AP PSYCHOLOGY STUDY GUIDE
BEST WAY TO GET A 5!
Unit 1: History and Approaches
Empiricism: the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
Structuralism: early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind
Functionalism: early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
Experimental Psychology: the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
Behaviorism: the view that psychology 1. Should be an objective science that 2. Studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1. but not with 2.
Humanistic Psychology: a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people
Cognitive Neuroscience: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
Psychology: the science of behavior and mental processes
Nature-Nurture Issue: the long standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
Natural Selection: the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Biopsychosocial approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
Behavioral psychology: the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
Biological psychology: the scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes
Cognitive psychology: the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Evolutionary psychology: the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection
Psychodynamic psychology: a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
Social-cultural psychology: the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.
Developmental psychology: a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan
Personality psychology: the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
- “Father of Psychology”
- Established the first psychology laboratory
- Developed structuralism
- A legendary teacher-writer who authored an important 1890 psychology text
- Promoted functionalism
- The controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity’s self-understanding
- A leading behaviorist, Skinner rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior
- The founder of the humanistic approach
- Great importance on the education of children
- Darwin argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies
Mary Whiton Calkins
- James mentored Calkins, who became a pioneering memory research and the first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association
Unit 2: Research Methods
- Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organize observations and predicts behaviors of events
- Hypothesis: A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
- Operational definitions: a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.
- ex) human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
- Replication: repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situation, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
- A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
- ex) case studies of individuals who suffered a particular impairment after damage to a certain brain region
- ex) studies of only a few chimpanzees (revealed their capacity for understanding language)
- Might be an unrepresentative information
- Atypical individuals
- Dramatic stories and personal experiences
- Individual cases can suggest fruitful ideas. To discern the general truth that cover individual cases, we must answer questions with other research methods
- Naturalistic observations
- Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
- ex) watching chimpanzee societies in the jungle
- ex) unobtrusively videotaping parent-child interactions in different cultures
- ex) recording racial difference in students’ self-seating patterns in a school cafeteria
- Does not explain behavior, it describes it
- A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of group
- Looks at many cases in less depth
- Useful when estimating, the attitudes or reported behaviors of a whole population
- Even subtle changes in the order or wording of questions - the way we frame a question - can have major effects
- Sampling bias: a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample
- Population: all those in a group being studies, from which samples may be drawn
- Random sample: a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
- Correlation: a measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable predicts the other
- Correlation coefficient: a statistical index of the relationship between the two variables.
- Scatterplot: a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables, The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)
- Correlation and causation
- Association does not prove causation.
- Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship but does not prove such
- Illusory correlation: the perception of a relationship where none exists
- When we believe there is a relationship between two things, we are likely to notice and recall instances that confirm our believe
- Experiment: a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant variables
- Experimental group: the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
- Control group: the group not exposed to the treatment
- Contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
- Random assignment: assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups
- Double-blind procedure: an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
- Placebo effect: experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
- Independent and dependent variables
- Independent variables: the experimental factor that is manipulated
- The variable whose effect is being studied
- A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
- The variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
- Validity: the extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to
Unit 3: Biological Bases of Behavior
Key Figures (bolded in the text)
- Paul Broca
- Carl Wernicke
- Roger Sperry
- Michael Gazzaniga
- Charles Darwin
Biological Psychology: the scientific study of the links between biological(genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes.(Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists)
- Before biopsychology (early 1800s), there was phrenology by Franz Gall
Neuron: a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
- Cell body (soma)
- Dendrites: a neuron’s bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
- Axon:The neuron extension (fibers) that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands
- Myelin sheath: A fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one sausage-like node to the next
- Action potential: A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
- All-or-none response: a neuron’s reaction of either firing (with a full strength response) or not firing
- If excitatory exceed inhibitory signals over the threshold, it sends out action potential
- Threshold: the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
- Moves on to next axon section like falling dominos
- 3. Refractory period: A period of inactivity after a neuron has fired
Communication of Neurons
- Through synapse between dendrite and axon terminal
- Synapse: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.
- 1. Axon terminal release neurotransmitters
- Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
- 2. Dendrites receive it
- 3. Reuptake: a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron
Endorphins: “morphine within”—natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
Agonist: a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, stimulates a response.
Antagonist: a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, inhibits or blocks a response.
Nervous system: the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
- Central nervous system (CNS): the brain and spinal cord.
- The central nervous system contains only one type of neurons
- Interneurons: neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
- There’s much more of this neuron than the sensory and motor neurons.
- Reflex: a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
- Does not go through the brain
- Usually one motor neuron, one sensory neuron, and one interneurons connecting those two.
- Peripheral nervous system (PNS): the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
- Nerves: bundled axons that form neural “cables” connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
- The peripheral nervous system divides into two types of nervous systems
- Somatic nervous system: the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system.
- Sensory (afferent) neurons: neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
- Motor (efferent) neurons: neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and Spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
- Autonomic [aw—tuh-NAI-IM—ik] nervous system (ANS): the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
- Operates on its own, but it can be overridden with conscious.
- Sympathetic nervous system: the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
- Parasympathetic nervous system: the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
The Endocrine System
- Endocrine system: the body’s "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
- Hormones: chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues.
- Brain (Hypothalamus) -> pituitary gland -> other glands hormones ->body and brain
- Adrenal glands: a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones(epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress
- Pituitary glands: the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
Tools for examining brains
- Lesion (only on non-human animals) or stimulate → observe effects of damage
- Lesion: a tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
- Electroencephalogram (EEG): an ampliﬁed recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
- CT (computed tomography) scan: a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice of the brain’s structure. (Also called CAT scan.)
- PET (positron emission tomography) scan: a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy.
- fMRI (functional MRI): a technique for revealing bloodﬂow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain function as well as its structure.
Structure of Brain
- Brainstem: the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
- Medulla: the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
- Pons (coordinate movements)
- Reticular formation: a nerve network that travels and plays an important role in controlling arousal
- Thalamus: the brain’s sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
- Cerebellum: the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory.
- Limbic system: neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
- Hippocampus (related to memory)
- Amygdala: two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion
- Hypothalamus: a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), help govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. and is linked to emotion and reward
- Pituitary glands: the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
- Cerebral cortex: interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres, the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center.
- Glial cells: cells in the nervous system (not nerve cells) that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they may also play a role in learning and thinking.
- Association areas: areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions Such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
- Frontal lobes: portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in Speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments.
- Motor cortex: an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
- Broca’s area (in dominant hemisphere)
- By Paul Broca
- Production of speech
- Parietal lobes: portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
- Somatosensory cortex: area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
- Occipital lobes: portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields.
- Temporal lobes: portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
- Include face recognition function
- Wernicke’s area (in the left hemisphere)
- By Carl Wernicke
- Comprehension of speech
The Brain’s Plasticity
- Plasticity: the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.
- Severed neurons usually do not regenerate
- Some brain functions are preassigned to specific areas
- Neurogenesis: the formation of new neurons.
- From master stem cells
- Natural prompter of neurogenesis:
- exercise , sleep, stimulating (but non stressful) environment
Our Divided Brain
- Right and left hemispheres of our brain serve differing functions (= lateralization = hemispheric specialization)
Left side of body
Right side of body
Speaking or calculating
Making inferences and modulate our speech (like breaks in sentences)
Almost all: processing speech and making literal interpretations
Orchestrate sense of self
- Split brain: a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
- Corpus callosum: the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
- Information from the left half of field vision goes to the right hemisphere, vice versa
- Data from either hemisphere is instantly transmitted to the other through corpus callosum, except for split brains
- Experiments were done on split brains to test role of each hemisphere
- By Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga
- Left hemisphere can verbally express data (with language)
- Right hemisphere can’t express the information with language (verbally), but could IDENTIFY what they had viewed by feeling
- Patients can follow an instructions to copy— simultaneously— different figures (like square and circle) with the left and right hands
- When two hemisphere does not agree, the left hemisphere make up reasons or causes to rationalize reactions it does not understand.
- Consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and our environment
- Evolutionary scientists think consciousness gives reproductive advantages
- Help to act in long-term interest
- Promote survival by anticipating what others think (“reading” their mind)
- Cognitive neuroscience: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
- Relate specific brain states to conscious experiences
- To find more about how consciousness works and how it can be created
- Dual processing: the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.
- Perception, memory, thinking, language, and attitude all operate on two levels
- Conscious, deliberate “high road”
- Unconscious, automatic “low road”
Behavior genetics: the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
- Explains individual’s differences with differences of their genes and environment
- Environment: every external influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
- Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
- 46 of them—23 from mother, other 23 from father
- Composed of coiled chain of DNA molecules
- DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
- Genes: the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins.
- Can be either active (expressed) or inactive due to its environment
- Genome: the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes.
- Humans, and all living things, have strikingly similar DNA sequences
- Yet those very small differences makes big changes
Twin and Adoption Studies
- Fraternal twins (dizygotic twins): twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
- Identical twins (monozygotic twins): twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
- Striking similarity in identical twins do not come from how their parents treat them similarly. There were no more alike when their parents treated them similarly than differently.
- Separated identical twins have the same genes (nature) and different environment (nurture)
- Show striking similarities
- somewhat more personality differences from non-separated twins
- More similar than separated fraternal twins
- Separation shortly after or more after birth did not amplify their differences
- Criticism: There are many information is person’s life. Even if two strangers were to compare their lives in depth, they would find lots of similarities
- Counterclaim: Separated fraternal twins had much less similarities than separated identical twins
- Helped to appreciate genetic influences more than before
- Molecular genetics: the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
- What specific genes influence behavior?
- There are many genes affecting one trait
- Find pattern of genes that comes up in patients of disorders and diseases
- Heritability: the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
- Does not apply to differences between groups
Experience and genes interact to make traits
- Interaction: the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor depends on another factor
- Epigenetics: the study of environmental influences on gene expressions without a DNA change
Evolutionary psychology: the study of the evolution of behavior and min, using principles of natural selection.
- Natural selection: the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
- By Charles Darwin
- Mutation: a random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
Unit 4: Sensation and Perception
Sensation and Perception
- Reality is interpreted by the brain.
- Brain functions based on past experience and alter your perception.
Automatically translated feeling that you just get by the sensory motor.
(Wind touching your face, and odor being released)
When people give meaning towards some sensation
(Old man touching you and young baby touching you feels different)
Not being able to recognize difference of faces
(We can’t recognize difference of cows, but recognize humans)
Two ways of processing
- Sensory information is received by receptor on dendrite that is sent up to brain for processing
- Our brain interprets what we see, and construct perceptions drawing on sensations
- Brains focuses on one thing (Selective Attention)
- Consciousness is like a flashlight, only being able to flash or pay attention to one category
Cocktail party effect: You are listening to all the conversation that is going on, but something that has a relationship with you will lead you to get tuned into the thing.
(You can hear your friend calling your name in a loud auditorium)
- People fail to recognize something moving or something very random when doing some task
- When focusing on something, we tend to miss the changes that happen since we are not aware of those things.
Transduction (Three steps to sensory system)
- Receive sensory stimulation, often using specialized receptor cells
- Transform that stimulation into neural impulses
- Deliver the neural information to our brain
Threshold (Point when it is determined to do certain action or not)
- The minimum Stimulus that is necessary to detect particular sensory in 50% of time
- If we can detect certain weak signal half of the time, it is the absolute Threshold
- The minimum difference a person can detect the difference between two stimuli half of the time.
- Difference Threshold increases as size of the stimulus increases
- (1 ounce to 5 ounces will clearly make difference, but 1 to 50 might not be much)
Minimum Threshold for us to feel something
- Taste: 1 gram of table salt to 500 liters of water
- Scent: 1 drop of perfume diffused throughout a three-room apartment
- Feeling: Wing of a bee falling on your cheek from a height of 1 cm.
- Hearing: Tick of a watch from 6 meters in a very quiet condition
- Sight: Candlelight in a dark night 50 km away.
- Our senses slowly adapt to the stimulus that is constant
- This helps us to keep aware of new stimulus instead of ones that are constant
- When we expect certain result, we tend to see the result
- When served french fries in McDonald bag and served in a normal paper bag, preschoolers thought the ones in McDonald bag tasted better 6 to 1.
- Our senses can go back to allow later stimulus to determine how we perceive another one
Emotion and Motivation
- Emotions and Motivations tend to change how we take things in
- Hill looks steeper when wearing heavy backpack
When given multiple sensations towards you, people tend to have them in Gestalt which means organized whole. Basically getting pieces of information to form a meaningful whole.
Figure and Ground
- Figure is the object that stands out of the other sensations
- Ground is the background such as multiple sensations that is always around you
- Proximity: We group nearby figures together. We don’t see multiple straight lines, but sets of line
- Continuity: We perceive smooth, continuous patterns than discontinuous ones. Ones might interfere with other cutting them, but we still perceive them as a whole.
- Closure: We full the gap to complete a whole object that is not present.
- We somehow manage to estimate distance of an object by just glancing even though the image that strikes our retina are two-dimensional
- Our two eyes receive slightly different images, and by comparing this two image, we can estimate how far an object is, which is called. “Retinal Disparity.”
- Also, the depth cues requiring both eyes are called, “Binocular Cues”
- The depth cues such as interposition or linear that can be done by one eye is called, “Monocular Cues”
- Our brain usually determines motion such as moving away from you as the size decreases, or it gets closer as it comes closer.
- Also, our brain doesn’t just catch movement as a video but starts illusion of it moving when it flashes more than 24 times in a second which is called Phi Phenomenon
- As a top-down process, we might be perceiving objects unchanging even though it is.
- Color Constancy: The color that is same can be altered by the relative objects surrounding it which is also described by brightness constancy
Shape and Size Constancy
- When we interpret a shape, we usually perceive the form of familiar object such as interpreting door as closed instead of being half opened
Restored vision and Sensory Restriction
- When we gain vision after not being able to see for most of the life, we found that we were able to distinguish color and brightness, but not the form.
- When we are given a lense that distorts the world, we tend to adapt to the environment quickly which other chicks fail to do.
- The color that we receive is not what the object looks like, but what an object reflects.
- These color blind people are not really colorblind, but they are less sensitive towards a certain color.
- We can see the opponent color after staring at certain color and look at white paper
- This is Hering’s opponent-process-theory and has 3 sets of Red-Green, Yellow-Blue, White-Black.
Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
Claim that perception can occur apart from sensory from three main parapsychological concept
- Telepathy: Mind to Mind communication
- Clairvoyance: Perceiving remote events, seeing the event happening in real time.
- Precognition: Perceiving future events
- Study of paranormal things such as ESP and psychokinesis
Parts of Ear
- Outer: Pinna is the outer area which concentrates the sound into the auditory canal
- Middle: As sound vibrates and go through Auditory Canal, it hits 3 small bones, the Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup. These bones make the vibration stronger, and the last bone Stirrup causes the most inner part of membrane to vibrate
- Inner: The membrane that is shaken is called, “Oval Window” and it is connected to Cochlea which is full of fluid. The membrane called the Basilar membrane is in the middle of Cochlea surrounded by the fluids. As Oval window vibrate, Cochlea vibrates causing the Basilar membrane to vibrate that leads to Corti which has hair cell sending neural signals send information to auditory nerve that goes to the hypothalamus and up.
- Taste is one of the earliest sense that opens up to humans which is tasted by which are called, “taste buds”
- Bumps on our tongue are called papillae which has walls made of taste buds.
- There is 4 main taste that we taste, Sweet, Sour, Salty, and Bitter. Also, there is Umami which is a taste of meat or soy related stuff.
- Scientists used to believe that our sense of taste is located in certain part of tongue, but they are actually spread out as they send information to gustatory cortex
- Ability to smell things are called, “Olfactory Sense”
- When we detect odor, the odor gets onto olfactory receptor cells and gets transduced into neural signals.
- Olfactory bulbs which are right below Frontal lobe stretches Cilla out and gathers information right away.
- Gate control theory which is basically a sense of pain has to go through the gate in the spinal code for it to get processed in correct way. Usually, they release substance P for you to feel pain, but substance such as Endorphins can block the pain from coming.
- Eye starts from Cornea and end up in the Retina
- Rods are the receptors that get black and white and also the shadowness
- Meanwhile, Cones are the receptor that gathers color information
- The blind spot exist on the area where it connects to the occipital area.
- Transduction starts by light wave>Cornea>Pupil>Lens>Vitreous humor >Retina >Rods/Cones >Bipolar Cells>Ganglion cells> Optic Nerve> Thalamus>Visual Cortex
Unit 5: States of Consciousness
- Consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and our environment
- It is the fundamental term of psychology
- Therefore very hard to define
- At the beginning, psychology was study of states of consciousness
- 1960, behaviorists defied it, said consciousness is only reflection of what happens in humans
- Now cognition is accepted again as an important part of psychology
- There are many different states of consciousness:
- Hallucinations: false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
- Hypnosis: a social interaction in which one person (the subject) responds to another person’s (the hypnotist’s) suggestions that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
- Increased susceptibility to suggestion
- NOT mind control
- Can help breaking out of disorders (like OCD), phobia, and addiction(maybe not..)
- Not anyone can experience it
- Some are more susceptible than others
- Hypnosis CANNOT enhance recall of forgotten events
- There isn’t a pure perfect memory bank that our conscious don’t have access to. Our brain forgets lots of stuff too
- Hypnotically refreshed memories is not accurate
- Combine facts with fiction
- Hypnosis CANNOT force people to act against their will
- Experiments have found that unhypnotized control group does the same
- Hypnosis CAN be therapeutic
- Posthypnotic suggestions to help
- (Stress related) Skin disorders
- Hypnosis CAN relieve pain
Explaining the Hypnotized State
- Hypnosis as a Social Phenomenon
- Trying to be good subjects
- Hypnosis as a Divided Consciousness
- Made possible by dissociation
- Dissociation: a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
- Also selective attention
Sleep patterns and Sleep Theories
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
- Circadian[ser-KAY-dee-an] rhythm: the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle. (Latin— circa->about, diem->day)
- Our mental abilities are best at the daily peak of circadian arousal (even when we don’t sleep)
- In the early afternoon the temperature drops a little, that’s when people take siestas
- Age affects our circadian rhythm
- Transition start roughly at 20
- - Need alarm & enjoy naps
- - Most productive around 6pm & at their best 1pm - 10pm
- - TEND to be extroverted and creative
- - Evening meals mean they are more likely to suffer from obesity
- - Rarely need an alarm clock
- - Most alert around noon & happiest between 9am & 4pm
- - TEND to be introverted & logical
- - Tend to eat breakfast 30 mins after waking
- - Tend to get higher grades
- 90 minutes cycle with 4 distinct sleep stages
- Sleep: periodic, natural loss of consciousness—as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
- Alpha waves: the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
- NREM sleep: non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
- The moment of falling asleep
- perception of outside stimulus shuts down
- Might experience hallucinations
- Hallucinations: false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
- Likes sensations of falling (body suddenly jerk)
- About 20 minutes
- Sleep spindles: bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity in NREM-2
- About 30 minutes
- Deep sleep
- Slow-wave sleep
- Emits delta waves
- Delta waves: the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
- REM sleep: rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
- About an hour after you fall asleep
- Return through NREM-2 (from NREM-3)
- Heart rate rise
- Breathing rapid
- Energetic brain activities
- Sexually aroused
- Motor cortex active
- Paralyzed -> sleep paralysis
- REM rebound: the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.
- Dream: a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind
- Manifest Content: according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
- Latent Content: according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream
- As the night goes on, REM and NREM-2 grows longer and REM-3 gets shorter before disappearing altogether
- What Affects Our Sleep Patterns?
- Morning light sets our circadian clock
- Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): a pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm. In response to light, the SCN causes the pineal gland to adjust melatonin production, thus modifying our feelings of sleepiness
- Insomnia: recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
- Narcolepsy: a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
- Sleep Apnea: a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
- Night terror: a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
The influence of Psychoactive Drug
- Psychoactive Drug: Chemical substances that alter thinking, perception, memory or some combination of those abilities.
- Physical Dependence: inability to function normally without the drug
- Needs larger and larger quantities of drug
- Mild headache to severe pain
- Cause negative reinforcement
- Classical conditioning to context of drug consumption can worsen it
- Use of operant conditioning can help
- Not only conditioning and learning, but reward pathway creating more receptors and developing Drug tolerance
- Psychological Dependence: the belief that the drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being
- Rewarding properties of using drug cause positive reinforcement
- Lowering anxiety cause negative reinforcement
- Can last forever
- Any drug can cause it
- Effects of drugs depends on the particular neurotransmitter the drug affects.
- Drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system
- Drugs that cause either the sympathetic division or the central nervous system (or both) to increase levels of functioning, at least temporarily.
- Do not give more energy, but burn up what’s there
- Stimulants that are synthesized in laboratories rather than being found in nature
- ex) Benzedrine, Methedrine, and Dexedrine
- Related compound: methamphetamine
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
- Crystalline form
- “Recreational” drug
- Sympathetic nervous system go overdrive
- Traits of fight or flight response
- When energy runs out, people “crash”
- Want more drugs to get “up”
- Amphetamine psychosis
- Nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, stroke
- Delusional and paranoid
- Likely violence
- Natural drug found in coca plant leaves
- Euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure
- Used commonly until the danger was known
- May cause conversions in first time use
- Increase dopamine levels in brain’s reward pathway
- Reduce stress
- In coffee, tea, sodas, chocolate, etc
- Drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system
- Most commonly used and abused depressant
- Depressant that gives illusion of stimulation
- Lowers the natural inhibitions (“don’t” of behavior)
- Stimulate the release of GABA
- Stimulate receptor sites for endorphins
- Suppress the sensation of pain and create euphoria
- All based on opium
- Used to control withdrawal symptoms (does not create euphoria)
- Drugs that alter perceptions and may cause hallucinations
- LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
- Phenyl cyclohexyl piperidine
- Can be a hallucinogen, stimulant, depressant, or an analgesic (painkilling) drug depending on the dosage
- Stimulatory hallucinogenics
- Cause release and block reuptake of large amounts of serotonin
- From plant called Cannabis sativa
- Contain the substance THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)
Unit 6: Learning
:the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
- Cognitive learning: acquire mental information that guides behavior by observing or through language *two pages later
- Observational learning: learn from other’s experience
- Associative learning: learn that certain events occur together
- Association between stimuli
- NS ⇒ CR (US⇢UR, NS⇢R | NS+US⇢UR, CS⇢CR)
- Pavlov’s(behaviorism: objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes +Watson) classic experiment
- high-order(second-order) conditioning-> new NS ⇒ new CS
(ex. Tone predicts food-> light predict tone ∴ respond to light alone)
- Extinction: diminished responding
- Spontaneous recovery: appearance of formerly extinguished response
↔ Discrimination: learned ability to distinguish CS & other stimuli
- Associate own actions with consequences
- Edward Thorndike's law of effect: favorable consq. = more likely
- Operant chamber(Skinner box): act out reinforcement
- Shaping: reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations (successive approximations) of the desired behavior
- Discriminative stimulus: stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement
Reinforcement: consequence that strengthens behavior
Punishment: administers an undesirable consequence or withdraws something desirable to decrease the frequency
- Primary reinforcers: innately satisfying-no learning required, biological need (ex. Receiving food when hungry or having nausea end during an illness)
- Conditioned(secondary) reinforcers: satisfying because we have learned to associate them with more basic rewards
- Immediate reinforcers: offer immediate payback ↔ delayed reinforcers
Reinforcement schedule: defines how often a response will be reinforced
- Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing desired responses every time they occur
- Learning rapid, but so is extinction
- Partial(intermittent) reinforcement: reinforcing response only sometimes
- Initial learning slower, but much more resistant to extinction
Biofeedback: a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state
Biological Constraints on Conditioning
- Violate US must immediately follow CS
- Taste aversion
Instinctive drift (back to instinct)
Cognitive processes affect classical & operant conditioning
- Learn predictability of event(expectancy)
- cognitive mapping: mental representation of the layout of one’s environment
- latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
- insight(sudden realization of a problem’s solution) learning
- Driving extrinsic motivation(desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment) can undermine intrinsic motivation
Learning and Personal Control
- Coping: alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
- Problem-focused coping: alleviate stress directly- by changing the stressor or the way we interact with it
- Emotion-focused coping: alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to stress reactions
- learned helplessness: the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns
- Internal locus of control(perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate)- achieve more, enjoy better health, happier than- external locus of control(perception that you control your own fate)
- Self-control: the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards requires willpower
Observational learning(social learning): learn by observing others, experience X
- Modeling: process of observing and imitating specific behavior
- Albert Bandura- Bobo doll experiment
- Mirror neurons: frontal lobe neurons that have demonstrated ability to mirror the activity of another’s brain (physical X)
- Enable imitation and empathy(theory of mind)
- behavior modeled is prosocial(positive, constructive, helpful) or antisocial(ex) TV shows & Internet(-> media violence)
Unit 7: Cognition
- the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.
- the processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning.
- the process of retaining encoded information over time.
- the process of getting information out of memory storage
- the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving
- the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
- activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
- the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
- a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
- memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory.)
- encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
- unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
- retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory)
- a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
- a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
- organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
- memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
- the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
- enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning
- encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words
- encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention
- a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
- a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
- an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
- a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
- a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
- a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again.
- the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
- the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
Serial position effect
- our tendency to recall best the last (a recency effect) and first items (a primacy effect) in a list
- an inability to form new memories.
Retrograde amnesia- an inability to retrieve information from one's past
- the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
- the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
- in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
- incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
- attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories
- that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
- all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
- a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
- a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
- the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
- narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution.
- expands the number of possible problem solutions (creative thinking that diverges in different directions)
- a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier--but also more error-prone--use of heuristics
- a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
- a sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
- a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
- a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
- Intuition is a person's capacity to obtain or have direct knowledge and/or immediate insight, without observation or reason. It's the "gut feeling" you get. People often place an enormous amount of faith on their intuition, even making decisions that seem to go against all available evidence
- judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
- estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
- the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
- clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
- the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
- our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
- in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
- in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
- in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. In a given language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences
- beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
- the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
- beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements
- early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--"go car"--using mostly nouns and verbs
- impairment of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
- controls language expression--an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
- controls language reception--a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
- Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Unit 8: Motivation and Emotion
Motivation: What “moves” people to do whatever they do.
Extrinsic Motivation: Doing something because you get reward from performing such action
Intrinsic Motivation: Doing something because you like to do such thing.
There is also factor known as instinct which is something we know without being learned. Examples are instinct to reproduce or protect your baby.
In early psychology, many attempted to just list out the instincts that people have such as instinct to run away. However, they didn’t care much about why they tend to form.
Other field focused on needs and desires.
Their main point was that organism has basic needs which creates tension if not fulfilled. So, they tend to fulfill the need to remove tension, and this tension is identified as the drive.
Drive Reduction Theory: Connection between internal physiological state and outward behavior.
- Primary drives: Basic survival needs such as hunger.
- Acquired (secondary) drives: learned through experience or conditioning such as social approval or cigarette.
- This theory use theory of homeostasis as organisms try to maintain their body at the good position.
McClelland’s Theory: Affiliation, Power, and Achievement needs
- Seek for Positive social interaction with others.
- They hope to be liked and respected by others.
- Want to have influence over others and impact towards them
- Value status and prestige
- Seeks for achievement in really challenging things.
- Value their actions and take pride in them
Carol Dweck’s Theory
- Need for Achievement is highly associated with personality factors.
- Believing intelligence is fixed and unchangeable shows external locus of control.
- People believing in an external locus of control tend to give up more and avoid the situation they will fail, which is similar to learned helplessness as they feel like they are destined to fail without trying.
- Believing that intelligence can be changed and you can improve shows an internal locus of control.
- People believing in internal locus of control tend to try harder and likes to challenge themselves until they succeed.
Drive-Reduction: Negative feedback loop. (The push to behave)
- Organisms are deprived
- This creates a need
- The need activates the drive to reduce need
Other motivators (arousal theory)
Even in the absence of needs. Monkey and children still explore.
Humans are motivated to obtain an optimal level of arousal.
People don’t want to be bored, but we don’t want to be anxious either.
People who are in too much anxiety tends to perform not that well, and if you are too relaxed, you perform less as well. (Yerkes Dodson’s law)
McClelland’s Theory: Affiliation, Power, and Achievement needs
- Seek for Positive social interaction with others.
- They hope to be liked and respected by others.
- Want to have influence over others and impact towards them
- Value status and prestige
- Seeks for achievement in really challenging things.
- Value their actions and take pride in them
Hierarchy of Needs: Deficiency Needs which are essential needs which we need to fulfill. After that, we have being needs such as self actualization.
- Physiological needs: Basic needs for our survival (Thirst, hunger, and shelter)
- Safety: Consistency of life (consistency without fear of certain features of harm)
- Love and Belonging: Need to get and give love (family)
- Self-Esteem: Being recognized, valued, believing that you can achieve something, and acknowledged by others. (accepted to college)
- Self-Actualization: Optimal goal of life (Achieving your potential)
- Self Transcendence: Something which you can’t reach (exceeding your potential)
Physiological components of hunger (Cannon and Washburn’s study) → The stomach
The experiment putted the balloon inside the stomach which records everytime the stomach contracts. Subject of the experiment pressed button to say that they are hungry everytime the stomach contracted.
Lateral Hypothalamus seems to make the organism consume food.
Ventromedial Hypothalamus seems to make organisms fill full, and not eat.
A Major source of energy of body is glucose. There is a certain setpoint for average weight of an organism which determines how much should they eat. (If body reaches below or beyond this point, the body tries to rebound back to the setpoint.)
Basal Metabolic Rate: amount of measure used to maintain body functions when body is at rest
- We tend to eat more when eating with others.
- Food variety also stimulates eating which is why we eat more when we are at buffet.
- Also, if the food serving size is larger, we tend to feel less guilty when eating food.
- Sleep loss leads to obesity due to lack of leptin and ghrelin controlling body.
- Changing food consumption increase obesity
- Also, work which deals with less physical movements leads to more obesity as well as fewer calories are burned throughout.
- Due to modern day people increasing obesity as time goes on, changes in genetics also leads to more obesity in later life as well.
Sexual Response Cycle: Four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson.
- Excitement: Genitals become filled with blood.
- Plateau: Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure increase. Fluids are released to enable conception.
- Orgasm: Factors reach their max, and women positions uterus to receive sperm, and draw sperm inwards. Women don’t only deal with intercourse, but also retention of deposited sperm.
- Resolution: Body goes back to unaroused state which occurs faster if orgasm took place, and goes slowly if not. The refractory period is a period that has to be taken for re-arousal, can be minute or up to days for men, and not long for women.
Sexual Dysfunction: Problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
- Inability to maintain erection
- Women: Female orgasmic disorder
- Infrequently or never experiencing orgasm
- 4/10 women reported such problem, but ⅛ said that it caused problem to them.
- Some has Paraphilli such as
- Exhibitionism: Being aroused by showing yourself
- Fetishism: Being aroused by a certain object
- Pedophilia: Being aroused by children
Hormones and Sexual Behaviors
- Estrogens: Owned mostly by females, and they are released mostly during ovulation for animals.
- Testosterone: Owned mostly by males, and stimulates growth of male sex organ, and influence sexual behavior.
- Sexual arousal and needs decrease as sexual hormones decrease
- External stimuli such as erotic picture can lead to arousal of men and women.
- As they get exposed to these stimuli a lot, the reactivity lessens, or in terms they habituate.
- False information about sex might be given by pornography, and dissatisfaction with the real-life person or situation might happen.
Imagined Sexual Stimuli
- We can still have sexual desire even if we don’t have sensation of our genital.
- Also, as our brain functions, all men can have sexual dream, and 40% of the women do have sexual dream which sometimes causes nocturnal emission.
- 95% of both sexes have sexual fantasy, but men have it more often and prefer more faster-paced content.
Emotions: Response of the whole organism, involving
- Physiological arousal
- Expressive behaviors
- Conscious experience
- Embodied Emotion
- It seems as though there are little difference in emotions reaction by our body
- We might cry due to being happy, scared, sad, and more.
- Even the brain part is similar, and only a professional may be able to differ the emotions felt by a person
- Polygraphs: Lie detector is a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion
- Usually able to tell lie and truth
- Polygraph of multiple bodily reactions such as heartbeat is organized, and lying usually leads to fluctuating of polygraph.
- Detecting Emotion in Others
- Usually use the facial structure of the person to see
- We usually have tendency to pick out anger faster than other emotions
- Gender Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior
- Women has better intuition on people’s emotion than males
- This might be due to their natural tendency to protect children? But it is still in the air
- Women also show more emotion on their faces though their actual emotional feeling might be same
- Culture and Emotional Expression
- People from different cultures have different gestures that means different meaning.
- By what people are actually showing using body language we interpret their faces differently
- The Effects of Facial Expressions
- Facial Feedback Effect: The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger or happiness
- Health Psychology: A subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavior medicine
Stress: Process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
- Positive Effects of Stress
- Motivates us to conquer problems.
- Mobilize immune system to fend off infection.
- Overcoming stress will lead to stronger self-esteem
- Negative Effects of Stress
- They can get elevated rates of circulatory, digestive, respiratory, and infectious disease.
- They have high possibility of gaining heart related disease.
- Significant Life Changes
- Daily Hassles
Stress leads to Glucocorticoid stress hormones such as cortisol to secrete. (In fight or flight scenario, epinephrine is the one handing out guns; glucocorticoids are the ones drawing up blueprints for new aircraft carriers.”
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Hans Selye’s theory of how people react to stress
- Alarm: Your nervous system is suddenly activated, and SNS starts to activate as well.
- Resistance: SNS summons all the resources such as epinephrine to fight back stressor
- Exhaustion: With no relief from stress, body reserves to run out. With exhaustion, you become more vulnerable to illness.
Stress leads to telomere (end tip of chromosome) shortening. If the telomeres get too short, the cell can no longer divide, and dies. (Part of aging system).
Tend-and-befriend response: Under stress, people (especially women tends to provide support, and bond with others.
Psychophysiological illness: Mind-body illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
Psychoneuroimmunology: Study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
Lymphocytes: Two types of white blood cells that are part of body’s immune system
- B lymphocytes: matures in bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections
- T lymphocytes: form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, virus, and even the good ones.
Over functioning might lead to attacking body’s own tissues while under functioning might lead to other disease forming more easily.
Stress suppresses immune functioning
- Stress Makes your body weaker
- Surgical wounds tend to heal slower
- Vulnerable to colds and other diseases
- Stress and Susceptibility to Disease
- HIV could run faster on stressed people causing AIDS to occur faster than normal people
- Lower stress means stronger fighting chance against HIV
- Stress and Cancer: By having higher level of stress, your immune system weakens causing less cells to kill the cancer cells and the likes.
- Stress and Heart Disease:
- Coronary heart Disease: The clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries
Different types of person who deals with stress differently
TYPE A: Basically workaholics. Very competitive and easily gets annoyed. Tries to do a lot of things at the same time, and leads to various success, but has frequent dissatisfaction. They face difficulties in sitting there and doing nothing. Has 3 times the chance of getting a heart disease.
TYPE B: They are easygoing, and slow to anger. They can relax without guilt.
TYPE C: They are pleasant and tries to keep peace. However, they tend to hide their emotions which might lead to negative stress hormones stack up in the body, leading to cancer.
TYPE H: Hardy people have deep sense of commitment towards what they do. They feel very secure, and when something goes wrong, instead of getting stressed and enraged, they face it as a challenge and work hard to overcome it.
James-Lange theory: You laugh, so you are happy (You might cry while laughing)
Cannon-Bard theory: When certain stimulus hit us, our sympathetic nervous system and feeling hit at the same time. (When the cold wind hits their face, they realize it is cold while shivering)
(Walter Cannon: the balloon guy)
Two factor (Singer & Schachter): Consist of 2 factor, body arousal, then conscious arousal, then label what the feeling is, then the spillover effect.
LeDoux & Zajonc: Emotion response involves without consciousness. More matched with James and Cannon.
Lazarus: Event, then interpretation, then the emotional response, then the bodily response.
Unit 9: Developmental Psychology
Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn
- Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues
- Developmental psychology: a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
- 1. Nature and Nurture
- 2. Continuity and stages: What parts of development are gradual and continuous, like riding an escalator? What parts change abruptly in separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?
- 3. Stability and change: Which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age?
- Biological, psychological, and social cultural forces interact
- Experience and learning:Development is a slow, continuous shaping process
- Biological maturation: development is a sequence of genetically predisposed stages or steps
- Everyone passes through the stages in the same order
- The speed can vary
- Jean Piaget: cognitive development
- Lawrence Kohlberg: moral development
- Erik Erikson: psychological development
- We experience both of them
- We cannot predict all of our eventual traits based on our early years of life
- Social attitudes → less stable
- Life requires both stability and change
- Prenatal Development and the Newborn
- Woman’s ovary releases a mature egg
- A man produces sperm cells at puberty
- Race to reach the egg and release digestive enzymes that eat away its protective coating
- First one → the egg blocks out the others
- The egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse
- Zygote: the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
- embryo: the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
- Fetus: The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
- Teratogens: agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
- Fetal alcohol syndrome: physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking
- In severe cases, signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial features
- Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
- As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
- fetuses adapted to vibrating, hoking device placed on their mother’s abdomen
Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development
- Maturation: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
- The decrees many of our commonalities
- From infancy on, brain and mind- neural hardware and cognitive software- develop together
- Your nervous system was immature
- Liked with thinking, memory, and language
- Last cortical areas to develop
- The developing brain enables physical coordination
- There are individual differences in timing
- Genes guid motor development
- Maturation creates our readiness to learn walking at about age 1
- Brain Maturation and Infant Memory
- Apart from constructed memories based on photos and family stories, we consciously recall little from before age 4
- Yet our brain was processing and storing information during those early years.
- Carolyn Rovee-Collier: observed nonverbal infant memory
Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
- Cognition: All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
- Studied children’s cognitive development.
- Child’s mind is not a miniature model of an adult’s.
- Children reason differently than adults, in wildly illogical ways about problems whose solutions are self-evident to adults
- Child’s mind develops through a series of stages, in an upward march from the newborn’s simple reflexes to the adult’s abstract reasoning power.
- Driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences.
- Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
- Assimilation: interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
- Accommodation: adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
- The stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
- Object permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
- Baby physics
- Baby math (Karen Wynn)
- The stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
- From about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age
- Conversation: the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
- Egocentrism: the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view
- People’s ideas about their own and others’ mental stages
- About their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
- Experiment (testing children’s theory of mind)
- Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty understanding that Sally’s state of mind differs from their own
- Deaf children with hearing parents and minimal communication opportunities have had similar difficulty inferring others’ states of mind
- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors
- High-functioning: more intelligence and exceptional skill or talent in a specific area
- Children exposed to high levels of the male sex hormone testosterone in the womb may develop more masculine and autistic traits
- Girls are naturally predisposed to be empathizers
- Better at reading facial expressions and gestures
- Concrete Operational Stage
- the stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
- From about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age
- During this stage, children become able to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation
- The stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
- Normally beginning about age 12
- An alternative Viewpoint: Lev vygotsky’s Scaffolding
- Lev vygotsky - also studies how children think and learn
- By age 7, they increasingly think in words and use words to solve problems
- By internalizing their culture’s language and relying on inner speech
- Emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with social environment
- Piaget’s child: young scientist
- vygotsky’s : a young apprentice
- A child’s zone of proximal development was the zone between what a child can and can’t do
- Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory
- Child typically reach specific milestones than on their sequence
- Human cognition unfolds basically in the sequence Piaget described
- Today’s researchers see development as more continuous than did Piaget
- They see formal logic as a smaller part of cognition than he did
- Implication for Parenting and Teaching
- Young children are incapable of adult logic
- Children are not passive receptacles waiting to be filled with knowledge
- Engage them in concrete demonstrations and stimulations
- Accept children’s cognitive immaturity as adaptive
Infancy and Childhood: Social Development
- 8 month develop stranger anxiety
- The fear of strangers that infants commonly display
- Have schemas for familiar faces
- The brain, mind, and social-emotional behavior develop together
- Attachment: an emotional tie with another person
- Shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
- Infants become attached to those who satisfies their nourishment
- Much parent-infant emotional communication occurs via touch
- One person provide another with a secure base and safe haven shift
- To parents to peers and partners
- In many animals, attachments based on familiarity firn during a critical period
- Critical period: an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development
- Konrad Lorenz explored this rigid attachment process called imprinting
- Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early-life critical period
- Attachment Differences: Temperament and Parenting
- Mary Ainsworth- strange situation experiment
- Observed mother-infant pairs at home during their first 6 months
- Secure attachment- sensitive, responsive mothers
- Insecure attachment- insensitive, unresponsive mothers
- Anxiety or avoidance of trusting relationships
- Temperament: a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
- Infants who lack a caring mother are said to suffer maternal deprivation
- Fathering a child - impregnanting
- Mothering a child - nurturing
- Father’s involvement in parenting still influences the child’s health and achievement
- Attachment Styles and Later Relationships
- Developmental theorist Erik Erikson believed that securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust
- Basic trust: according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
- Said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
- Deprivations of Attachment
- Babies locked away at home under conditions of abuse or extreme neglect are often withdrawn, frightened, even speechless.
- The unloved may become the unloving
- Some 30 percent of people who have been abused later abuse their children
- Most abused children do not later become violent criminals or abusive parents
- Extreme early trauma nevertheless leave footprints on the brain
- Abused children exhibit hypersensitivity to angry faces.
- As adults, they exhibit stronger startle responses
- At ages 4 and a half to 6, children who had spent the most time in day care had slightly advanced thinking and language skills
- All children need a consistent, warm relationship with the people whom they can learn to trust
- By the end of childhood, at about age 12, most children have developed a self-concept
- Self-concept: all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”
- Self-awareness begins when we recognize ourselves in a mirror
- 6 months, children reach out to touch their mirror image as if it were another child
- By 15-18 months, they begin to touch their own noses when they see the colored spot in the mirror
- 18-months-old have a schema of how their face should look, and the wonder, “what is that spot doing on my face?”
- Effects of Children’s views of themselves on their action
- Form positive self concept → confident, independent, optimistic, assertive, and sociable
- Impose rules and expect obedience
- Parents submit to their children’s desires. They make few demands and use little punishment
- Both demanding and responsive. Control by setting rules and enforcing them
- Children with the highest self-esteem, self- reliance, and social competence usually have warm, concerned, authoritative parents
- Association between parenting and childhood outcomes are correlational, not causation.
- Children’s traits may influence parenting
- Some underlying third factor may be at work
- Culture and Child Raising
- child -raising practices reflect cultural values that vary across time and place
- Many Asians and Africans live in cultures that value emotional closeness
- Infants and toddlers may sleep with their mothers and spend their days close to a family member
- Strong sense of family self
- Before or at your birth, your sex helped define your gender
- Gender: the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female
- How Are We Alike? How Do We Differ?
- Men admit to more aggression than women do
- Aggression: any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
- Women may be slightly more likely to commit acts of relational aggression, such as passing along malicious gossip
- Men’s tendency to behave more aggressively can be seen in experiments where they deliver what the believe are more painful electric shocks
- Gender difference in aggression
- Fighting, violent crime, and blowing things up are mostly men’s activities
- People perceive such power differences between men and women.
- As leaders, men tend to be more directive, even autocratic.
- Women tend to be more democratic, more welcoming of subordinates’ input in decision making
- Gender and Social Connectedness
- Research by Carol gilligan
- Struggle describes Western individualist males more than relationship-oriented females
- Women take more pleasure in talking face to face
- They more often use conversation to explore relationships
- Men enjoy doing activities side by side and tend to use conversation to communicate solutions
- Women worldwide have oriented their interests and vocations more to people and less to things.
- The Nurture of Gender: Our Culture
- We can see culture’s shaping power in gender roles
- Gender role: a set of expected behaviors for males or for females
- Role: a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
- How Do We Learn to Be Male or Female?
- Gender identity: our sense of being male or female
- Social learning theory: the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
- Assumes that children acquire this identity by observing and imitating others’ gender-linked behaviors and by being rewarded or punished for acting in certain ways themselves
- Parental modeling and rewarding of male-female differences aren’t enough to explain gender typing
- The way some children seem more attuned than others to traditional male or female roles
- Gender typing: the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
- Transgender people’s gender identity or gender expression differs from that typical of their birth sex
- Transgender: an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex
Parents, Peers, and Early Experiences
- Experience and Brain Development
- Experience affects brain development
- Mark Rosenzweig, David Krech, and their colleagues raised rats either alone in an environment without playthings, or with other rats in an environment enriched with playthings changed daily
- In 14 or 16 repetitions of this basic experiment, rats in the enriched environment developed significantly more cerebral cortex than did those in the impoverished environment
- A well-learned finger tapping task activates more motor cortex neurons than were active in the same brain before training
- How Much Credit or Blame Do Parents Deserve
- The power of parenting is clearest a the extremes
- The abused children who become abusive, the neglected who become neglectful, the loved but firmly handled who become self-confident and socially competent
- Also appears in the academic and vocational success
- Yet in personality measures, shared environmental influences from the womb onward typically account for less than 10 percent of children’s differences
- As we develop, we play, date, and partner with peers
- Children and youths are so sensitive and responsive to peer influences
Adolescence: Physical and Cognitive Development
- Adolescence starts with the physical beginnings of sexual maturity and ends with the social achievement of independent adult status
- Adolescence: the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
- Vitality without the cares of adulthood
- Rewarding friendship
- Heightened idealism
- Growing sense of life’s exciting possibilities
- Surge of hormones. Intensify mood
- Physical changes in puberty is far more predictable than their timing
- Stronger and more athletic during their early teen years -- popular, self-assured, independent, more at risk of alcohol use, delinquency, premature sexual activity.
- Begin associating with older adolescents or may suffer teasing or sexual harassment
- Brain cells increase their connections
- During adolescence comes a selective pruning of unused neurons and connections
- As teens mature, their frontal lobes also continue to develop
- Growth of myelin (speed neurotransmission) enables better communication with other brain regions
- Improve judgment, impulse control, and long-term planning
- Frontal lobe lags behind that of the emotional limbic system
- Hormonal surge & limbic system development -- teen’s occasional impulsiveness, risky behaviors, emotional storm
- Frontal lobe will continue maturing until about age 25.
- Developing Reasoning Power
- Jean Piaget- formal operations
- Adolescents achieve intellectual summit
- Apply their new abstract reasoning tools to the world around them.
- Piaget -- Children’s moral judgements build on their cognitive development
- Lawrence Kohlberg sought to describe the development of moral reasoning: the thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong.
- Jonathan Haidt- much of our morality is rooted in moral intuitions - “quick gut feelings, or affectively laden intuitions.”
- Personal dilemma engaged emotions that altered moral judgement
- Morality involves doing the right things, and what we do also depends on social influences
- As children’s thinking matures, their behavior also becomes less selfish and more caring
- Delay gratification -- social responsible, academically successful, and productive
- Moral action feeds moral attitudes
Adolescence: Social Development and Emerging Adulthood
- Theorist Erik Erikson - search for identity
- Identity: our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
- Social identity: the “we” aspect of our self-concept
- The part of our answer to “Who am I” that comes from our group memberships
- Key task of adolescence is to achieve a purpose- a desire to accomplish something personally meaningful that makes a difference to the world beyond oneself
- Erikson - the adolescent identity stage is followed in young adulthood by a developing capacity for intimacy
- Intimacy: the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
- Enjoy high-quality relationship with family and friends → enjoy high-quality romantic relationships in adolescence
- Parent and Peer Relationships
- Positive parent-teen relations → positive peer relations
- Online communication stimulates intimate self-disclosure -- bothe for better and for worse
- Those who withdraw are vulnerable to loneliness, low self-esteem, and depression
- Independence put on hold until after graduation
- Delayed independence has overlapped with an earlier onset of puberty
- Girls’ Earlier sexual maturity → increased body fat, weakened parent-child bonds
- The time from 18 to the mid-twenties is an increasingly not-yet-settled phase of life, which some now call emerging adulthood
- Emerging adulthood: for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
- Prenatal Sexual Development
- You received an X chromosome from your mother
- X chromosome: the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child
- From your father, you received the one chromosome that is not unisex
- The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
- Y chromosome includes a single gene
- Seven weeks after conception, throws a master switch triggering the testes to develop and to produce the principal male hormone
- Testosterone: the most important of the male sex hormones
- Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in the male stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
- Adolescent Sexual Development
- Pronounced physical differences emerge during adolescence, when boys and girls enter puberty and mature sexually
- Puberty: the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
- During the growth spurt, the primary sex characteristics develop dramatically
- Primary sex characteristics develop dramatically
- The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
- Secondary sex characteristics
- Nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
- Puberty’s landmarks are the first ejaculation in boys, usually by about age 14, and the first menstrual period in girls, usually within a year of age 12.5.
- Menarche: the first menstrual period
- Variations on sexual Development
- Atypical hormone exposure or sensitivity may cause atypical fetal development
- In combination with the environment, sex-related genes and physiology result in behavioral and cognitive differences between males and females
- Nature and nurture work together
- Sexually Transmitted Infections
- Condoms have been 80 percent effective in preventing transmission of HIV
- HIV: human immunodeficiency virus: the virus that causes AIDS
- AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome
- A life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.
- Depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections
- Most people recently diagnosed with aids in the united states have been ages 25 to 44
- There is a significant link between oral sex and transmission of STIs, such as HPV
- What environmental factors contribute to teen pregnancy?
- Minimal communication about birth control
- Guilt related to sexual activity
- Alcohol use
- Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity
- The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health among 12,000 teens found several factors predicted sexual restraint
- High intelligence
- Religious engagement
- Father presence
- Participation in service learning programs
- We express the direction of our sexual interest in our sexual orientation
- Sexual orientation: an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex, the other sex, or both sexes
- Homosexual people often struggle with their sexual orientation
- Women’s tends to be less strongly felt and may be more variable
- Men’s lesser erotic plasticity is apparent in many ways
- Environment and Sexual Orientation
- Biology and Sexual Orientation
- Evidence of homosexuality in other species
- Gay-straight brain differences
- Prenatal hormones
- Same-sex attraction in other species
- Some degree of homosexual behavior seems a natural part of the animal world
- Gay-Straight Brain Differences
- “The cell cluster was reliably larger in heterosexual men than in women and homosexual men”
- Brains differ with sexual orientation
- Everything psychological is simultaneously biological
- Other researchers have reported additional gay-straight brain activity differences
- Genes that dispose women to be strongly attracted to men, and therefore to have more children, also dispose some men to be attracted to men
- Genes influence sexual orientation
- Have altered a single gene and changed the flies’ sexual orientation and behavior
- Prenatal influences
- Gay-straight differences
- Gay men tend to be shorter and lighter than straight men
- Gay-straight spatial abilities also differ
Unit 10: Personality
: an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Free association: method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and action to unconscious motives and conflicts
- Technique used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tension
Unconscious: reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes , feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
Id: reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives
- operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
Ego: largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality.
- operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather pain
Superego: part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement(the conscience) and for future aspirations
55-3 developmental stages Freud proposed?
Psychosexual stages: childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Oedipus Complex: boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father(said to develop during phallic stage)
Identification: process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos(repress the threatening feelings)
Fixation: lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, which conflicts were resolved (before 6 strong conflict could lock the pleasure-seeking energies)
Defense Mechanisms: ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Repression: basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Collective unconscious: Carl Jung’s concept of shared, inherited reservoir of memory(archetypes) traces from our species’ history
- Contemporary psychodynamic theorists and therapists reject Freud’s emphasis on sexual motivation.
- They stress, with support from modern research findings, the view that much of our mental life is unconscious, and they believe that our childhood experiences influence our adult personality and attachment patterns.
- Projective tests(psychological X-ray) attempt to assess personality by showing people vague stimuli with many possible interpretations; answers reveal unconscious motives
(such as the Rorschach)
- Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
- Rorschach inkblot test: most widely used, set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing interpretations of the blots; has low reliability and validity
- false consensus effect(tendency to overestimate the extent to which other share our beliefs and our behaviors)/ projection and terror management(theory of death-related anxiety; explores people’s emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death)
(transcendence at the top)
Abraham Maslow Proposed...
- human motivations form a hierarchy of needs
- if basic needs are fulfilled, people will strive toward self-actualization(ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; motivation to fulfill potential) and self-transcendence
- Studied healthy, creative people rather than troubled clinical case
Carl Roger proposed…
- person-centered perspective: the ingredients of a growth-promoting environment are genuineness, acceptance (including unconditional positive regard: attitude of total acceptance toward another person), and empathy
- Self-concept: all thoughts and feelings about ourselves; “Who am I?”
(central feature of personality for both Maslow and Rogers)
Social-cognitive perspective: view behaviors as influenced by interaction by the interaction between people’s traits(including thinking) and their social context(situation)
⇒ Albert Bandura
Behavioral approach: (in personality theory) focuses on the effects of learning on our personality development
Social-cognitive theorists consider behavioral perspective: social influence + cognition
Reciprocal determinism: interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment (Bandura)
Self: in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions
- Hazel Markus- possible selves(can motivate us toward positive development)
Spotlight effect: overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders(as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
High Self-esteem(one’s feelings of high or low self-worth) is beneficial, but unrealistically high self-esteem is dangerous and fragile, can lead to aggressive behavior
↔ Self-efficacy: sense of competence
Self-Serving Bias: readiness to perceive oneself favorably
Narcissism: excessive self-love and self-absorption
Unit 11: Testing and Individual Differences
Standardization and Norms
- the test items have been piloted on a similar population of people as those who are meant to take the test
- achievement norms have been established
- Standardization sample
- those people taking a standardized test on a certain day
they are fairly representative of the entire population who will take that test
- the purpose of tests is to distinguish between people
- the goal of standardization is to yield equivalent exams
Reliability and Validity
- randomly divide a test into two sections
- correlate people’s performance on the two halves
correlation coefficient: the closer to +1, the more reliable
- equivalent-form reliability
- test is available in several equivalent forms
- the correlation between performance on the different forms of the test
- the correlation between a person’s score on one administration of the test with the same person’s score on another administration
- a test can be reliable and not valid, but not vice versa
- content validity
- how well a measure reflects the entire range of material it is supposed to be testing
- face validity
- a superficial measure of accuracy
- Criterion-related validity
- concurrent validity
- measures how much of a characteristic a person now has
- predictive validity
- a measure of future performance
- construct validity
- if a measure of perfect validity exists, we can correlate performance on it with a new measure
- the higher the correlation, the more construct validity the new measure has
Types of tests
- aptitude vs. Achievement
- aptitude tests
- measure ability and potential
- achievement tests
- measure what one has learned or accomplished
- a test that exclusively measures one is impossible
- speed vs. power
- speed test
- consist of a large number of questions asked in a short amount of time
- the goal is to see how quickly you can solve problems
- power test
- consist of items of increasing difficulty
- sufficient time given
- Goal - to determine ceiling difficulty level
- group vs. individual
- group test
- administered to a large number of people at once
- interaction between examiner and test makers minimal
- less expensive, more objective
- individual tests
- involve greater interaction between examiner and examinee
- Theories of Intelligence
- Fluid vs. Crystallized
- Fluid intelligence
- our ability to solve abstract problems and pick up new information and skills
- decreases with age
- Crystallized intelligence
- involves using knowledge accumulated over time
- may increase with age
- Charles Spearman
- Intelligence can be expressed as a single factor
- used factor analysis
- s- specific abilities that people regard as different types of intelligence
- g- general. underlies every s
- L.L. Thurstone and J.P. Guilford
- primary mental abilities theory
- intelligence is comprised of seven main abilities
- over 100 mental abilities exist
- Howard Gardner
- multiple intelligences
- linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist
- Daniel Goleman
- emotional intelligence
- similar to interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence
- Robert Sternberg
- Sternberg’s Triarchic theory
- three types of intelligence
- componential/analytic intelligence
- ability to compare and contrast, explain, and analyze
- experimental/creative intelligence
- ability to use knowledge and experiences in new, innovative ways
- contextual/practical intelligence
- street smarts
- ability to apply what you know to real world situations
- Intelligence Tests
- Stanford-Binet IQ Test
- Alfred Binet
- created a standardized test to identify which children needed special attention
- mental age
- an idea that supposes that intelligence increases with age
- average 10 year old has mental age of 10
- Louis Terman
- a Stanford professor
- used Binet’s system to create the concept of IQ and the test
- how to measure IQ
- (mental age ÷ chronological age) x 100
- all adults = age 20
- The Weschler
- Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
- used for adults
- Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
- used for ages 6-16
- Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)
- used for children as young as four
- Yields scores:
- based on deviation IQ
- mean = 100
- standard deviation = 15
- Eleven subscales
- verbal- 6 combined
- performance IQ- 5
- total IQ- 11
- Nature vs. Nurture
- how much of a trait’s variation results from genetic factors
- ranges from 0 to 1
- 0 = environment totally responsible
- 1 = totally genetic
Unit 12: Abnormal Behavior
Psychological disorder- a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD)- a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Medical model- the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
DSM-5- the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
Anxiety disorders- psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Generalized anxiety disorder- an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Panic disorder- an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Often followed by worry over a possible next attack
Phobia- an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation
Social anxiety disorder- intense fear of social situations, leading to avoidance of such. (Formerly called social phobia)
Agoraphobia- fear or avoidance of situations, such as crowds or wide-open places, where one has felt loss of control and panic
Obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD)- a disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD)- a disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
Posttraumatic- positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
Mood disorders- psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder
Major depressive disorder- a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure
Dysthymia- A type of depression involving long-term, chronic symptoms that are not disabling, but keep a person from functioning at "full steam" or from feeling good.
Mania- a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
Bipolar disorder- a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder)
Rumination- compulsive fretting; over thinking about our problems and their causes
Schizophrenia- a psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished or inappropriate emotional expression
Psychosis- a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
Delusion- false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
Hallucination- false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Somatic symptom disorder- a psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause. (See conversion disorder and illness anxiety disorder)
Conversion disorder- a disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found. (Also called functional neurological symptom disorder)
Illness anxiety disorder- a disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. (Formerly called hypochondriasis.)
Dissociative disorders- disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Dissociative identity disorder(DID)- a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder
Anorexia nervosa- an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight
Bulimia nervosa- an eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting
Binge-eating disorder- significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa
Personality disorder- psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Antisocial personality disorder- a personality disorder in which a person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
Seasonal affective disorder- depression that recurs yearly around the same time.
Unit 13: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Psychotherapy- treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.
Biomedical Therapy- prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person's physiology
Eclectic approach- an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
Psychoanalysis- Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences--and the therapist's interpretations of them--released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
Resistance- in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
Interpretation- in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
Transference- in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
Psychodynamic Therapy- therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight.
Insight therapies- a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses.
Client-centered therapy- a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy)
Active listening- empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
Unconditional positive regard- a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.
Behavior therapy- therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
Counterconditioning- behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; include exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
Exposure therapies- behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid
Systematic desensitization- a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
Virtual reality exposure therapy- an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
Aversive conditioning- a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
Token economy- an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
Cognitive therapy- therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)- a confrontational cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, that vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions
Cognitive-behavioral therapy(CBT)- a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
Group therapy- therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction
Family therapy- therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
Regression toward the mean- the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average
Meta-analysis- a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
Evidence-based practice- clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
Therapeutic alliance- a bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client, who work together constructively to overcome the client's problem
Resilience- the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma
Psychopharmacology- the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
Antipsychotic drugs- drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.
Antianxiety drugs- drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
Antidepressant drugs- drugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. (Several widely used antidepressant drugs are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors--SSRIs)
Electroconvulsive therapy(ECT)- a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient (treat depression)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)- the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
Psychosurgery- surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
Lobotomy- a psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.
Unit 14: Social Psychology
- Social Cognition
- we constantly gather data and make predictions about what will happen next so we can act accordingly(whether we perceive it consciously or unconsciously)
- Attitude Formation and Change
- a set of beliefs and feelings
- Mere Exposure Effect
- just the mere action of being exposed to something, the more you will like it
- Persuasive Messages
- central route to persuasion
- involves deeply processing the content of the message
- peripheral route to persuasion
- involves other aspects of the message
- ex) the appearance of the communicator
- The Relationship between Attitude and Behavior
- Lapiere 1934
- showed that attitude do not perfectly predict behavior
- Cognitive Dissonance Theory
- People always want their attitude and behaviors to be consistent with each other.
- when the two are not consistent, people experience dissonance(unpleasant mental tension)
- Compliance Strategies
- compliance strategies
- strategies to get others to comply your wishes
- Foot in the door phenomenon
- if you can get people to agree to a small request, they will become more likely to agree to a larger follow-up request
- Door in the face strategy
- After people refuse a large request they will look more favorably upon a smaller follow-up request
- Norms of reciprocity
- Tendency to think that when someone does something nice for you, you should do something nice in return
- Attribution Theory
- to explain how people determine the causes of what they observe
- Dispositional/Person attribution
- the cause is due to the person’s innate qualities
- Situational attribution
- a situational factor is the cause
- Stable attribution
- the cause is something that has always been that way
- Unstable attribution
- the cause is always changes depending on the situation
- Harold Kelley’s Theory
- Explains the kind of attributions we make on:
- how similarly the individual acts in the same situation over time
- how similar this situation is to others we have seen the person in
- asks us to consider how others would have responded in the same situation
- important for determining whether to make person or situation attribution
- Self-fulfilling prophecy
- the expectation we have about others can influence their behavior
- the more you desire something, the more you will act accordingly to obtain that something(unconsciously)
- Attributional Biases
- Fundamental Attribution Error
- people overestimate the importance of dispositional factors
- people underestimate the role of situational factors
- more common in individualistic cultures
- less common in explaining your own behaviors
- False-consensus effect
- the tendency to overestimate the number of people who agree with you
- Self-Serving Bias
- the tendency to take more credit for good outcomes than bad
- Just world bias
- thinking that bad things happen to bad people
- Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination
- ideas about what members of different groups are like
- may influence the way we interact with members of these groups
- an undeserved attitude toward a group of people
- the belief that your culture is superior to others
- acting on your prejudices
- Out-group homogeneity
- the tendency to see members of the in-group as more diverse than members of the out-group
- your own group
- all other groups
- In-group Bias
- a preference for members of your own group
- Origin of Stereotypes and Prejudice
- Social Learning Theorists
- learned through modeling
- many prejudiced people have prejudiced parents
- Cognitive process of categorization
- people cannot avoid magnifying differences between groups
- Combating Prejudice
- Contact theory
- contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity
- if the groups are made to work toward a superordinate common goal
- Aggression and Antisocial Behavior
- instrumental aggression
- the aggressive act is intended to secure a particular end
- Hostile aggression
- has no clear purpose
- theoretical causes
- exposure to aggressive models
- linked aggression to Thanatos
- the death instinct
- Social biologists
- the expression of aggression is adaptive under certain circumstances
- Frustration-Aggression hypothesis
- the feeling of frustration makes aggression more likely
- Prosocial behavior
- prosocial behavior
- people helping one another
- bystander intervention
- the conditions under which people are more or less likely to help someone in trouble
- diffusion of responsibility
- the larger the group of people who witness a problem, the less responsible any one individual feels to help
- fundamental principle
- we like others who
- are similar to us
- with whom we come into frequent contact
- who return our positive feelings
- reciprocal liking
- sharing a piece of personal information with another person
- The influence of others on an Individual’s behaviors
- social Facilitation
- the presence of others improves task performance
- social impairment
- the presence of others hurts task performance if the task is difficult
- the tendency to go along with the views or actions of others
- Obedience Studies
- focus on the willingness of participants to do what another asks
- the Milgram Experiment 1974
- told participants it was a study about teaching and learning
- participants were told to administer “electric shocks”
- over 60% delivered all possible levels of shock
- this experiment showed how people were obedient to a superior person even though they were shocking other subjects against their wills.
- Group Dynamics
- rules about how group members should act
- Specific roles
- Social Loafing
- When individuals do not put in as much effort when acting as part of a group as they do when acting alone
- Group polarization
- the tendency of a group to make more extreme decisions than the group members would make individually
- The tendency for some groups to make bad decisions
- Group members suppress their reservations about the ideas the group supports
- Group members feel anonymous and aroused
- Loss of self restraint
- People do things they never would have done on their own
- Stanford Prison Experiment
- Philip Zimbardo
- Simulated prison
- half the students were assigned as guards and the rests were prisoners
- observed how the guards treated the prisoners.