UNFCCC

MOCK NEGOTIATIONS

February 17th, 2018

COP 24 -- Poland

Country Profiles

Country Profile: China

Did China sign onto the Paris Agreement from COP-21: Yes

China INDC[1] Summary:        

China’s Climate Tracker Analysis & Emissions History[2]:

China’s Negotiation Allies[4]:

Summary of Other Useful Background Information About China[5][6][7][8][9]:

        It is important to remember that China is the largest greenhouse gas emitter, but also has the largest population of any country. It is still developing and is taking actions to cut back on carbon intensity, meaning the emissions may continue to increase, but at a slower rate than the country’s GDP. There is an argument of whether or not the commitments made by China are drastic enough, but the goals they have publicly set in documents like the INDC have been reached or are on track to be surpassed.

        China is a coal user. Coal is their main source of energy which has lead to other issues such as air quality. Globally they are 2nd to Russia in coal imports and 13th in coal exports (2015). Looking at other resources, China is also towards the top of the ranking lists. They are number 4 in oil production and number 2 in oil consumption.The are number 4 in natural gas imports as well and lower on the list with exports of natural gas at the 34th spot. Keep in mind China has the largest population and is still developing when considering these numbers. It is also very important to note the high GDP of China. They are 2nd globally with only the United States above them.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/02/world/asia/chinas-role-in-climate-change-and-possibly-in-fighting-it.html

Country Profile: Germany

Did Germany sign onto the Paris Agreement from COP-21: Yes

Germany INDC Summary:

Germany’s Climate Tracker Analysis & Emissions History:

Germany is grouped with the entire European Union:

  1. http://www4.unfccc.int/Submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Latvia/1/LV-03-06-EU%20INDC.pdf
  2. http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/eu.html

Germany’s Negotiation Allies (4):

  1. Germany is part of the European Union (EU) which also includes 27 other countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the UK (still active member for this year)

Summary of Other Useful Background Information About Germany:

        

(4) http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php

(5) http://www.climatechangenews.com/2018/01/08/germany-set-abandon-2020-climate-target-reports/

(6) https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=5-2&cy=2015

(7) https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=26-3&cy=2015

(8) https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=7-3&cy=2015

(9) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)

(10)https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

(11)https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

(12) https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/07/business/energy-environment/german-renewable-energy.html

Country Profile: India

Did India sign onto the Paris Agreement from COP-21: Yes

India’s INDC Summary[11]:

India’s Climate Tracker Analysis & Emissions History[12]:

India’s Negotiation Allies:

Summary of Other Useful Background Information About India:

Country Profile: Nicaragua

Did Nicaragua sign onto the Paris Agreement from COP-21: Yes

Nicaragua INDC Summary[22]:

Nicaragua’s Emissions History[23]:

Nicaragua had 4.8 million tons of emissions annually according to the country’s representative at the 2015 Paris talks. That accounts for 0.03% of global emissions. There is no coal, oil, or natural gas used in the country for electricity.

Nicaragua’s Negotiation Allies[24]:

Summary of Other Useful Background Information About Nicaragua[25]:

        Nicaragua has no oil, coal, or natural gas imported, exported or consumed. They vigorously pursue green energy policies over half of its electricity is produced by geothermic, wind, solar, biomass and wave power. Emissions are going down and GDP is going up[26].

Nicaragua has the 123rd highest GDP in the world.  Nicaragua has taken strides to cut emissions and better prepare for climate change. The country is very susceptible to climate change, so it places a large importance on the issue. That high priority played a big role in the delay to sign the Paris Agreement (not strong enough to make big enough changes).

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

Country Profile: Niger

Did Niger sign onto the Paris Agreement from COP-21: yes

Niger INDC Summary (1):

Niger Climate Tracker Analysis & Emissions History:

  1. http://www4.unfccc.int/Submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Niger/1/Niger-INDC-versionfinale%20.pdf
  2. https://www.statista.com/statistics/271748/the-largest-emitters-of-co2-in-the-world/
  3. http://climateactiontracker.org/countries.html

Niger Negotiation Allies (4):

Summary of Other Useful Background Information About Niger:

(4) http://www.g77.org/doc/index.html

(5) https://www.usaid.gov/powerafrica/niger

(6) https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=53-1&cy=2016

(7) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)

(8)https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

(9)https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

Country Profile: Norway

Did Norway sign onto the Paris Agreement from COP-21: Yes

Norway INDC[27] Summary:

Climate Tracker Analysis & Emissions History[28]:


Norway’s Negotiation Allies:

  1. Norway is a part of the Umbrella Group[30], which is a loose grouping of non-EU developed countries which formed after the formation of the Kyoto Protocol
  1. The other countries party to the Umbrella Group in attendance for this COP-24 meeting are the U.S. and Russia
  1. As mentioned in Norway’s INDC[31], Norway has expressed a particular interest in aligning goals with the European Union in order to enter global negotiations for a COP-24 agreement
  1. The European Union is represented by Germany for this COP-24 meeting

Summary of Other Useful Background Information About Norway:

        

On top of the emission reduction goals mentioned by Norway’s INDC, Norway has collaborated with the European Union on a joint document[32] mentioning their specific goals and strategies when combating climate change. They would like to assist developing countries in adapting to climate change by investing in the Green Climate Fund (GDF), the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), the World Bank, and other funds intended for that purpose. Also, they would like to reduce the impact of natural disasters, including those exacerbated by climate change. Additionally and in summary of their other goals, they would like to prevent deforestation, phase out fossil fuel subsidies, support renewable energy development, sustainably manage marine resources, lead the field of health and climate, and promote economic development and food security.

In order to negotiate successfully, it is important to have an accurate picture of Norway’s energy and economy. In regards to energy, most notable is the fact that 97% of Norway’s total electricity generation in 2014 came from hydropower[33]. While this bodes well for Norway’s goal of carbon neutrality, fossil fuels still play an important part in Norway’s economy. In 2015, Norway was the 21st largest exporter of coal globally[34], in 2016, Norway was the 14th largest producer of oil[35], and, in 2015, Norway was the 3rd largest exporter of natural gas[36]. In respect to Norway’s economy overall, Norway’s GDP was ranked globally at #30 as of 2016[37]. For a longer snapshot, you can see Norway’s GDP plotted from 2000 to 2016 below[38], and Norway’s GDP graphed alongside all other countries party to this COP-24 from 2000 to 2016[39].

Country Profile: Russia

Did Russia sign onto the Paris Agreement from COP-21: Yes

Russia’s INDC Summary[40]:

Russia’s Climate Tracker Analysis & Emissions History[41]:

Russia’s Negotiation Allies:

Summary of Other Useful Background Information About Russia:

        

Country Profile: Saudi Arabia

Did Saudi Arabia sign onto the Paris Agreement from COP-21: Yes

Saudi Arabia  INDC[55] Summary:

Saudi Arabia Climate Tracker Analysis & Emissions History[56]:

Saudi Arabia Negotiation Allies:

Saudi Arabia is a member of Group 77 (G-77), working with other developing countries to establish unified negotiation positions[59]. Other members include China, Niger, Nicaragua, India, and Timor-Leste[60].

Saudi Arabia is also a member of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), who consider their nations at both risk to climate change as well as mitigation policies. Therefore, they argue for the development of carbon capture technologies to ensure their fossil fuel commodities are still viable in the market[61].

Summary of Other Useful Background Information About Saudi Arabia:

Nearly all of the energy consumption within Saudi Arabia is from oil. In fact, Saudi Arabia is the 6th top consumer of oil in the world[62].Saudi Arabia is the world’s 2nd top producer of oil (1st is the U.S.) placing it’s GDP as the 20th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is primarily focused on strengthening its economy and reducing domestic oil consumption so that more oil may be exported. This may be the reason why Saudi Arabia plans to invest in alternative energies, on the condition that its economy grows.

[63]

Country Profile: Timor-Leste

Did Timor-Leste sign onto the Paris Agreement from COP-21: Yes

Timor-Leste INDC[64] Summary:

Timor-Leste’s Climate Tracker Analysis & Emissions History:

Timor-Leste’s Negotiation Allies:

Summary of Other Useful Background Information About Timor Leste:

On top of the policy directions mentioned by Timor Leste’s INDC, Timor-Leste has collaborated with Laos (unfortunately, Laos is not in attendance at this COP-24) on beginning and improving strategies for increasing the resilience of small-scale rural infrastructure[72]. Both countries realize that not only will their countries experience more of the global consequences from climate change, as opposed to many of the first world. Furthermore, they realize that the citizens most vulnerable within their country are the more rural populations. In the next few years, they plan to focus efforts and funds into helping their most vulnerable adapt to future changes in their environment related to climate, however, they will need monetary assistance from the more developed countries to accomplish this goal.

In order to negotiate successfully, it is important to have an accurate picture of Timor-Leste’s energy and economy. In regards to energy, all of Timor-Leste’s energy was generated with diesel engines as of 2014[73]. While this massive import of diesel oil is harming the environment, it is less impactful with the three main fossil fuels of oil, natural gas, and coal. In regards to oil, Timor-Leste does produce[74] and consume[75] oil, but it far from being including in the list of the leading 20 countries globally for either category. For natural gas, while Timor-Leste does not import[76] any natural gas, in 2015, it was ranked as the 24th largest exporter[77] of natural gas worldwide. Finally, as of 2015, Timor-Leste did not import[78] or export[79] any coal. In respect to Timor-Leste’s economy overall, Timor-Leste’s GDP was ranked globally at #175 out of 194 countries as of 2016[80]. For a longer snapshot, you can see Timor-Leste’s GDP plotted from 2000 to 2016 below[81], and Timor-Leste’s GDP graphed alongside all other countries party to this COP-24 from 2000 to 2016[82].

Country Profile: United States of America

Did the United States (US) sign onto the Paris Agreement from COP-21: Originally yes. Their new president has announced that he is beginning the process of withdrawing the country from the agreement. This withdrawal is a four year process, and thus will not be complete until at the earliest November 4th, 2020 (one day after the next presidential election). Until that date, the U.S. is still held under the rules of the Paris Agreement, but, they do not hold as powerful of a leadership position since the announcement of the withdrawal.

United States INDC[83] Summary:

Climate Tracker Analysis & Emissions History[84]:

Negotiation Allies:

  1. The U.S. is a part of the Umbrella Group[87], which is a loose grouping of non-EU developed countries which formed after the formation of the Kyoto Protocol
  1. The other countries party to the Umbrella Group in attendance for this COP-24 meeting are Norway and Russia

Summary of Other Useful Background Information About the U.S.:

        

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[91]


[1] http://www4.unfccc.int/Submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/China/1/China's%20INDC%20-%20on%2030%20June%202015.pdf

[2] http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/china.html

[3] https://www.statista.com/statistics/271748/the-largest-emitters-of-co2-in-the-world/

[4] http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php

[5] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/?fips=NO

[6] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=53-1&cy=2016

[7] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=26-4&cy=2015

[8] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=7-4&cy=2015

[9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)

[10] https://www.statista.com/statistics/271748/the-largest-emitters-of-co2-in-the-world/

[11] http://www4.unfccc.int/Submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/India/1/INDIA%20INDC%20TO%20UNFCCC.pdf

[12] http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/india.html

[13] http://www.g77.org/doc/members.htm

[14] http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php

[15] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=53-1&cy=2016

[16] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=5-2&cy=2015

[17] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=26-3&cy=2015

[18] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=26-4&cy=2015

[19] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=7-3&cy=2015

[20] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=7-4&cy=2015

[21]https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

[22] http://time.com/4799844/nicaragua-paris-climate-agreement-countries/

[23] http://time.com/4799844/nicaragua-paris-climate-agreement-countries/

[24] http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php

[25] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/?fips=NO

[26] https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

[27] http://www4.unfccc.int/Submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Norway/1/Norway%20INDC%2026MAR2015.pdf

[28] http://climateactiontracker.org/co

untries/norway.html

[29] https://www.statista.com/statistics/271748/the-largest-emitters-of-co2-in-the-world/

[30] http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php

[31] http://www4.unfccc.int/Submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Norway/1/Norway%20INDC%2026MAR2015.pdf

[32] https://www.norway.no/en/missions/eu/values-priorities/climate-env/

[33] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.cfm?iso=NOR

[34] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=7-4&cy=2015

[35] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=53-1&cy=2016

[36] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=26-4&cy=2015

[37] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)

[38]https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

[39]https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

[40] http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/indc/Submission%20Pages/submissions.aspx

[41] http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/russianfederation.html

[42] https://www.statista.com/statistics/271748/the-largest-emitters-of-co2-in-the-world/

[43] http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php:

[44] http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/russianfederation.html

[45]https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/en/corporate/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2017/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2017-full-report.pdf

[46]http://www.rosatom.ru/en/press-centre/news/in-2017-russia-s-npps-set-an-absolute-record-of-electricity-production-202-868-billion-kwh/

[47] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=53-1&cy=2016

[48] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=5-2&cy=2015

[49] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=26-3&cy=2015

[50] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=26-4&cy=2015

[51] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=7-3&cy=2015

[52] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=7-4&cy=2015

[53] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)

[54]https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

[55] http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/indc/Submission%20Pages/submissions.aspx

[56] http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/saudiarabia.html

[57] http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/saudiarabia.html

[58] https://www.statista.com/statistics/271748/the-largest-emitters-of-co2-in-the-world/

[59] http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php:

[60] http://www.g77.org/doc/members.html

[61] http://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/2709.htm 

[62] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/?fips=NO

[63] https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

[64]http://www4.unfccc.int/Submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Timor-Leste%20(East%20Timor)/1/INDC%20%20TL_Final_Scanned_copy20Feb-2017.compressed.pdf

[65]http://www.undp.org/content/dam/timorleste/docs/reports/ENV/Timor-Leste%20Initial%20National%20Communication%20(INC)%20under%20UNDFCCC-TL_31%20July%202013.pdf

[66] https://www.statista.com/statistics/271748/the-largest-emitters-of-co2-in-the-world/

[67] http://www.g77.org/doc/

[68] http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php

[69] http://www.g77.org/doc/members.html

[70] https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/ldc_list.pdf

[71] https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/ldc_list.pdf

[72] http://www.adaptation-undp.org/COP23-lao-timor-leste-rural-infrastructure

[73] https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/29761/power-sector-plan-timor-leste.pdf

[74] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=53-1&cy=2016

[75] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=5-2&cy=2015

[76] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=26-3&cy=2015

[77] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=26-4&cy=2015

[78] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=7-3&cy=2015

[79] https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?prodact=7-4&cy=2015

[80] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)

[81]https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

[82]https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

[83]http://www4.unfccc.int/Submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/United%20States%20of%20America/1/U.S.%20Cover%20Note%20INDC%20and%20Accompanying%20Information.pdf

[84] http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/usa/2017.html

[85] http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/usa/2017.html

[86] https://www.statista.com/statistics/271748/the-largest-emitters-of-co2-in-the-world/

[87] http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php

[88] https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/11/11/us-china-joint-announcement-climate-change 

[89] https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/?page=us_energy_home 

[90]https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true

[91] https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2016&locations=US-CN-DE-IN-SA-NE-NI-TL-NO-RU-S2&start=1960&view=chart&year_high_desc=true