AP PSYCHOLOGY STUDY GUIDE

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BEST WAY TO GET A 5!

Unit 1: History and Approaches

Empiricism: the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

Structuralism: early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

Functionalism: early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

Experimental Psychology: the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

Behaviorism: the view that psychology 1. Should be an objective science that 2. Studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1. but not with 2.

Humanistic Psychology: a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people

Cognitive Neuroscience: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

Psychology: the science of behavior and mental processes

Nature-Nurture Issue: the long standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

Natural Selection: the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

Biopsychosocial approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

Behavioral psychology: the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

Biological psychology: the scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes

Cognitive psychology: the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

Evolutionary psychology: the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection

Psychodynamic psychology: a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

Social-cultural psychology: the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.

Developmental psychology: a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan

Personality psychology: the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

Psychologist

Wilhelm Wundt

William James

Sigmund Freud

B.F. Skinner

Carl Rogers

Jean Piaget

Charles Darwin

Mary Whiton Calkins

Unit 2: Research Methods

Research Methods

Unit 3: Biological Bases of Behavior

Key Figures (bolded in the text)

Biological Psychology: the scientific study of the links between biological(genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes.(Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists)

Neuron: a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

Communication of Neurons

Endorphins: “morphine within”—natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.

Agonist: a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, stimulates a response.

Antagonist: a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, inhibits or blocks a response.

Nervous system: the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.

The Endocrine System

Tools for examining brains

Structure of Brain

The Brain’s Plasticity

Our Divided Brain

Right hemisphere

Left hemisphere

Physical control

Left side of body

Right side of body

Task

Perceptual task

Speaking or calculating

Language

Making inferences and modulate our speech (like breaks in sentences)

Almost all: processing speech and making literal interpretations

Others

Orchestrate sense of self

Behavior genetics: the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

Twin and Adoption Studies

Heritability

Experience and genes interact to make traits

Evolutionary psychology: the study of the evolution of behavior and min, using principles of natural selection.

Unit 4: Sensation and Perception

Sensation and Perception

Sensation:

Automatically translated feeling that you just get by the sensory motor.

(Wind touching your face, and odor being released)

Perception:

When people give meaning towards some sensation

(Old man touching you and young baby touching you feels different)
Face Blindness:

Not being able to recognize difference of faces

(We can’t recognize difference of cows, but recognize humans)

Two ways of processing

        Bottom Up

        Top Down

Selective Attention

Cocktail party effect: You are listening to all the conversation that is going on, but something that has a relationship with you will lead you to get tuned into the thing.

(You can hear your friend calling your name in a loud auditorium)

Selective Inattention

        Inattentional blindness

        Change Blindness

Transduction (Three steps to sensory system)

Threshold (Point when it is determined to do certain action or not)

Absolute Threshold  

        Difference Thresholds

Minimum Threshold for us to feel something

Sensory Adaptation

Perceptual Test

Context Effects

Emotion and Motivation

Visual Organization

When given multiple sensations towards you, people tend to have them in Gestalt which means organized whole. Basically getting pieces of information to form a meaningful whole.

Form Perception

        Figure and Ground

        Grouping

Depth Perception

Motion perception

Perceptual Constancy

Shape and Size Constancy

Restored vision and Sensory Restriction

Perceptual Adaptation

Color Vision

Vision Deficient

After Image

Extrasensory Perception (ESP)

Claim that perception can occur apart from sensory from three main parapsychological concept

Parapsychology

Parts of Ear

Taste

Smell

Touch

Sight

Unit 5: States of Consciousness

Defining Consciousness

Hypnosis

Explaining the Hypnotized State

Sleep patterns and Sleep Theories

Biological Rhythms and Sleep

Sleep disorders

The influence of Psychoactive Drug

Concept Map:

Unit 6: Learning

:the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors

Classical conditioning

  • Association between stimuli
  • NS ⇒ CR (US⇢UR, NS⇢R | NS+US⇢UR, CS⇢CR)
  • Pavlov’s(behaviorism: objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes +Watson) classic experiment
  • Acquisition
  • high-order(second-order) conditioning-> new NS ⇒ new CS

(ex. Tone predicts food-> light predict tone ∴ respond to light alone)

  • Extinction: diminished responding
  • Spontaneous recovery: appearance of formerly extinguished response

↔ Discrimination: learned ability to distinguish CS & other stimuli

Operant conditioning

  • Associate own actions with consequences
  • Edward Thorndike's law of effect: favorable consq. = more likely
  • Operant chamber(Skinner box): act out reinforcement
  • Shaping: reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations (successive approximations) of the desired behavior
  • Discriminative stimulus: stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement

Reinforcement: consequence that strengthens behavior

Punishment: administers an undesirable consequence or withdraws something desirable to decrease the frequency

  • Primary reinforcers: innately satisfying-no learning required, biological need (ex. Receiving food when hungry or having nausea end during an illness)
  • Conditioned(secondary) reinforcers: satisfying because we have learned to associate them with more basic rewards
  • Immediate reinforcers: offer immediate payback ↔ delayed reinforcers

Reinforcement schedule: defines how often a response will be reinforced

  • Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing desired responses every time they occur
  • Learning rapid, but so is extinction
  • Partial(intermittent) reinforcement: reinforcing response only sometimes
  • Initial learning slower, but much more resistant to extinction

  • Token economy

Biofeedback: a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state

Biological Constraints on Conditioning

John Garcia

Instinctive drift (back to instinct)

Cognitive processes affect classical & operant conditioning

Learning and Personal Control

Observational learning(social learning): learn by observing others, experience X

Unit 7: Cognition

Memory

Encoding

Storage

Retrieval

Parallel Processing

Sensory Memory

Short-term memory

Long-term memory

Working memory

Explicit memory

Effortful processing

Automatic processing

Implicit memory

Iconic memory

Echoic memory

Chunking

Mnemonics

Spacing effect

Testing effect

Shallow processing

Deep processing

Hippocampus

Flashbulb memory

Long-term potentiation

Recall

Recognition

Relearning

Priming

Mood-congruent memory

Serial position effect

Anterograde amnesia

Retrograde amnesia- an inability to retrieve information from one's past

Proactive interference

Retroactive interference

Repression

Misinformation effect

Source amnesia

Déjà vu

Cognition

Concept

Prototype

Creativity

Convergent thinking

Divergent thinking

Algorithm

Heuristic

Insight

Confirmation bias

Mental set

Intuition

Representativeness heuristic

Availability heuristic

Overconfidence

Belief perseverance

Framing

Language

Phoneme

Morpheme

Grammar

Babbling stage

One-word stage

Two-word stage

Telegraphic speech

Aphasia

Broca’s area

Wernicke’s area

Linguistic determinism

Unit 8: Motivation and Emotion

Motivation: What “moves” people to do whatever they do.

Extrinsic Motivation: Doing something because you get reward from performing such action

Intrinsic Motivation: Doing something because you like to do such thing.

There is also factor known as instinct which is something we know without being learned. Examples are instinct to reproduce or protect your baby.

In early psychology, many attempted to just list out the instincts that people have such as instinct to run away. However, they didn’t care much about why they tend to form.

Other field focused on needs and desires.

Their main point was that organism has basic needs which creates tension if not fulfilled. So, they tend to fulfill the need to remove tension, and this tension is identified as the drive.

Drive Reduction Theory: Connection between internal physiological state and outward behavior.

  1. Primary drives: Basic survival needs such as hunger.
  2. Acquired (secondary) drives: learned through experience or conditioning such as social approval or cigarette.
  3. This theory use theory of homeostasis as organisms try to maintain their body at the good position.

McClelland’s Theory: Affiliation, Power, and Achievement needs

  1. Affiliation
  1. Seek for Positive social interaction with others.
  2. They hope to be liked and respected by others.
  1. Power
  1. Want to have influence over others and impact towards them
  2. Value status and prestige
  1. Achievement
  1. Seeks for achievement in really challenging things.
  2. Value their actions and take pride in them

Carol Dweck’s Theory

  1. Need for Achievement is highly associated with personality factors.
  1. Believing intelligence is fixed and unchangeable shows external locus of control.
  1. People believing in an external locus of control tend to give up more and avoid the situation they will fail, which is similar to learned helplessness as they feel like they are destined to fail without trying.
  1. Believing that intelligence can be changed and you can improve shows an internal locus of control.
  1. People believing in internal locus of control tend to try harder and likes to challenge themselves until they succeed.

Drive-Reduction: Negative feedback loop. (The push to behave)

  1. Organisms are deprived
  2. This creates a need
  3. The need activates the drive to reduce need


Other motivators (arousal theory)

Even in the absence of needs. Monkey and children still explore.

Humans are motivated to obtain an optimal level of arousal.

People don’t want to be bored, but we don’t want to be anxious either.

People who are in too much anxiety tends to perform not that well, and if you are too relaxed, you perform less as well. (Yerkes Dodson’s law)

McClelland’s Theory: Affiliation, Power, and Achievement needs

  1. Affiliation
  1. Seek for Positive social interaction with others.
  2. They hope to be liked and respected by others.
  1. Power
  1. Want to have influence over others and impact towards them
  2. Value status and prestige
  1. Achievement
  1. Seeks for achievement in really challenging things.
  2. Value their actions and take pride in them

Hierarchy of Needs: Deficiency Needs which are essential needs which we need to fulfill. After that, we have being needs such as self actualization.

  1. Physiological needs: Basic needs for our survival (Thirst, hunger, and shelter)
  2. Safety: Consistency of life (consistency without fear of certain features of harm)
  3. Love and Belonging: Need to get and give love (family)
  4. Self-Esteem: Being recognized, valued, believing that you can achieve something, and acknowledged by others. (accepted to college)
  5. Self-Actualization: Optimal goal of life (Achieving your potential)
  6. Self Transcendence: Something which you can’t reach (exceeding your potential)

Physiological components of hunger (Cannon and Washburn’s study) → The stomach

The experiment putted the balloon inside the stomach which records everytime the stomach contracts. Subject of the experiment pressed button to say that they are hungry everytime the stomach contracted.

Lateral Hypothalamus seems to make the organism consume food.

Ventromedial Hypothalamus seems to make organisms fill full, and not eat.

A Major source of energy of body is glucose. There is a certain setpoint for average weight of an organism which determines how much should they eat. (If body reaches below or beyond this point, the body tries to rebound back to the setpoint.)
Basal Metabolic Rate: amount of measure used to maintain body functions when body is at rest

Environmental factors

Sexual Response Cycle: Four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson.

  1. Excitement: Genitals become filled with blood.
  2. Plateau: Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure increase. Fluids are released to enable conception.
  3. Orgasm: Factors reach their max, and women positions uterus to receive sperm, and draw sperm inwards. Women don’t only deal with intercourse, but also retention of deposited sperm.
  4. Resolution: Body goes back to unaroused state which occurs faster if orgasm took place, and goes slowly if not. The refractory period is a period that has to be taken for re-arousal, can be minute or up to days for men, and not long for women.

Sexual Dysfunction: Problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.

Hormones and Sexual Behaviors

External Stimuli

Imagined Sexual Stimuli

Emotions: Response of the whole organism, involving

  1. Physiological arousal
  2. Expressive behaviors
  3. Conscious experience

  1. Embodied Emotion
  1. It seems as though there are little difference in emotions reaction by our body
  1. We might cry due to being happy, scared, sad, and more.
  1. Even the brain part is similar, and only a professional may be able to differ the emotions felt by a person
  1. Polygraphs: Lie detector is a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion
  1. Usually able to tell lie and truth
  2. Polygraph of multiple bodily reactions such as heartbeat is organized, and lying usually leads to fluctuating of polygraph.

Expressed Emotions

  1. Detecting Emotion in Others
  1. Usually use the facial structure of the person to see
  2. We usually have tendency to pick out anger faster than other emotions
  1. Gender Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior
  1. Women has better intuition on people’s emotion than males
  1. This might be due to their natural tendency to protect children? But it is still in the air
  1. Women also show more emotion on their faces though their actual emotional feeling might be same
  1. Culture and Emotional Expression
  1. People from different cultures have different gestures that means different meaning.
  2. By what people are actually showing using body language we interpret their faces differently
  1. The Effects of Facial Expressions
  1. Facial Feedback Effect: The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger or happiness
  2. Health Psychology: A subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavior medicine

Stress: Process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.

Stressors

Stress leads to Glucocorticoid stress hormones such as cortisol to secrete. (In fight or flight scenario, epinephrine is the one handing out guns; glucocorticoids are the ones drawing up blueprints for new aircraft carriers.”

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Hans Selye’s theory of how people react to stress

  1. Alarm: Your nervous system is suddenly activated, and SNS starts to activate as well.
  2. Resistance: SNS summons all the resources such as epinephrine to fight back stressor
  3. Exhaustion: With no relief from stress, body reserves to run out. With exhaustion, you become more vulnerable to illness.

Stress leads to telomere (end tip of chromosome) shortening. If the telomeres get too short, the cell can no longer divide, and dies. (Part of aging system).

Tend-and-befriend response: Under stress,  people (especially women tends to provide support, and bond with others.

Psychophysiological illness: Mind-body illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.

Psychoneuroimmunology: Study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.

Lymphocytes: Two types of white blood cells that are part of body’s immune system

Over functioning might lead to attacking body’s own tissues while under functioning might lead to other disease forming more easily.

Stress suppresses immune functioning

  1. Stress Makes your body weaker
  1. Surgical wounds tend to heal slower
  2. Vulnerable to colds and other diseases
  1. Stress and Susceptibility to Disease
  1. HIV could run faster on stressed people causing AIDS to occur faster than normal people
  2. Lower stress means stronger fighting chance against HIV
  3. Stress and Cancer: By having higher level of stress, your immune system weakens causing less cells to kill the cancer cells and the likes.
  4. Stress and Heart Disease:
  1. Coronary heart Disease: The clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries

Different types of person who deals with stress differently

TYPE A: Basically workaholics. Very competitive and easily gets annoyed. Tries to do a lot of things at the same time, and leads to various success, but has frequent dissatisfaction. They face difficulties in sitting there and doing nothing. Has 3 times the chance of getting a heart disease.

TYPE B: They are easygoing, and slow to anger. They can relax without guilt.

TYPE C: They are pleasant and tries to keep peace. However, they tend to hide their emotions which might lead to negative stress hormones stack up in the body, leading to cancer.

TYPE H: Hardy people have deep sense of commitment towards what they do. They feel very secure, and when something goes wrong, instead of getting stressed and enraged, they face it as a challenge and work hard to overcome it.

James-Lange theory: You laugh, so you are happy (You might cry while laughing)

Cannon-Bard theory: When certain stimulus hit us, our sympathetic nervous system and feeling hit at the same time. (When the cold wind hits their face, they realize it is cold while shivering)

(Walter Cannon: the balloon guy)

Two factor (Singer & Schachter): Consist of 2 factor, body arousal, then conscious arousal, then label what the feeling is, then the spillover effect.

LeDoux & Zajonc: Emotion response involves without consciousness. More matched with James and Cannon.

Lazarus: Event, then interpretation, then the emotional response, then the bodily response.

Unit 9: Developmental Psychology

Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn

Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development

 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development

Infancy and Childhood: Social Development

Gender development

 Parents, Peers, and Early Experiences

 Adolescence: Physical and Cognitive Development

Adolescence: Social Development and Emerging Adulthood

Sexual Development

Unit 10: Personality

: an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

Free association: method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and action to unconscious motives and conflicts

Unconscious: reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes , feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.

Personality structure

Id: reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives

Ego: largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality.

Superego: part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement(the conscience) and for future aspirations

Personality Development

55-3 developmental stages Freud proposed?

Psychosexual stages: childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

Oedipus Complex: boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father(said to develop during phallic stage)

Identification: process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos(repress the threatening feelings)

Fixation: lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, which conflicts were resolved (before 6 strong conflict could lock the pleasure-seeking energies)

Defense Mechanisms: ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

Repression: basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

Collective unconscious: Carl Jung’s concept of shared, inherited reservoir of memory(archetypes) traces from our species’ history

        (such as the Rorschach)

        

(transcendence at the top)

Abraham Maslow Proposed...

Carl Roger proposed…

(central feature of personality for both Maslow and Rogers)

Social-cognitive perspective: view behaviors as influenced by interaction by the interaction between people’s traits(including thinking) and their social context(situation)

Albert Bandura

Behavioral approach: (in personality theory) focuses on the effects of learning on our personality development

Social-cognitive theorists consider behavioral perspective: social influence + cognition

Reciprocal determinism: interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment (Bandura)

Self: in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions

Spotlight effect: overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders(as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)

High Self-esteem(one’s feelings of high or low self-worth) is beneficial, but unrealistically high self-esteem is dangerous and fragile, can lead to aggressive behavior

↔ Self-efficacy: sense of competence

Self-Serving Bias: readiness to perceive oneself favorably

Narcissism: excessive self-love and self-absorption

Unit 11: Testing and Individual Differences

Standardization and Norms

Standardized test

they are fairly representative of the entire population who will take that test

Psychometricians

Principles

Reliability and Validity

Reliability

correlation coefficient: the closer to +1, the more reliable

Validity

  1. a test can be reliable and not valid, but not vice versa
  2. content validity
  1. how well a measure reflects the entire range of material it is supposed to be testing
  1. face validity
  1. a superficial measure of accuracy
  1. Criterion-related validity
  1. concurrent validity
  1. measures how much of a characteristic a person now has
  1. predictive validity
  1. a measure of future performance
  1. construct validity
  1. if a measure of perfect validity exists, we can correlate performance on it with a new measure
  2. the higher the correlation, the more construct validity the new measure has

Types of tests

  1. aptitude vs. Achievement
  1. aptitude tests
  1. measure ability and potential
  1. achievement tests
  1. measure what one has learned or accomplished
  1. a test that exclusively measures one is impossible
  1. speed vs. power
  1. speed test
  1. consist of a large number of questions asked in a short amount of time
  1. the goal is to see how quickly you can solve problems
  1. power test
  1. consist of items of increasing difficulty
  2. sufficient time given
  3. Goal - to determine ceiling difficulty level
  1. group vs. individual
  1. group test
  1. administered to a large number of people at once
  2. interaction between examiner and test makers minimal
  3. less expensive, more objective
  1. individual tests
  1. involve greater interaction between examiner and examinee
  1. Theories of Intelligence
  1. Fluid vs. Crystallized
  1. Fluid intelligence
  1. our ability to solve abstract problems and pick up new information and skills
  2. decreases with age
  1. Crystallized intelligence
  1. ​involves using knowledge accumulated over time
  2. may increase with age
  1. Charles Spearman
  1. Intelligence can be expressed as a single factor
  2. used factor analysis
  1. conclusion
  1. s- specific abilities that people regard as different types of intelligence
  2. g- general. underlies every s
  1. L.L. Thurstone and J.P. Guilford
  1. Thurstone
  1. primary mental abilities theory
  1. intelligence is comprised of seven main abilities
  1. Guilford
  1. over 100 mental abilities exist
  1. Howard Gardner
  1. multiple intelligences
  1. linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist
  1. Daniel Goleman
  1. emotional intelligence
  1. similar to interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence
  1. Robert Sternberg
  1. Sternberg’s Triarchic theory
  2. ​three types of intelligence
  3. componential/analytic intelligence
  1. ​ability to compare and contrast, explain, and analyze
  1. ​experimental/creative intelligence
  1. ability to use knowledge and experiences in new, innovative ways
  1. ​contextual/practical intelligence
  1. ​street smarts
  2. ability to apply what you know to real world situations
  1. Intelligence Tests
  1. ​Stanford-Binet IQ Test
  1. ​Alfred Binet
  1. ​Frenchman
  2. ​​created a standardized test to identify which children needed special attention
  3. mental age
  1. ​an idea that supposes that intelligence increases with age
  2. average 10 year old has mental age of 10
  1. ​​Louis Terman
  1. ​a Stanford professor
  2. ​​used Binet’s system to create the concept of IQ and the test
  3. how to measure IQ
  1. ​(mental age ÷ chronological age) x 100
  1. ​all adults  =  age 20
  1. ​​The Weschler
  1. ​Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
  1. ​used for adults
  1. ​Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
  1. ​used for ages 6-16
  1. ​Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)
  1. ​used for children as young as four
  1. ​Yields scores:
  1. ​based on deviation IQ
  1. ​mean = 100
  2. standard deviation = 15
  1. ​​​​Eleven subscales
  1. ​verbal- 6 combined
  2. performance IQ- 5
  3. total IQ- 11
  1. Nature vs. Nurture
  1. Heritability
  1. how much of a trait’s variation results from genetic factors
  2. ranges from 0 to 1
  1. 0 = environment totally responsible
  2. 1 = totally genetic

Unit 12: Abnormal Behavior

Psychological disorder- a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD)- a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

Medical model- the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital

DSM-5- the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

Anxiety disorders- psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

Generalized anxiety disorder- an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

Panic disorder- an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Often followed by worry over a possible next attack

Phobia- an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation

Social anxiety disorder- intense fear of social situations, leading to avoidance of such. (Formerly called social phobia)

Agoraphobia- fear or avoidance of situations, such as crowds or wide-open places, where one has felt loss of control and panic

Obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD)- a disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)

Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD)- a disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

Posttraumatic- positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises

Mood disorders- psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder

Major depressive disorder- a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure

Dysthymia-  A type of depression involving long-term, chronic symptoms that are not disabling, but keep a person from functioning at "full steam" or from feeling good.

Mania- a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

Bipolar disorder- a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder)

Rumination- compulsive fretting; over thinking about our problems and their causes

Schizophrenia- a psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished or inappropriate emotional expression

Psychosis- a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

Delusion- false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

Hallucination- false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

Somatic symptom disorder- a psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause. (See conversion disorder and illness anxiety disorder)

Conversion disorder- a disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found. (Also called functional neurological symptom disorder)

Illness anxiety disorder- a disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. (Formerly called hypochondriasis.)

Dissociative disorders- disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.

Dissociative identity disorder(DID)- a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder

Anorexia nervosa- an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight

Bulimia nervosa- an eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting

Binge-eating disorder- significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa

Personality disorder- psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

Antisocial personality disorder- a personality disorder in which a person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist

Seasonal affective disorder- depression that recurs yearly around the same time.

Unit 13: Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Psychotherapy- treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.

Biomedical Therapy- prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person's physiology

Eclectic approach- an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy

Psychoanalysis- Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences--and the therapist's interpretations of them--released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight

Resistance- in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material

Interpretation- in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.

Transference- in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)

Psychodynamic Therapy- therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight.

Insight therapies- a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses.

Client-centered therapy- a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy)

Active listening- empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy

Unconditional positive regard- a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.

Behavior therapy- therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors

Counterconditioning- behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; include exposure therapies and aversive conditioning

Exposure therapies- behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid

Systematic desensitization- a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias

Virtual reality exposure therapy- an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking

Aversive conditioning- a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)

Token economy- an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.

Cognitive therapy- therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions

Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)- a confrontational cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, that vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions

Cognitive-behavioral therapy(CBT)- a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)

Group therapy- therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction

Family therapy- therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members

Regression toward the mean- the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average

Meta-analysis- a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

Evidence-based practice- clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences

Therapeutic alliance- a bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client, who work together constructively to overcome the client's problem

Resilience- the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma

Psychopharmacology- the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

Antipsychotic drugs- drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.

Antianxiety drugs- drugs used to control anxiety and agitation

Antidepressant drugs- drugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. (Several widely used antidepressant drugs are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors--SSRIs)

Electroconvulsive therapy(ECT)- a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient (treat depression)

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)- the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.

Psychosurgery- surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior

Lobotomy- a psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.

Unit 14: Social Psychology

  1. Social Cognition
  1. we constantly gather data and make predictions about what will happen next so we can act accordingly(whether we perceive it consciously or unconsciously)
  1. Attitude Formation and Change
  1. Attitude
  1. a set of beliefs and feelings
  1. Mere Exposure Effect
  1. just the mere action of being exposed to something, the more you will like it
  1. Persuasive Messages
  1. central route to persuasion
  1. involves deeply processing the content of the message
  1. peripheral route to persuasion
  1. involves other aspects of the message
  2. ex) the appearance of the communicator
  1. The Relationship between Attitude and Behavior
  1. Lapiere 1934
  1. showed that attitude do not perfectly predict behavior
  1. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  1. People always want their attitude and behaviors to be consistent with each other.
  1. when the two are not consistent, people experience dissonance(unpleasant mental tension)
  1. Compliance Strategies
  1. compliance strategies
  1. strategies to get others to comply your wishes
  1. Foot in the door phenomenon
  1. if you can get people to agree to a small request, they will become more likely to agree to a larger follow-up request
  1. Door in the face strategy
  1. After people refuse a large request they will look more favorably upon a smaller follow-up request
  1. Norms of reciprocity
  1. Tendency to think that when someone does something nice for you, you should do something nice in return
  1. Attribution Theory
  1. Goal
  1. to explain how people determine the causes of what they observe
  1. Types
  1. Dispositional/Person attribution
  1. the cause is due to the person’s innate qualities
  1. Situational attribution
  1. a situational factor is the cause
  1. Stable attribution
  1. the cause is something that has always been that way
  1. Unstable attribution
  1. the cause is always changes depending on the situation
  1. Harold Kelley’s Theory
  1. Explains the kind of attributions we make on:
  1. consistency
  1. how similarly the individual acts in the same situation over time
  1. distinctiveness
  1. how similar this situation is to others we have seen the person in
  1. consensus
  1. asks us to consider how others would have responded in the same situation
  2. important for determining whether to make person or situation attribution
  1. Self-fulfilling prophecy
  1. the expectation we have about others can influence their behavior
  2. the more you desire something, the more you will act accordingly to obtain that something(unconsciously)
  1. Attributional Biases
  1. Fundamental Attribution Error
  1. people overestimate the importance of dispositional factors
  2. people underestimate the role of situational factors
  3. more common in individualistic cultures
  4. less common in explaining your own behaviors
  1. False-consensus effect
  1. the tendency to overestimate the number of people who agree with you
  1. Self-Serving Bias
  1. the tendency to take more credit for good outcomes than bad
  1. Just world bias
  1. thinking that bad things happen to bad people
  1. Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination
  1. stereotypes
  1. ideas about what members of different groups are like
  2. may influence the way we interact with members of these groups
  1. prejudice
  1. an undeserved attitude toward a group of people
  2. Ethnocentrism
  1. the belief that your culture is superior to others
  1. Discrimination
  1. acting on your prejudices
  1. Out-group homogeneity
  1. the tendency to see members of the in-group as more diverse than members of the out-group
  2. in-group
  1. your own group
  1. out-group
  1. all other groups
  1. In-group Bias
  1. a preference for members of your own group
  1. Origin of Stereotypes and Prejudice
  1. Social Learning Theorists
  1. learned through modeling
  1. many prejudiced people have prejudiced parents
  1. Cognitive process of categorization
  1. people cannot avoid magnifying differences between groups
  1. Combating Prejudice
  1. Contact theory
  1. contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity
  1. if the groups are made to work toward a superordinate common goal
  1. Aggression and Antisocial Behavior
  1. types
  1. instrumental aggression
  1. the aggressive act is intended to secure a particular end
  1. Hostile aggression
  1. has no clear purpose
  1. theoretical causes
  1. exposure to aggressive models
  2. Freud
  1. linked aggression to Thanatos
  1. the death instinct
  1. Social biologists
  1. the expression of aggression is adaptive under certain circumstances
  1. Frustration-Aggression hypothesis
  1. the feeling of frustration makes aggression more likely
  1. Prosocial behavior
  1. prosocial behavior
  1. people helping one another
  1. bystander intervention
  1. the conditions under which people are more or less likely to help someone in trouble
  1. diffusion of responsibility
  1. the larger the group of people who witness a problem, the less responsible any one individual feels to help
  1. Attraction
  1. fundamental principle
  1. we like others who
  1. are similar to us
  1. similarity
  1. with whom we come into frequent contact
  1. proximity
  1. who return our positive feelings
  1. reciprocal liking
  1. Self-disclosure
  1. sharing a piece of personal information with another person
  1. The influence of others on an Individual’s behaviors
  1. social Facilitation
  1. the presence of others improves task performance
  1. social impairment
  1. the presence of others hurts task performance if the task is difficult
  1. conformity
  1. the tendency to go along with the views or actions of others
  1. Obedience Studies
  1. focus on the willingness of participants to do what another asks
  2. the Milgram Experiment 1974
  1. told participants it was a study about teaching and learning
  2. participants were told to administer “electric shocks”
  3. over 60% delivered all possible levels of shock
  1. this experiment showed how people were obedient to a superior person even though they were shocking other subjects against their wills.
  1. Group Dynamics
  1. norms
  1. rules about how group members should act
  1. Specific roles
  2. Social Loafing
  1. When individuals do not put in as much effort when acting as part of a group as they do when acting alone
  1. Group polarization
  1. the tendency of a group to make more extreme decisions than the group members would make individually
  1. Groupthink
  1. The tendency for some groups to make bad decisions
  2. Group members suppress their reservations about the ideas the group supports
  1. Deindividuation
  1. Group members feel anonymous and aroused
  2. Loss of self restraint
  3. People do things they never would have done on their own
  1. Stanford Prison Experiment
  1. Philip Zimbardo
  2. Simulated prison
  3. half the students were assigned as guards and the rests were prisoners
  4. observed how the guards treated the prisoners.