process. Guidance and support from the teacher is also a critical part of the design process.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

SCIENCE RESOURCES 

At A Glance

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

Assessing Light Knowledge - two lessons: In these lessons the students work as partners planning and designing a communication device that will signal across the gym or hallway from one partner to the other partner. The communication device must only use light and objects that block or change the light.

Standards

Content Statement

Use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include a light source to send signals, paper cup and string “telephones,” and a pattern of drum beats.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include technological details for how communication devices work.] (1-PS4-4)

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem. (K-2-ETS1-2)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). (1-PS4-4) W.1.7 

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (K-2-ETS1-1) RI.2.1

 With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (K-2-ETS1-1) W.2.6

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (K-2-ETS1-1) W.2.8 

Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (K-2-ETS1-2) SL.2.5

Mathematics

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (K-2-ETS1-1) MP.2

Model with mathematics. (K-2-ETS1-1) MP.4 

Use appropriate tools strategically. (1-PS4-4),(K-2-ETS1-1) MP.5 

Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. (1-PS4-4) 1.MD.A.1 

Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by layering multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. (1-PS4-4) 1.MD.A.2 

Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (K-2-ETS1-1) 2.MD.D.10

  • CRP1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP10. Plan education and career paths aligned to personal goals.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.
  • CRP12.Work productively in teams while using cultural global competence.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.3 Compare the common uses of at least two different digital applications and identify the advantages and disadvantages of using each.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Future Learning

Grade 2 Unit 1: Relationships in Habitats 

     • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s

        solutions to other people.(secondary)

Grade 2 Unit 2: Properties of Matter 

     • Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature.

     • Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties.

     • Different properties are suited to different purposes.

     • A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces.

Grade 4 Unit 5: Transfer of Energy 

     • An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.

     • Digitized information can be transmitted over long distances without significant degradation. High-tech devices, such as computers or cell phones, can

        receive and decode information—convert it from digitized form to voice—and vice versa.

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

    •   Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.

    •   Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures,  

         illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).

    •   Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the

         community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).

    •   Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple

         representation and multimodal experiences).

    •   Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate

         their  understandings.

    •   Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.

    •   Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue. • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.

    •   Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.

    •   Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include a light source to send signals, paper cup and string “telephones,” and a pattern of drum beats.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include technological details for how communication devices work.] (1-PS4-4)

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem. (K-2-ETS1-2)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

   Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

      • Plan and conduct investigations collaboratively

         to produce evidence to answer a question.

        (1- PS4-1),(1-PS4-3)

   Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions 

     • Use tools and materials provided to design a

        device that solves a specific problem. (1-PS4-4)

   Asking Questions and Defining Problems 

     • Ask questions based on observations to find

        more information about the natural and/or

        designed world(s). (K-2-ETS1-1)

     • Define a simple problem that can be solved

        through the development of a new or improved

        object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

    Developing and Using Models

      • Develop a simple model based on evidence to

         represent a proposed object or tool.

        (K-2-ETS1- 2)

   PS4.C: Information Technologies and

    Instrumentation

     • People also use a variety of devices to

        communicate (send and receive information)

        over long distances. (1-PS4-4)

   ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering  

   Problems 

     • A situation that people want to change or

        create can be approached as a problem to be

         solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1)

     • Asking questions, making observations, and  

         gathering information are helpful in thinking  

         about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

     • Before beginning to design a solution, it is

         important to clearly understand the problem.

        (K-2- ETS1-1)

   ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions 

      • Designs can be conveyed through sketches,

         drawings, or physical models. These

         representations are useful in communicating

         ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.

        (K-2- ETS1-2)

Structure and Function 

     • The shape and stability of structures of

         natural and designed objects are related to

         their function(s). (K-2-ETS1-2)

Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science, on Society and the Natural World 

       • People depend on various technologies in

          their lives; human life would be very

          different without technology. (1-PS4-4)