Version: 16.1.1 Date: Sun April 1 2018 16:24 (HST)

HuroCup Laws of the Game

Archery (Pro)

1Kuo-Yang Tu, 2Jacky Baltes and 3Karla Anhel Camarillo Gomez

1Institute of Electrical Engineering

National Kaohsiung First University of Science & Technology

Kaohsiung, 811, Taiwan

2Educational Robotics Center

Department of Electrical Engineering

National Taiwan Normal University

Taipei, 10610, Taiwan

3Departament of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics and Biomechanical Systems

Tecnológico Nacional de México en Celaya

Celaya, Guanajuato, 38010, Mexico


The following rules and regulations govern the archery event of HuroCup, a robotic game and robotics benchmark problem for humanoid robots.

Latest Version of the Rules for HuroCup

The latest official version of the rules of the game for HuroCup is always available from the HuroCup Facebook Page.


The goal of the archery competition is to encourage research into humanoid robots that are able to do compliant control precisely and track moving targets.

Latest Changes to the Laws of the Game

The biggest change in 2018 is that the target will move in a circular path. We hope that this change will make the archery competition more challenging.

We made it clear in the rules that the robot must pull the bow string itself to shoot the arrow. So, preloading the bow by hand or using a crossbow like device is not allowed.

Also, to score a point, the arrow must penetrate and stick to the target. Arrows that bounce off the target board are not counted.

HuroCup Archery - Laws of the Game

The following laws describe the specifics of the archery event. For general specifications relevant to all HuroCup events (e.g., robot dimensions, playing field and lighting, responsibility of the referees) please refer to General - HuroCup Laws of the Game.

[A-1]: Field of Play

[A-1.1]: The dimensions of the playing field are at least 400 cm by  300 cm. On one end of the playing field a target board is hanged up.  This end is called the target board side. The opposite side of the playing field is called the shooting side. See HuroCup Archery field for more details.




Kid Size

Adult Size

Junior Size


Distance between target board and shooting side

150 cm

300 cm


Diameter of target board

50 cm

90 cm


Range of shooting place


100 cm


Height of target board center




Diameter of small cirle

10 cm

30 cm


Diameter of middle circle

30 cm

60 cm


Diameter of big circle

50 cm

90 cm

HuroCup Archery playing field and target board

$D is the height of target board center from ground.  $D is not constant during a game. Thus the target board is dynamical motion  during a game in the target board side. The possible motion is up, down, left, right or circular.  The minimum size of the playing field is 4m by 3m.

[A-1.2]: The target board is separated into three circles of different colors.  Circles closer to the center score higher points.

[A-1.3]: On the target board, three circles from inside to outside are 5, 3 and 1 score points, respectively.  For example, the yellow circle is 3-point zone.

[A-1.4]: The target board is soft material (e.g., styrofoam).  The arrows that the team prepare must be not too sharp.  For competition safety, the referees have right to ask teams to replace their arrows.

[A-1.5]: The rectangular area enclosed by white lines, is the start zone.  The robot must shoot while inside the start zone.

[A-1.6]: During shooting, the robot is not allowed to go outside of  the white lines of the start zone.

[A-2]: The Arrows and Bow

[A-2.1]: A team must use a bow for shooting the arrow.

[A-2.2]: The tip of any arrow is not allowed to be too sharp to hurt people.

[A-2.3]: Teams are allowed to add a bow and arrow to the robot. Adding the bow and arrow is not considered a modification of the robot under Allround - HuroCup Laws of the Game - [AR-6.2].


[A-2.4]: The robot must pull the bow string. The tension in the bow string that will propel the arrow  (in other words, energy used to shoot the arrow) must be supplied by the robot though pulling the bow string backwards. It is illegal for the human handler to pre-load the bowstring or to use a crossbow like device.

[A-3]: Number of Robots

[A-3.1]: A single robot competes in a match.

[A-4]: The Players

[A-4.1]: Please refer to General - HuroCup Laws of the Game for detailed information about the players.

[A-5]: The Referee

[A-5.1]: Please refer to General - HuroCup Laws of the Game for detailed information about the referee and his or her duties.

[A-6]: The Assistant Referee

[A-6.1]: Please refer to General - HuroCup Laws of the Game for detailed information about the assistant referee and his or her duties.

[A-7]: Game Play

[A-7.1]: One robot is designated the shooter. All other robots must be positioned well away from the side of target board and must not interfere with the shooter in any way.

[A-7.2]: Each robot may have at most one human handler associated with it.

[A-7.3]: The human handlers must not interfere in any way with other robots, the referee, or other human handlers.

[A-7.4]: A human handler may only enter the playing field or touch his/her robot with the permission of the referee. The shooting will be declared invalid if the handler touches the robot without referee's permission.

[A-7.5]: The referee will select a random start point for the robot in the start zone. The handler must place the robot at the start point in such a way that the arrow is pointing forward from the start zone.

[A-7.6]: After the shooter has been placed, the referee will select a random position inside of the start zone.  The shooter shooting out of the start zone cannot get any score point.

[A-7.7]: The shooting begins by the referee blowing a whistle. The end of the shooting is signaled by the referee by blowing the whistle a second time. The referee terminates the shooting if:

  1. the arrow stuck to the target board after being shot by the shooter,
  2. the robot angle between the bow and the target is greater than 45 degrees or the bow and arrow is aimed in such a way that it may hit other spectators or participants,
  3. the maximum duration of the competition (2 minutes) has elapsed,
  4. the robot damages holder, or playing field,
  5. the arrow moved outside of the playing field, or dropped down on the ground,
  6. the shooter leaves the start zone or the playing field,
  7. the shooter or the bow fall down.

[A-7.8]: After the end of the shooting, another robot is designated the shooter.

[A-7.9]: The designated shooter must stand up in the start zone to get ready for its shooting in 1 minutes.  Otherwise the referee has right to make the decision that the shooter give up this round.

[A-8]: Method of Scoring

[A-8.1]: There are five rounds in the competition.

[A-8.2]: A robot scores if the arrow prods on the target board.  The score points got by the robot are dependent on the arrow prodded the position of the target point.  For example, if the arrow is prodded at 5-point circle, then the robot get 5 points.

[A-8.3]: Any robot that has not scored a single point is automatically awarded 0 rank.

[A-8.4]: Among the robots that have scored at least one point, the robots are ranked (i.e., 1st place, 2nd place) based on the greater number of points that the robot scored.

[A-8.5]: For more details about the point allocation, please refer to Point Allocation [Organization - HuroCup Laws of the Game].

[A-9]: Tiebreaker

[A-9.1]: In case of a tie, i.e., more than one robot having scored the same number of points, the robots will be ranked based on the sum of their score point over all rounds.

[A-9.2]: In case one or more robots have scored the same number of points and are still tied after applying the previous tiebreaker, the maximum score points in a single round will be used to break the tie.