NOTES ON FISH STOCKING HISTORIES FOR EAST COAST RIVERS

by Art MacKay

INTRODUCTION

Early involvement in the aquaculture industry, the Atlantic Salmon Federation and several environmental non- profits, led to the accumulation of historical information on the introduction of non-native strains of Atlantic salmon as well as other species of fish, into virtually every major river system along the shores of the Bay Fundy and Gulf of Maine, south to the Connecticut River.

These notes, first compiled about 10 years ago, came to light during a document sort and are being published now because of the concerns currently being expressed about the genetic alterations of Atlantic salmon and the suspected introduction of non-native strains of Atlantic salmon into east coast rivers.

I believe it is important for critics and supporters alike to understand that genetic modifications and foreign introductions have been going on for over 150 years and in many cases these were carried out by the very organizations that criticize current activities. This paper is a compilation of these notes . References sources are given where presently available. Additional references and other notes will be added as files on this topic as they are uncovered.

The information provided here does not extend beyond the late 1990's. There have been many changes in recent years with the development of GMO techniques, the consolidation of salmonid aquaculture, the apparent development of new strains of salmonid diseases , the proliferation of sea lice, and the removal of some stream barriers.

Critics are quick to blame aquaculture for the decline of Inner Bay of Fundy stocks of Atlantic salmon. As can be seen, introduction of foreign stocks and species has been a factor. However, other factors, which are rarely mentioned, have had more serious impacts. These include clear-cutting of the coastal forests, forest sprays, agricultural runoff, the introduction of brine into the coastal waters by the potash companies in Sussex, NB., the possible introduction of foreign sea lice into local waters, mortalities caused by power plants along the migration route, etc.

The problem is much more complex than pointing fingers at a single industry and requires more in-depth considerations.

Art MacKay 9/17/2018

NEW BRUNSWICK RIVERS

Coverage applies only to the New Brunswick side of the Bay of Fundy.

TANTRAMAR RIVER

Conclusion: Run and stocking status unknown.

Background Information: Large barrier constructed - control structure, farmland protection, highway crossing.. Gates completely block flow unless opened manually. Reduced sea trout runs, small gaspereau run, eliminated striped bass run.

PETITCODIAC RIVER

Conclusion: Native stock extirpated.

Background Information: A causeway with fishway was installed between Moncton and Riverview in 1968. Fish runs declined rapidly and spawning runs ceased by 1993 in spite of stocking efforts. Only 5,000 fry came from the last six adults and only 1500 survived a freak chlorine spill. Atlantic salmon were effectively extirpated from the Petitcodiac and it is doubtful that any native stock will be available for rehabilitation, although some stocks from downstream tributaries might provide a close genetic makeup.

Introductions: 1980 - ASF/DFO stocked 91,000 parr culled from hatchery stocks

SHEPODY RIVER

Conclusion: Run and stocking status unknown.

Background Information: 1955 - Large barrier constructed for protection of agricultural land. Reduced salmon run. (Wells, P.G., 1999)

Introductions: Unknown

UPPER SALMON RIVER

Conclusion: Run and stocking status unknown.

Background Information: No barriers. (Wells, P.G., 1999)

Introductions: Unknown

POINT WOLFE RIVER

Conclusion: Run and stocking status unknown.

Background Information: Had a dam and mill at the mouth which is presumed to have impeded fish passage. (Wells, P.G., 1999)

Introductions: Unknown

BIG SALMON RIVER

Conclusion: Likely extirpated

Background Information: Had dam and mill at mouth. Presumed to have impeded fish passage. (Wells, P.G., 1999). Electrophoresis has shown the presence of a brown trout band in Atlantic salmon from the Big Salmon River. (NASRC Reports).

Introductions:

Scottish salmon were introduced in the 1920’s. R. MacKay per.comm.

1993 - 2,000 cage raised smolts of Big Salmon River origin were raised to maturity released into the river and allowed to spawn with the “wild” fish in the stream.

Atlantic salmon 1920's

Scottish Salmon 1976 Scottish salmon introduced. Possibly accounts for brown trout bands in electrophoresis tests of Big Salmon River

Atlantic Salmon smolts 1976 Jessop planted smolts from Miramichi, Restigouche. And ? River parentage. Adults returned.

SAINT JOHN RIVER

Conclusion: Hatchery domestication of original native stock(s) exist today.

Background Information: The Saint John has had a turbulent history as a major salmon river with major impacts being progressive introduced by dams constructed along its length. Nevertheless, the construction of the Mactaquac Hatchery has allowed original native strains to be maintained after a fashion. The Saint John is the only river in the Gulf of Maine which has maintained some level of stock integrity without the influence of many introductions from other rivers. The Mactaquac strain is the strain originally used by the aquaculture industry and is the strain used in contemporary genetic work at Chamcook.

No attempt was made to document the river history in detail.

Introductions:

Chinook Salmon 1881,82 introduced

Rainbow trout 1944 introductions made in Dicks

Chain pickerel circa 1876 Introduced Lake and Crow Brook.

Smallmouth Bass ?? Introduced

1964-66 - Mactaquac Dam established for power generation and flood control. Many other dams upstream. Eg. Beechwood, Tobique, Grand Falls, Edmundston. Power and water control. No fishway at Mactaquac. Some fish trucked above the dam. Many well-documented upstream impacts. (Wells, P.G., 1999)

MUSQUASH RIVER

Conclusion: Native Stock extirpated

Background Information: Concrete dam and power station build at tide head. Presumed impediment to upstream migration. (Wells, P.G., 1999)

Introductions: Unknown

LEPREAU RIVER

Conclusion: Run and stocking status unknown.

Background Information: Natural falls at mouth of river may impede upstream migration. (Wells, P.G., 1999)

Introductions: Unknown

NEW RIVER

Conclusion: Run and stocking status unknown.

Background Information: No barrier, crossed by bridge. (Wells, P.G., 1999)

Introductions: Unknown

MAGAGUADAVIC RIVER

Conclusion: Native stock likely extirpated between early 1900’s and fishway construction in 1928.

Background Information: Barriers have included:

1. Large log dam at the mouth of the river constructed in 1903 - concrete fishway was constructed in 1928. 2. Concrete dam was built in 1934. 3. 8 foot Mill Dam at Flume Ridge - a fish ladder was built in 1937 but destroyed by ice in 1939. It was not

rebuilt. The dam was destroyed by a freshet in the 1960’s. 4. Storage dam at the foot of Magaguadavic Lake. 5. Wood Mill Dam on Northeast Magaguadavic - no fish ladder 6. Another wood and concrete dam was present several hundred yards above the dam above (4).

7. Another wood mill dam was present about one-half mile further upstream from the above dam (5) – no

fishway. 8. Pikahegan Falls are considered a natural barrier to fish passage 9. Wood storage dam at the foot of Kedron Lake - fishway. 10. Wood and concrete dam at outlet to McDougall Lake.

Prior to the construction of the dam at the gorge in 1903, Carr contends salmon gained access to the river by a small stream that bypassed the gorge. Some locals familiar with the river contest this.

Introductions:

NASRC hybrids were stocked in the Magaguadavic (per.comm former hatchery manager) 1970’s - 1980’s

DIGDEGUASH RIVER

Conclusion: Run and stocking status unknown. Likely retains native stock.

Background Information: Natural barrier (falls) with blasted fishway pools at mouth of river. (Wells, P.G., 1999)

Introductions: Unknown

BOCABEC RIVER

Conclusion: Native stock extirpated

Background Information: No local knowledge of recent salmon run. No resident salmon found by ASF during stream survey and counting fence experiments. Two aquaculture fish captures (Whoriskey, 2000)

Introductions:

Smallmouth Bass introduced on unknown date.

CHAMCOOK STREAM

Note: Many experimental salmon have been released at this stream or from the ASF hatchery through cage sites at Lime Kiln Bay and West Isles. These releases could influence many local rivers including: Magaguadavic, Digdeguash, Bocabec. Waweig, St. Croix, Dennis, Cobscook Rivers and others.

Conclusion: Experimental crosses were released into Passamaquoddy Bay and vicinity. These may have bred with stocks in adjacent rivers.

Background Information: The North Atlantic Salmon Research Centre (NASRC) and the Salmon Genetics Research Program (SGRP) were initiatives of the Atlantic Salmon Federation. In recent years the Atlantic Salmon Aquaculture Broodstock Genetics Program (ASABGP) has operated a hatchery since 1997 under the management of Huntsman Marine Science Centre. The facility is leased from the Atlantic Salmon Federation under a ten year lease and Dr. Fred Whoriskey sat on the steering committee on behalf of ASF. The ASABGP was restricted to working with Saint John River wild strain.

Genetics programs began in 1975-76 with broodstock from Mactaquac (Saint John River stock), Dennis Stream (St. Croix River), Big Salmon River, the Magaguadavic River, and Rocky Brook (Miramichi River). Not all records of releases were available. Nevertheless, available references show many crosses and experiments were conducted and many fish of mixed heritage were introduced into Passamaquoddy Bay and vicinity.

Introductions:

Historical introductions of salmonids and other fish in Passamaquody Bay from the ASF hatchery.

Atlantic salmon 1975-76  - SCRP collected broodstock from Mactaquac, Dennis Stream,Big Salmon River, Magaguadavic River and Rocky Brook, Miramichi. Used to produce various crosses for releases.

1976 - SGRP released 19,000 (22,068?) smolts from undesignated families

1977 - SGRP released 50,000 (31,969+17,292?) smolts, from undesignated families

1978 - SGRP released 26,592 smolts from undesignated families

1979 - DFO - Experimental crosses of Atlantic salmon, pink salmon,and rainbow trout were tested in cages at Deer Isand

1979,80 - NASRC hybrids were held in cages at Deer island - some losses occurred

1982 - SGRP released 10,263 experimental smolts

1983 - SGRP released 39,416 + 11,900 experimental smolts

199? - SCRP mixed-sex diploid stock 85XC crosses from sea-ranched returns originated from 7 N.B. rivers, lost from cages in storm. Lime Kiln Bay??(F.M. O’Flynn, et.al)

1991 - Strain 89JC (Saint John strain) sent to sea cages. No numbers. No location specified.

1993 - Strain 87JC (derived from late-run Saint John stock) provided to industry. Will be spawned to provide strain to industry hatcheries in 1995/96. (F.M. O’Flynn, et.al.)

1994 - SGRP analysed release-return stocks, cage escapees and/or strays. No location specified

1995 - Diploid and triploids of strain 85XC sent to a sea cage. No location specified.

1990’s - Smallmouth Bass introduced

INTERNATIONAL ST. CROIX RIVER

Conclusion: Native stock extirpated.

Background Information: Champlain (1804), Kilby (1888), Perley (1852) and others all refer to the large and important runs of anadromous species which once occurred on the St. Croix River. The St. Croix became a major logging area in the late 1700’s and 1800’s and a variety of dams, sluice-ways and other obstructions severely limited fish passage.

Fishways were first built in 1869 and small numbers of fish passed upstream until the 1960’s when severe industrial pollution from a pulp mill in Woodland, Maine effectively hampered upstream movement for an extended period. Kills from direct dumping of “black liquor” and other toxic wastes were observed below the Milltown dam and conditions were so bad that the Canadian Department of Fisheries stated, at a public meeting of the International Joint Commission in September, 1968: “Fisheries surveys carried out during the last six years between Militown and Woodland have shown that, because of the condition of the waters, juvenile salmon cannot survive for even a few hours, and sometimes, not even for a few minutes.”. This led to greater involvement of the IJC and, in recent years. water quality has improved and rehabilitation efforts began.

As shown in the accompanying introduction list, stocking programs began as early as 1897 and donor stocks have been from the Miramichi River and many unknown locations in Maine and Canada.

“The St. Croix used to be a fine salmon river but lost its run in the 1960’s as a result of pollution and barriers to upstream migration.” (R. Saunders, 1978) First dam 1860, at least 2 power dams for pulp and paper mill and 3 others to control water levels. Fishways present. (Wells, P.G., 1999)

Introductions:

Historical introductions of salmonids and other fish in the St. Croix River, Maine/New Brunswick. (From various sources)

Pickerel circa 1820 Introduced from the Penobscot

Smallmouth Bass early 1870’s Forms an important recreational fishery today

1913 - Pink Salmon Part of 7,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1914 - Part of 5,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1915-  Part of ? fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1916 - Part of 6,235,808 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1897 - Atlantic salmon 150,000 - Penobscot (?)

1898 - 137,500 - Penobscot (?)

1926 - 106,000 - Penobscot (?)

1927 - 150,000 - Penobscot (?)

1940 - 5,000 - Unknown source

1949 - 101,000 - Unknown Canadian source

1966 - 51,662 – Miramichi. 94,091 - Maine

1967 - 55,318 – Miramichi. 8,974- Miramichi

1968 - 17,085 – Miramichi. 25,000 - Maine

1976 - 61,000 eggs Magaguadavic stock transplanted

1978 - ?? eggs Magaguadavic stock transplanted

1978 - ?? eggs of Waweig stock planted in Canoose River

1981 - 19,948 - Maine

1981 - (spring) 20,000 - tagged smolts from Green Lake, Maine


NEW ENGLAND RIVERS

DENNYS RIVER

Conclusion: Likely extirpated. If not, greatly influenced by stocked fish from other genetic strains.

Background Information: In the 19th Century, Dennysville supported an active commercial salmon fishery. However, the erection of an impassable dam at Miliseat in 1815 severely restricted access to upriver spawning and nursery areas. Impassable dams were erected at Dennysville and Cathance Stream in 1845. Until their removal in 1930, there are no known records of anadromous fish landings except salmon. In spite of these dams, eggs and fry were stocked periodically from 1875 to 1889 and more or less annually from 1918 to the present. Since there was no passage to areas beyond the dams, it must be assumed that the river was stocked to produce an angling run for the lower river and estuary.

Stocking of the Dennys River has been intense as shown below. Contemporary Fish and Wild- life Service stocking records are appended. The stocking program has continued almost annually since 1975. The source of these stocks were Penobscot, New Brunswick (Miramichi?), Machias and Narraguagus.

Introductions:

Historical introductions of salmonids in the Dennys River, Maine (K.F. Beland, et.al., 1982)

1875 - 20,000

1881 - 3,900

1883 20,000

1884 39,500

1885 40,000

1888 40,000

1889 40,000

1918 21,000

1920 437,500

1921 ?

1922 ?

1923 ?

1924 40,000

1925 - ?

1926 75,000

1927 100,500

1928 100,500

1929 88,725

1936 490,000

1937 30,000

1940 25,500

1942 21,000

1943 11,159

1949 - 5,007

1950 9,945

1951 10,224

1952 20,000

1954 70,653

1955 50,457

1956 45,914

1957 9,915

1958 10,000

1960 94,457

1962 41,473

1965 25,571

1966 63,761

~196 27,000 l~44 9,000

1968 20,506

1972 7,020

1975 3,657

1976 8,908

1978 30,218

1979 10,234

1980 15,216

Historical introductions of pink salmon in the Dennys River, Maine (K.F. Beland, et.al., 1982)

1913 - Pink Salmon Part of 7,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1914 - Part of 5,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1915 - Part of ? fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1916 - Part of 6,235,808 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1916 - Part of 6,235,808 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1922-26 - Eggs collected from returns and fry returned to Dennys and nearby rivers

PLEASANT RIVER

Conclusion: Likely extirpated. If not, greatly influenced by stocked fish from other genetic strains.

Background Information: By 1985 run was almost lost due to netting, poaching, dam mismanagement, a non-functional fish ladder, and neglect. (Lawrence, 1985)

Forester & Atkins (1869), Stillwell & Smith (1879) and Atkins (1887) mentioned dams at Columbia Falls and Addison prevented upriver movement of salmon. Saco Falls was believed to be impassable. The catch declined to 1 fish in 1880. Fish passage was provided at unspecified dates and at Saco falls in 1955. Blueberry sprays and irrigation may influence the watershed.

Introductions:

FWS Stock Report gives stocking sources as follows: Decade of 1910 - Penobscot; Decades of 1950 and 1960 - Narraguagus, Machias, New Brunswick (Miramichi?)

Historical introductions of salmonids in the Dennys River, Maine (Baum, 1982)

Year / Number Released / No/lb or age

1918 -  600,000/ fry

1919 - 437,500/ fry

1926 - 50,000/ fry

1927 - 100,500/ fry

1928 - 100,500/ fry

1940 - 5500/ -—

1950 - 10,004 /190.9

1954 - 10,065/ 214.7

1955 - 10,000 /101

1957 - 9,033 /45.9

1958 - 9,815 /81.3

1963 - 11,278/ 26.6

1964 - 4,597 /46

1965 - 26,943 /37

1966 - 10,000/ 12

1968 - 13,549 /11.5

1975 - 3,000 /8.9

1976 - 1,024/ 6.4

1978 - 3,100/ 12.4

1980 - 10,244 /4.6

1981 - 40,78 /3.4

Historical introductions of pink salmon in the Dennys River, Maine (Baum, 1982)

1913 Part of 7,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook andGreen Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1914 Part of 5,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1915 Part of ? fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1916 Part of 6,235,808 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1917 1,000,00 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green split with the Pembrook River

1922 - 26 Eggs collected from returns and fry returned to Dennys and nearby rivers

1925 1,410,00 advance fry between Pleasant, Penobscot, Piscataquis, Dennys Rivers, and others

NARRAGUAGUS RIVER

Conclusion: Native strain extirpated

Background Information: 

1874 -As many as 5 dams within one mile of tidewater.”the dams had long ago destroyed the salmon runs.” (C.G. Atkin, 1874 in Baum & Jordan, 1982)

1942 ice jams swept away 3 remaining dams at Cherryfield. Last impassable dam removed in 1951. Two existing barriers (1961, 1969) have fishways.

Blueberry and forest herbicide sprays and removal of water for irrigation may impact aquatic life.

“It is documented that most of the anadromous fish runs ... were drastically reduced or entirely eliminated by the construction of dams during the 1880’s.” Runs of alewives, blueback herring, American shad, Atlantic smelt, rainbow smelt, and striped bass improved after 1942 ice jam removed dams.(Baum & Jordan, 1982)

Introductions:

Stocking began in 1918 using stocks as follows (FWS Stock Report): Decade of 1910 - Penobscot; Decade of 1920- New Brunswick (Miramichi?) & Quebec (Gaspe?); Decade of 1930 - New Brunswick (Miramichi?); Decade of 1940 - Machias, Penobscot, New Brunswick (Miramichi?); Decade of 1950 - Narraguagus, Machias, Penobscot, New Brunswick (Miramichi?); Decade of 1960 - Narraguagus, Machias, New Brunswick (Miramichi?). Results from Canadian fish were judged as poor and only maine fish we used subsequently.

Historical introductions of salmonids in the Machias River, Maine

Date/Number Stocked/No/lb

1918 225,000 fry

1919/ 437,500/ fry

1926 50,000 fry

1927 100,500 fry

1928 100,500 fry

1929 88,725 fry

1936 85,000 fry

1940 5,500 fry

1941 20,000 533.3

1942 10,000 465.1

1943 17,000 2”-4”

1944 21,500 2”-6”

1949 29,279 1,036.0

1950 44,856 210.0-1,140.0

1951 50,299 64.0- 100.3

1952 122,502 9.9-205.7

1953 141,586 32.2-183.9

1955 39,859 110.5

1956 48,727 122.8

1957 29,621 76.5

1958 19,031 543

1959 19,031 66.5

1960 32,393 18.9

1961 16,966 9.0

1962 35,620 13.7

1963 34,191 12.4-13.0

1964 43,485 10.6-121.0

1965 54,208 9.7-48.6

1966 79,360 9.4-110.3

1967 33,719 6.6-7.5

1968 33,562 5.5-8.9

1969 32593 42-11 1

1970 11 818 2.8-6.0

1971 2,873 2.9

1972 15,687 9.6

1973 5,562 4.9

1975 5,000 7.4

1976 8,432 6.1

1979 10,129 9.1

1980 20,432 4.6

1981 4,079 3.4

TOTAL 2,186,999

Records of historical introductions of salmonids and other fish species in the Narraguagus River, Maine

19?? - Atlantic salmon Naraguagus received locally reared smolts of Miramichi heritage

19?? - Stocked with Penobscot salmon. Run persisted

1913 - Pink Salmon Part of 7,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1914 - Part of 5,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1915 - Part of ? fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1916 - Part of 6,235,808 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1968/69 - Rainbow trout Horsewhole Pond

Smallmouth Bass WW I Introduced.

Pickerel Civil War Introduced

MACHIAS RIVER

Conclusion: Perhaps extirpated. Insufficient data.

Background Information: Barrier at mouth of river likely excluded salmon runs.

Introductions:

19?? - Atlantic salmon Naraguagus received locally reared smolts of Miramichi heritage.

19?? - stocked with Penobscot salmon. Run persisted

UNION RIVER

Conclusion: Insufficient information

Background Information: Historical introductions of salmonids and other fish in the Narraguagus River, Maine

Introductions:

1970 - Atlantic salmon “New” Penobscot strain (Miramichi, Narraguagus, Machias)

1913 - Pink Salmon Part of 7,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1914 - Part of 5,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1915 - Part of? fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1916 - Part of 6,235,808 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

PENOBSCOT RIVER

Conclusion: While some of the original genetic material from the original native stock likely remains, the present strain will reflect major influences from external stocks.

Background Information: The Penobscot River once supported large runs of salmon and other anadromous species. Obstruction of fish passage resulted in commercial catches dropping from 12-15,000 in the period from 1870-90 to only 40 salmon in 1947; the last year of the commercial fishery. Rehabilitation efforts turned to artificially spawning stock for new runs which were ... “developed from the progeny of Narraguagus and Machias River salmon, but mostly Miramichi and Narraguagus stock during the late 1960’s and early 1970’s...” Further, 98% of the Penobscot River salmon were of hatchery origin and “natural reproduction of Atlantic salmon in the Penobscot drainage has been very limited to date.”. (Baum, Et.T., 1983)

Numerous species of exotic salmonids were introduced including: Brown trout, Rainbow trout, Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, Pink salmon, Sockeye salmon, Grayling, Pickerel and Smallmouth bass. Brown trout seemed to have survived and pickerel and bass which are considered to be voracious predators of young salmon, have prospered. As in the Big Salmon River, New Brunswick, the possibility of hybrid genetic influences from Brown trout or other salmonid species, exists for this stock.

Stocking programs were initiated in 1871 and have run more or less annually since that time at the following rates: 1872-1959 - over 56 million; 1962 - 1983 - 3 million. The need for broodstock for federal hatcheries has, in the past, reduced the number of salmon available for natural spawning. During the period 1969-1980 it has been estimated that 12-86 percent of returning salmon where taken to Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery for broodstock purposes and these were generally the most desireable fish (early run, largest, best condition, predominantly females).

Saunders (1979) stated ... “the Narraguagus and Machias, had previously been stocked with Penobscot salmon and may, thereby, have acted as refugia for Penobscot stocks.”

Introductions:

Historical introductions of salmonids and other fish in the Penobscot River, Maine. (Baum, 1983)

1880’s - Brown trout

1902-1915 - 97,000. Sea-run (1983) in Orland River

Rainbow trout 1896,1897,1902~,1904, 1906, 1914,1916 Fish never became established.

Chinook Salmon 1874,1875, 1897 In water supply of Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery.

Tributaries to Toddys Pond.

DUCKTRAP RIVER

Conclusion: Insufficient information available

Introductions:

1938 - Coho salmon Swan Lake, Goose River

1944 - 4,000 Coho salmon fry and fingerlings released. 150 mature fish returned in 1944.

1905 - At Brownville Pink salmon 1906,1908, 1914-17 11,000,000 fry were stocked

1913 - Part of 7,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1914 - Part of 5,000,000 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1915 - Part of ? fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1916 - Part of 6,235,808 fingerlings from Craig Brook and Green Lake hatcheries distributed between 9 rivers

1945,1947 - Sockeye Salmon

1902, 1903 - Grayling 22000

1871 to present- Atlantic salmon Numbers introduced: 1871-1959-56 million, 1962-3 million

1819 - Pickerel Population survives

1869 - Smallmouth Bass Population survives

SHEEPSCOT RIVER

Conclusion: Insufficient information available

Background Information: 1871 - 1500 parr from Canada

KENNEBEC RIVER

Conclusion: Native stock persists in lower river. Insignificant dilution from foreign stocks.

Background Information: Since the concept of a dam on the Kennebec River in Augusta was first proposed, it has been controversial. The historic record is replete with references relating to the unique and abundant fishery resources of the Kennebec River before the river was dammed and impounded in Augusta. It is a testimony to the remarkable productivity of the Kennebec River that after 157 years of habitat destruction, the river still supports limited reproducing populations of all seven species of anadromous fish that are found in Maine. The Kennebec River is the only river in New England that holds this distinction. Because of its unique productivity, and with the recent improvement in water quality, the state's river management goals for the Kennebec River currently include the restoration of anadromous fish to their historic ranges.(State of Maine document on Edwards Dam removal)

87,500 Penobscot parr were stocked in one year. (FWS Stock Report)

MERRIMACK RIVER

Conclusion: Native stock extirpated.

Background Information: The decline of the Merrimack is well known. By mid 1800’s the runs were gone. In 1866, 70,000 eggs from the Miramichi were introduced.

CONNECTICUT RIVER

Conclusion: Native stock extirpated

Background Information: The decline of the Connecticut is well known.

1797- Dam built in South Hadley, Mass. Ended run by 1812. 1867-68 – Introduced fry from Canada 1874-76 - + 2.5 million fry, were briefly successful. Efforts abandoned by 1900 1960’s - Major rehabilitation efforts using Penobscot salmon 1967- 9,000 fry - 10,000 fry from Penobscot 1985- 170,000 parr/433,000 fry locally produced with Penobscot

The records indicate that the Connecticut River was originally restored using a Penosbscot stock or a combination of stocks.