An Orthodox Christian Handbook on the Koine Greek Bible:
LXX/OG & Byzantine Text-Type
Thoughts & Comments From an Orthodox Christian
Fr. Thomas Sandberg
6 December 2017 - Present Day 2020
Originally I wanted to use the 2005/2018 Byz. One of my criticisms of the orthodox study bible was that it used the TR and not the Patriarchal text, so to be consistent with myself and congruent with the great work already started by Fr. ? with the EOB…
As well as many years of following the lectionary of the Greek Orthodox Church and reading aloud according to the lectionary once I was “tonsured” a Reader and then ordained a deacon and then a priest, the Greek Old Testaments, Greek New Testaments, translations thereof, commentaries, grammars and articles that I have actually read cover-to-cover (as opposed to referenced) which has lead to this work are:
-Learn to Read New Testament Greek, Third Edition by David Alan Black
-An Introduction to the Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge by Dirk Jongkind
-The Baylor Handbook on the Greek New Testament
-Matthew 1-14: A Handbook on the Greek Text by Wesley G. Olmstead
-James: A Commentary on the Greek Text by William Varner
-The Epistle of St. James: A Commentary by Archbishop Dmitri Royster
-Voss, David O. “Is Von Sodens a Kr a Distinct Type of Text?” Journal of Biblical Literature 57, no. 3 (1938): 311. https://doi.org/10.2307/3259821.
-Farstad, Arthur L., and Zane C. Hodges. “The New Testament in the Original Greek According to the Byzantine/Majority-Textform.” Grace Evangelical Society. Accessed April 22, 2020. https://faithalone.org/journal-articles/book-reviews/the-new-testament-in-the-original-greek-according-to-the-byzantinemajority-textform/.
-THGNT Reader’s Edition
-USB5 Readers’ Edition
-Byz 2010 Readers’ Edition
-DBH NT, 2017 Hardback Edition & 2019 corrected paperback Edition
-1611 KJV Oxford Edition
Γένεσις ΣΤʹ:1-8 (LXXRE 6:1-8—Human Wickedness)
6:2 ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ θεοῦ τὰς θυγατέρας τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὅτι καλαί εἰσιν, ἔλαβον ἑαυτοῖς γυναῖκας ἀπὸ πασῶν, ὧν ἐξελέξαντο.
οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ θεοῦ. In Swete, we read οἱ ἄγγελοι τοῦ θεοῦ. “The descendants of Seth and Enos are here called Sons of God, from their religion and piety: whereas the ungodly race of Cain, who by their carnal affections lay grovelling upon the earth, are called the children of men. The unhappy consequence of the former marrying with the latter, ought to be a warning to Christians to be very circumspect in their marriages; and not to suffer themselves to be determined in choice by their carnal passion, to the prejudice of virtue or religion. Ch.—See S. Chrys. hom. 22, &c. Some copies of the Sept. having the angels of God, induced some of the ancients to suppose, that these spiritual beings (to whom, by another mistake, they attributed a sort of aerial bodies) had commerce with women, as the pagans derived their heroes from a mortal and a god. But this notion, which is borrowed from the book of Henoch, is quite exploded.”
Genesis 7:2 - ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν κτηνῶν τῶν καθαρῶν εἰσάγαγε πρὸς σὲ ἑπτὰ ἑπτά, ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ, ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν κτηνῶν τῶν μὴ καθαρῶν δύο δύο, ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ,
“Of all clean. The distinction of clean and unclean beasts, appears to have been made before the law of Moses, which was not promulgated till the year of the world 2514. [Challoner].”
Genesis 7:11 - ἐν τῷ ἑξακοσιοστῷ ἔτει ἐν τῇ ζωῇ τοῦ Νωε, τοῦ δευτέρου μηνός, ἑβδόμῃ καὶ εἰκάδι τοῦ μηνός, τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ταύτῃ ἐρράγησαν πᾶσαι αἱ πηγαὶ τῆς ἀβύσσου, καὶ οἱ καταρράκται τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἠνεῴχθησαν,
“This second month is, by some, supposed to be the month of May; by others, that of November. Usher makes Noe enter the ark on the 18th Dec. 1656.”
“[Ussher’s] finding was published in 1650 and was soon added as a marginal notation to the book of Genesis in the Authorized Version of the Bible. His calculation was based on the Masoretic (Hebrew) text of the Old Testament. According to the Old Testament chronology in the Septuagint (Greek) text, which is used by Orthodox Christians, the earth is approximately 1,500 years older than [the Anglican] Archbishop Ussher’s calculation.—Ed.”
Γένεσις ΙΗʹ:1-15 (LXXRE 18:1-15—Abraham’s Three Visitors)
18:10 εἶπεν δέ Ἐπαναστρέφων ἥξω πρὸς σὲ κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον εἰς ὥρας, καὶ ἕξει υἱὸν Σαρρα ἡ γυνή σου. Σαρρα δὲ ἤκουσεν πρὸς τῇ θύρᾳ τῆς σκηνῆς, οὖσα ὄπισθεν αὐτοῦ.
κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον εἰς ὥρας. In the Genesis volume of Brill’s Septuagint Commentary Series, we read:
The guest then makes a surprising declaration; when he returns within the year Sarah will have a son. The precise translation of the Greek phrase κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον εἰς ὥρας [...] is debated [...]. As discussed above, καιρὸς denotes time, but not chronological time. Instead, it can mean something as specific as ‘season’ (e.g., 1:14) or, as here and elsewhere, a ‘designated time’ for something momentous to occur (e.g., 6:13). The Greek word ὥρα also has a wide range of meanings, many of them similar to καιρὸς (e.g., ‘time,’ ‘season’, ‘occasion’), especially in LXX-G (Muraoka 2002, 282–283). The difficulty in producing a precise literal translation has led many to resort to a rendering that acknowledges the momentous significance of these two words as well as their place in the narrative context. At some special time or season within the year, the mysterious visitor would return and Sarah would have a son.
Γένεσις ΙΗʹ:16-33 (LXXRE 18:16-33—Abraham Intercedes for Sodom and Gomorrah)
18:30 καὶ εἶπεν Μή τι, κύριε, ἐὰν λαλήσω· ἐὰν δὲ εὑρεθῶσιν ἐκεῖ τριάκοντα; καὶ εἶπεν Οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσω, ἐὰν εὕρω ἐκεῖ τριάκοντα.
Μή τι. Elliptical negation. <<Μή τι, κύριε, ἐὰν λαλήσω.>>
Γένεσις ΙΘʹ:12-29 (LXXRE 19:12-29—Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah)
19:16 καὶ ἐταράχθησαν· καὶ ἐκράτησαν οἱ ἄγγελοι τῆς χειρὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς χειρὸς τῆς γυναικὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ τῶν χειρῶν τῶν δύο θυγατέρων αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ φείσασθαι κύριον αὐτοῦ.
The OSB butchers this verse by mis-translating it with what appears to be a mixture of Brenton and the NKJV.
19:22 σπεῦσον οὖν τοῦ σωθῆναι ἐκεῖ· οὐ γὰρ δυνήσομαι ποιῆσαι πρᾶγμα ἕως τοῦ σε εἰσελθεῖν ἐκεῖ. διὰ τοῦτο ἐκάλεσεν τὸ ὄνομα τῆς πόλεως ἐκείνης Σηγωρ.
σπεῦσον οὖν τοῦ σωθῆναι ἐκεῖ & ἕως τοῦ σε εἰσελθεῖν ἐκεῖ. Genitive articular infinitive.
The genitive of the articular infinitive (not dependent on a preposition) has a wide range of usage in Paul and especially in Lk. Mt and Mk use it to a limited extent, but in the remaining books it appears either rarely or not at all. It belongs, in other words, to a higher stratum of Koine (often in the LXX, rare in the papyri, s. Mlt. 219f. [348f.]; M.-H. 448ff.; Mayser II 1, 321ff. Examples from Polyb., Diodor. etc. in Allen 32f.; Jannaris p. 578). In classical usage, it is used either with a noun or a verb which governs the gen., or it is employed (from Thuc. on, but not very frequently; Rosenkranz, IF 48  167) to denote purpose (equivalent to a final clause or an infinitive with ἕνεκα). Both constructions are found in the NT, but the usage has been extended to approximately the same degree as that of ἵνα.
Another peculiarity of the articular infinitive in P-B [Post-Classical Greek to Byzantine Greek] is its unusual frequency in the genitive without a governing preposition. It stands in a loose construction, which originated in A [Attic] [...], has a decidedly final force (frequently preceded by μή), and so performs the work of a final clause or final participle (‘in order to,’ ‘in order that’; [...]).
[...] Sept. Gen. [...] σπεῦσον ΤΟΥ σωθῆναι ἐκεῖ.
Σηγωρ. The reliance of the OSB on the NKJV shines through here by keeping the English translation of the Hebrew, “Zoar.” The Greek Σηγωρ into English is transliterated in Brenton and NETS, “Segor.”
The term Pentapolis appeared in the biblical book of Wisdom (10:6) to refer to the region containing the five cities of Sodom, Gomorrah, Segor (Zoar), Admah and Zeboim. These cities once united to fight off the invasion of other kings (Gen 14:1–11). During the first centuries of the common era, the existence of Segor was still known (Zoora: Josephus, Bell. Iud. IV, 8,4; Ptolemy, V, 17,5; *Eusebius, Onom. 232,236). It became an episcopal see, and its bishop was present at the Council of *Chalcedon (451).
19:26 καὶ ἐπέβλεψεν ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω καὶ ἐγένετο στήλη ἁλός.
καὶ ἐγένετο στήλη ἁλός. The Greek στήλη is transliterated in NETS, “and she became a stele of salt.”
Γένεσις ΙΘʹ:30-38 (LXXRE 19:30-38—Lot and His Daughters)
19:37-38 καὶ ἔτεκεν ἡ πρεσβυτέρα υἱὸν καὶ ἐκάλεσεν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Μωαβ λέγουσα Ἐκ τοῦ πατρός μου· οὗτος πατὴρ Μωαβιτῶν ἕως τῆς σήμερον ἡμέρας. 38 ἔτεκεν δὲ καὶ ἡ νεωτέρα υἱὸν καὶ ἐκάλεσεν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Αμμαν υἱὸς τοῦ γένους μου· οὗτος πατὴρ Αμμανιτῶν ἕως τῆς σήμερον ἡμέρας.
οὗτος. Demonstrative as a personal pronoun: weakened demonstrative, i.e. “he” in both verses. See Decker’s Reading Koine Greek, page 171.
Γένεσις ΚΓʹ:1-20 (LXXRE 23:1-20—Sarah’s Death and Burial)
23:16 καὶ ἤκουσεν Αβρααμ τοῦ Εφρων, καὶ ἀπεκατέστησεν Αβρααμ τῷ Εφρων τὸ ἀργύριον, ὃ ἐλάλησεν εἰς τὰ ὦτα τῶν υἱῶν Χετ, τετρακόσια δίδραχμα ἀργυρίου δοκίμου ἐμπόροις.
ἐμπόροις. Dative of means/instrument. See Decker’s Reading Koine Greek, page 53.
Γένεσις ΚΔʹ:1-67 (LXXRE 24:1-67—Isaac and Rebekah)
24:4 ἀλλὰ εἰς τὴν γῆν μου, οὗ ἐγενόμην, πορεύσῃ καὶ εἰς τὴν φυλήν μου καὶ λήμψῃ γυναῖκα τῷ υἱῷ μου Ισαακ ἐκεῖθεν.
οὗ ἐγενόμην. Brenton, NETS, OSB: “where I was born.”
οὗ. LS(inter.): “οὗ, gen. of relat. Pron. ὅς. II. as Adv. where, v. ὅς, ἥ, ὅ b. III.” BDAG: “οὗ really the gen. of ὅς, became an adv. of place (Aeschyl. et al.; ins, pap, LXX, En, EpArist, Philo, Joseph.). 1. marker of a position in space, where”
ἐγενόμην. Aor mid ind 1st sg of γίνομαι, to become, be, be born, be created.
24:22 ἐγένετο δὲ ἡνίκα ἐπαύσαντο πᾶσαι αἱ κάμηλοι πίνουσαι, ἔλαβεν ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐνώτια χρυσᾶ ἀνὰ δραχμὴν ὁλκῆς καὶ δύο ψέλια ἐπὶ τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῆς, δέκα χρυσῶν ὁλκὴ αὐτῶν.
δύο ψέλια ἐπὶ τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῆς. At first I thought the issue was whether or not χεῖρας meant hands (Brenton & NETS) or wrists (OSB), but it is rather whether or not ψέλια means bracelets (LXXRE) or armlets (The Lexham English Septuagint). LEH, LS, and LSJ inform us that it means armlets.
Osb is missing Genesis 25:34…?
Genesis 26:31 - καὶ ἀναστάντες τὸ πρωὶ ὤμοσαν ἄνθρωπος τῷ πλησίον αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐξαπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς Ισαακ, καὶ ἀπῴχοντο ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ μετὰ σωτηρίας.
μετὰ σωτηρίας. - “μετὰ σωτηρίας in safety Gn 26,31”
Genesis 27:7 - Ἔνεγκόν μοι θήραν καὶ ποίησόν μοι ἐδέσματα, καὶ φαγὼν εὐλογήσω σε ἐναντίον κυρίου πρὸ τοῦ ἀποθανεῖν με.
Ἔνεγκόν - This form only occurs once in the LXX: Ἔνεγκόν aorist active imperative second singular of φέρω, to bring, carry.
πρὸ τοῦ ἀποθανεῖν με - See Decker 22.26, Robertson Historical Grammar pp. 1074-1075, and BDF §395 & §403.
Genesis 27:10 - καὶ εἰσοίσεις τῷ πατρί σου, καὶ φάγεται, ὅπως εὐλογήσῃ σε ὁ πατήρ σου πρὸ τοῦ ἀποθανεῖν αὐτόν.
πρὸ τοῦ ἀποθανεῖν αὐτόν. - See Genesis 27:7 above
Genesis 27:12 - μήποτε ψηλαφήσῃ με ὁ πατήρ μου, καὶ ἔσομαι ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ ὡς καταφρονῶν καὶ ἐπάξω ἐπ᾿ ἐμαυτὸν κατάραν καὶ οὐκ εὐλογίαν.
ἐπάξω ἐπ᾿ - ἐπάξω future active indicative first singular of ἐπάγω, to bring upon. In her LXX Genesis commentary, Susan Brayford has on page 350 confused ἐπάξω ἐπ᾿ as coming from πάσσω rather than ἐπάγω, which I believe is correct.
Genesis 27:42 - ἀπηγγέλη δὲ Ρεβεκκα τὰ ῥήματα Ησαυ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτῆς τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου, καὶ πέμψασα ἐκάλεσεν Ιακωβ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς τὸν νεώτερον καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἰδοὺ Ησαυ ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἀπειλεῖ σοι τοῦ ἀποκτεῖναί σε·
ἀπηγγέλη. 2nd Aor pass ind 3rd sg ἀπαγγέλλω, to tell, bring news, report. ἀπηγγέλη (ἀπό, ἄγγελος), “were reported.”
Ἰδοὺ Ησαυ ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἀπειλεῖ σοι τοῦ ἀποκτεῖναί σε· “Behold, Esau your brother is threatening you in order to kill you.” See Decker RKG, pp. 369-370, “1. Infinitives Used in Purpose Statements,” 22.23 (first paragraph), and “b. Infinitive with an Article (Articular).”
Γένεσις ΚΗʹ:1-9 (LXXRE 28:1-9—Jacob Sent to Laban)
28:3 ὁ δὲ θεός μου εὐλογήσαι σε καὶ αὐξήσαι σε καὶ πληθύναι σε, καὶ ἔσῃ εἰς συναγωγὰς ἐθνῶν·
εἰς συναγωγὰς ἐθνῶν· NETS appears to modernize Brenton. Muraoka: “into congregations of nations.”
Genesis 29:20 - καὶ ἐδούλευσεν Ιακωβ περὶ Ραχηλ ἔτη ἑπτά, καὶ ἦσαν ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ ὡς ἡμέραι ὀλίγαι παρὰ τὸ ἀγαπᾶν αὐτὸν αὐτήν.
παρὰ τὸ ἀγαπᾶν αὐτὸν αὐτήν. This same phrase, παρὰ τὸ ἀγαπᾶν followed by two accusatives, I have only found in Deuteronomy 7:8. However, even the phrase here in Genesis 29:20 was difficult to find information on due to this part of the verse being a textual variant (depending on one’s take) not found in Swete. Swete followed Codex Vaticanus (which I believe is missing the first 46 chapters of Genesis). In her commentary on Genesis, Susan Brayford used Codex Alexandrinus (which I believe is missing small parts of Genesis, but not 29:20), which also lacks the part of the verse in question.
When I first read the verse, the most challenging part of my understanding turned out to be due to the preposition παρά. This was due to my own limited knowledge, as all (as far as I have come across so far, writing on this verse in September of 2020) beginning and even intermediate grammars of New Testament Greek and Koine Greek do not teach the full range of meaning; however, it is found in BDAG on p. 758, C.5, because of. After reading that in BDAG, I wanted to know how the text meant what it meant (isn’t language interesting? You can read a text and comprehend it but not understand how you understood it, almost as if grammar is useless, much as it seems to be concerning my spoken or written English—it just sounds or looks “right”).
I point the reader to “The Accusative with an Infinitive,” in Decker’s Reading Koine Greek p. 365, the top right corner box and for “Grammar of the Infinitive” see §22.12. The most advanced information I could find related to this specific verse was in Muraoka’s Syntax p. 598, see ai) “Two accusative NPs with an infinitive.”
Γένεσις Λʹ:25-43 (LXXRE 30:25-43—Jacob Prospers at Laban’s Expense)
30:27 εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ Λαβαν Εἰ εὗρον χάριν ἐναντίον σου, οἰωνισάμην ἄν· εὐλόγησεν γάρ με ὁ θεὸς τῇ σῇ εἰσόδῳ.
Εἰ εὗρον χάριν ἐναντίον σου, οἰωνισάμην ἄν· This section of the verse, Laban’s reply to Jacob’s petition, comes across as nonsensical or at the very least odd; furthermore no translation clears up to me what I’m missing from the Greek. Muraoka: “2. to guess: Εἰ εὗρον χάριν ἐναντίον σου, οἰωνισάμην ἄν ‘If I were favourably regarded by you, I would have guessed’ Ge 30:27.”
30:35 καὶ διέστειλεν ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ τοὺς τράγους τοὺς ῥαντοὺς καὶ τοὺς διαλεύκους καὶ πάσας τὰς αἶγας τὰς ῥαντὰς καὶ τὰς διαλεύκους καὶ πᾶν, ὃ ἦν λευκὸν ἐν αὐτοῖς, καὶ πᾶν, ὃ ἦν φαιὸν ἐν τοῖς ἀρνάσιν, καὶ ἔδωκεν διὰ χειρὸς τῶν υἱῶν αὐτοῦ.
διὰ χειρὸς. “διὰ χειρός denotes intermediacy– ἔδωκεν διὰ ~ὸς τῶν υἱῶν αὐτοῦ Ge 30.35”
Ἀμώς Δʹ:1-13 (LXXRE 4:1-13—Israel Has Not Returned to God)
4:13 διότι ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ στερεῶν βροντὴν καὶ κτίζων πνεῦμα καὶ ἀπαγγέλλων εἰς ἀνθρώπους τὸν χριστὸν αὐτοῦ, ποιῶν ὄρθρον καὶ ὁμίχλην καὶ ἐπιβαίνων ἐπὶ τὰ ὕψη τῆς γῆς· κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ ὄνομα αὐτῷ.
See St. Athanasius’s “Letters to Serapion on the Holy Spirit.”
ΤΟ ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ
Ματθαῖον Αʹ:1-17 (EOB 1:1-17—The Genealogy of Jesus)
1:1 Βίβλος γενέσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, υἱοῦ Δαυῒδ υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ.
Βίβλος. Does not mean “book.”
Χριστοῦ. Proper name, as translated in the EOB. In robertson we read on page 795… ”...” Χριστοῦ is not capitalized in Byz2005. 2018?
Solomon difference between Pat By05/F35
1:7 Σολομὼν δὲ ἐγέννησε τὸν Ῥοβοάμ, Ῥοβοὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησε τὸν Ἀβιά, Ἀβιὰ δὲ ἐγέννησε τὸν Ἀσά,
τὸν Ἀσά. In Παραλειπομένων Αʹ (1 Supplements/1 Chronicles) 3:10 we read: “Υἱοὶ Σαλωμων· Ροβοαμ, Αβια υἱὸς αὐτοῦ, Ασα υἱὸς αὐτοῦ, Ιωσαφατ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ,” and Vulgate reads Asa in OT and NT. Old Latin?
Asa. see above
1:10 Ἐζεκίας δὲ ἐγέννησε τὸν Μανασσῆ, Μανασσῆς δὲ ἐγέννησε τὸν Ἀμών, Ἀμὼν δὲ ἐγέννησε τὸν Ἰωσίαν,
τὸν Ἀμών. In Παραλειπομένων Αʹ (1 Supplements/1 Chronicles) 3:14 we read: Αμων υἱὸς αὐτοῦ, Ιωσια υἱὸς αὐτοῦ. The Vulgate reads Amon in OT and NT. Old Latin?
Ματθαῖον Αʹ:18-25 (EOB 1:18-25—The Birth of Jesus)
1:19 Ἰωσὴφ δὲ ὁ ἀνὴρ αὐτῆς, δίκαιος ὢν καὶ μὴ θέλων αὐτὴν παραδειγματίσαι, ἐβουλήθη λάθρα ἀπολῦσαι αὐτήν.
παραδειγματίσαι. Aor act inf παραδειγματίζω (complementary).
Ματθαῖον Βʹ:1-12 (EOB 2:1-12—The visit of the wise men (magi))
2:6 καὶ σὺ Βηθλεέμ, γῆ Ἰούδα, οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα· ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος, ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ.
ἐξελεύσεται. Fut mid ind 3rd sg ἐξέρχομαι.
Ματθαῖον Βʹ:13-23 (EOB 2:13-23—The sojourn in Egypt—The massacre of the infants))
2:18 φωνὴ ἐν Ῥαμᾷ ἠκούσθη, θρῆνος καὶ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὀδυρμὸς πολύς· Ῥαχὴλ κλαίουσα τὰ τέκνα αὐτῆς, καὶ οὐκ ἤθελε παρακληθῆναι, ὅτι οὐκ εἰσίν.
θρῆνος καὶ. In LXX/OG Ἱερεμίας (Ieremias/Jeremiah) 38:15 (31:15 in the Clementine Vulgate and MT) we read: Οὕτως εἶπεν κύριος Φωνὴ ἐν Ραμα ἠκούσθη θρήνου καὶ κλαυθμοῦ καὶ ὀδυρμοῦ· Ραχηλ ἀποκλαιομένη οὐκ ἤθελεν παύσασθαι ἐπὶ τοῖς υἱοῖς αὐτῆς, ὅτι οὐκ εἰσίν. The Clementine Vulgate reads as the LXX/OG in OT but not in the NT. Old Latin?
2:23 καὶ ἐλθὼν κατῴκησεν εἰς πόλιν λεγομένην Ναζαρέτ, ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται.
ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται. The EOB follows the KJV. BHGNT says translates “that.” Zerwick ss417 says “that” is incorrect and translates “because,” and in so doing reveals what the EOB note on this verse says is lacking. [quotes everything here]
Ματθαῖον Δʹ:12-25 (EOB 4:12-25—The beginning of the Lord’s ministry in Galilee—First disciples)
4:12 Ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι Ἰωάννης παρεδόθη, ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν,
Ἀκούσας. Aor act ptc masc nom sg ἀκούω (temporal/causal/attendant circumstance). Adverbial participle that precedes the main verb; it is modifying ἀνεχώρησεν.
5:23 - μνησθῇς ubs 5 reader/passive--analytical codes bible/passive deponent--zerwick/deponent/ etc. check all eggnt pass-dep---lingand ex ket pass dep--
5:37 - evil one - see Irons Syntax/BDAG for fathers who takes it as a masculine substantive and some who do not, etc.
Ματθαῖον Εʹ:38-48 (EOB 5:38-48—Retaliation and love for one’s enemies)
5:47 καὶ ἐὰν ἀσπάσησθε τοὺς φίλους ὑμῶν μόνον, τί περισσὸν ποιεῖτε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ τελῶναι οὕτω ποιοῦσιν;
οἱ τελῶναι. Nominative subject of ποιῦσιν. The Clementine Vulgate reads: Et si salutaveritis fratres vestros tantum, quid amplius facitis? nonne et ethnici hoc faciunt?
οὕτω. Adverb (demonstrative) thus, so. UBS5 reads ...τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; (...do the same?) The PT & Byz2005 read ...οὕτω ποιοῦσιν; (...so do?) The EOB reads “...do the same?” and shows one of the faults of the EOB as a translation. In the Introduction to the EOB we read,
“The EOB/NT project began as a revision of the WEB (World English Bible) which is a fairly accurate, easy-to-read and well-respected public-domain translation based on the [Hodges-Farstad] Majority Text. [...] It is primarily an update of the 1901 edition of the ASV (American Standard Version) using the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (also called The Stuttgart Bible) in the Old Testament, and the Byzantine [Hodges-Farstad] Majority Text (MT) in the New.”
The EOB accidentally follows the ASV: ASV: “do not even the Gentiles the same?” EOB: “Do not even the tax collectors do the same?” The EOB should read “Do not even the collectors of tolls so do?” as it says in the PT οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ τελῶναι οὕτω ποιοῦσιν; For the grammar of the ASV translation see RGK/Decker §6.19.
Ματθαῖον ΣΤʹ:1-4 (EOB 6:1-4—Almsgiving)
Matt 6:4 εν τω φανερώ.
Matt 6:6 ἐν τῷ φανερῷ
Ματθαῖον ΣΤʹ:5-15 (EOB 6:5-15—Prayer—‘The Lord’s Prayer’)
6:11 τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
τὸν ἐπιούσιον. Accusative masculine singular of ἐπιούσιος. A.T. Robertson informs us:
Our daily bread (ton arton hēmōn ton epiousion). This adjective “daily” (epiousion) coming after “Give us this day” (dos hēmīn sēmeron) has given expositors a great deal of trouble. The effort has been made to derive it from epi and ōn (ousa). It clearly comes from epi and iōn (epi and eimi [ἐπί and εἰμί]) like tēi epiousēi (“on the coming day,” “the next day,” [Acts 16:11]). But the adjective epiousios is rare and Origen said it was made by the Evangelists Matthew and Luke to reproduce the idea of an Aramaic original. Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary say: “The papyri have as yet shed no clear light upon this difficult word (Matt. 6:11; Luke 11:3), which was in all probability a new coinage by the author of the Greek Q to render his Aramaic Original” (this in 1919). Deissmann claims that only about fifty purely New Testament or “Christian” words can be admitted out of the more than 5,000 used. “But when a word is not recognizable at sight as a Jewish or Christian new formation, we must consider it as an ordinary Greek word until the contrary is proved. Epiousios has all the appearance of a word that originated in trade and traffic of the everyday life of the people (cf. my hints in Neutestamentliche Studien Georg Heinrici dargebracht, Leipzig, 1914, pp. 118f.). The opinion here expressed has been confirmed by A. Debrunner’s discovery (Theol. Lit. Ztg. 1925, Col. 119) of epiousios in an ancient housekeeping book” (Light from the Ancient East, [Fourth ed. 1922], p. 78 and note 1). So then it is not a word coined by the Evangelist or by Q to express an Aramaic original. The word occurs also in three late MSS. after 2Macc. 1:8, tous epiousious after tous artous. The meaning, in view of the kindred participle (epiousēi) in [Acts 16:11], seems to be “for the coming day,” a daily prayer for the needs of the next day as every housekeeper understands like the housekeeping book discovered by Debrunner.
The reference “Theol. Lit. Ztg. 1925, Col. 119” is also mentioned in a footnote in TDNT Vol. II, page 591 as “ThLZ, 50 (1925), 119”. I found it in Theologische Literaturzeitung here: https://www.digizeitschriften.de/download/urn:nbn:de:bsz:21-dt-20703/urn:nbn:de:bsz:21-dt-20703___log00139.pdf
People make much out of this word, due to the Vulgates influence on English translations. Above Robertson and Deissman delineate the meaning to us and show why a proper understanding of Koine Greek in light of Koine Greek is important.
6:13 καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ. ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας· ἀμήν.
ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ. “From the evil one” see Paine p.?
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας· ἀμήν. See David’s praises in Παραλειπομένων Αʹ (1 Supplements/1 Chronicles) 29:11-13.
6:15 ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀφῆτε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὰ παραπτώματα αὐτῶν, οὐδὲ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ἀφήσει τὰ παραπτώματα ὑμῶν.
τὰ παραπτώματα. Accusative direct object of ἀφῆτε.
αὐτῶν. Subjective genitive.
The reading with τὰ παραπτώματα αὐτῶν is found in the Byzantine Text and interestingly enough it is included in brackets in W & H (I’m assuming this is because it is found in B (03) but not ℵ (01)); however, it is not in the Clementine Vulgate nor the Weber Vulgate.
Ματθαῖον ΣΤʹ:16-23 (EOB 6:16-23—About fasting—Treasures in heaven—The light of the body)
6:18 ὅπως μὴ φανῇς τοῖς ἀνθρώποις νηστεύων, ἀλλὰ τῷ πατρί σου τῷ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ, καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ ἀποδώσει σοι ἐν τῷ φανερῷ.
ἐν τῷ φανερῷ. Manner. ἐν τῷ φανερῷ here is not found in Byz2005, F35, nor the Vulgate, but it is found in the TR, which would lead me to believe that it is an addition to the PT under the influence of the TR. However, when we read the apparatus in UBS5: “σοι ἐν τῷ φανερῷ Δ 0233 157 205 579 1071 1241 1243 1342 1505 Byzpt [E] Lectpt, AD (ita, b, c, g1, h, k ὑμῖν for σοι) syrpalms armmss geo slav Diatessaronarm” where Lectpt, AD means “A part of the lectionary manuscript tradition in agreement with the lectionary text of the Greek Church (i. e., the edition by Apostoliki Diakonia, Athens).” As far as I’m aware, the lectionary edition by Apostoliki Diakonia does in fact differ at times from the PT
6:23 ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρὸς ᾖ, ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινὸν ἔσται. εἰ οὖν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἐν σοὶ σκότος ἐστί, τὸ σκότος πόσον;
πόσον; UBS5 reads τὸ σκότος πόσον. (With most translations from the Critical Text ending with “!” see BDAG and EGGNT Matthew for why.) The PT & Byz2005 read τὸ σκότος πόσον; (how great [is the] darkness?) The EOB reads “how great is the darkness!” and shows one of the faults of the EOB as a translation due to it being a revision of a translation from the HFMT rather than a fresh translation from the PT. In the Introduction to the EOB we read,
The EOB/NT project began as a revision of the WEB (World English Bible) which is a fairly accurate, easy-to-read and well-respected public-domain translation based on the [Hodges-Farstad] Majority Text. [...] It is primarily an update of the 1901 edition of the ASV (American Standard Version) using the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (also called The Stuttgart Bible) in the Old Testament, and the Byzantine [Hodges-Farstad] Majority Text (MT) in the New.
The EOB accidentally follows the Hodges-Farstad Majority Text: HFMT: “Ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρὸς ᾖ, ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινὸν ἔσται. Εἰ οὖν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἐν σοὶ σκότος ἐστί, τὸ σκότος πόσον!” EOB: “But if your eye is evil, your whole body will be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in you is darkness, how great is the darkness!” The EOB should read “But if your eye is evil, your whole body will be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in you is darkness, how great is the darkness?” as it says in the PT.
Matthew 8:6 - βέβληται. Perfect passive indicative third singular of βάλλω, BDAG 1.b.: “Pass. abs. (Conon [I BC/I AD] 26 fgm. 1, 17 Jac. βαλλομένη θνήσκει) lie on a sickbed (cp. Babrius 103, 4 κάμνων ἐβέβλητο [ἔκειτο L-P.]) Mt 8:6, 14.”
Matthew 8:29 → John 2:4
Matthew 9:2 - βεβλημένον. Perfect middle participle accusative masculine singular of βάλλω, BDAG 1.b.: “Of physical disability βεβλημένος lying (Jos., Bell. 1, 629) ἐπὶ κλίνης β. Mt 9:2; [...].”
Matthew 9:38 - ὅπως. BDAG 2.b.
Matthew 10:5 - Τούτους τοὺς δώδεκα ἀπέστειλεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς παραγγείλας αὐτοῖς λέγων· εἰς ὁδὸν ἐθνῶν μὴ ἀπέλθητε καὶ εἰς πόλιν Σαμαρειτῶν μὴ εἰσέλθητε·
παραγγείλας - BDAG: “παραγγέλλω (παρά, ἀγγέλλω) impf. παρήγγελλον; 1 aor. παρήγγειλα. Pass.: pf. ptc. παρηγγελμένος 3 Macc 4:14 (Aeschyl., Hdt.+; ins, pap, LXX; TestSol 26:4 B; Test12 Patr; ApcSed 9:5; ApcEsdr 4:28 p. 29, 2 Tdf.; Philo, Joseph., Just.) to make an announcement about someth. that must be done, give orders, command, instruct, direct of all kinds of persons in authority, worldly rulers, Jesus, the apostles. Abs. παραγγέλλων in giving my instructions 1 Cor 11:17. W. pres. inf. foll. Ac 15:5; w. acc. and aor. inf. foll. 1 Ti 6:13f v.l. τὶ direct, urge, insist on (Philo, Spec. Leg. 3, 80) 2 Th 3:4; 1 Ti 4:11; 5:7. τινί (Jos., Ant. 2, 311) urge παραγγείλαντες αὐτοῖς Ac 15:5 v.l.; direct, command someone καθὼς ὑμῖν παρηγγείλαμεν 1 Th 4:11; pass. τὰ παρηγγελμένα τινί what someone was told (to do) short ending of Mk. τινί w. λέγων and dir. discourse foll. Mt 10:5. [...]”
Matthew 10:8 - “raise the dead” in Patriarchal, TR, NA28 but not in Byz 2005/2018 (not even in apparatus) and not in Kr35 see Baylor Handbook and Metzger
Matthew 11:8 - ἀλλὰ τί ἐξήλθετε ἰδεῖν; ἄνθρωπον ἐν μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμφιεσμένον; ἰδοὺ οἱ τὰ μαλακὰ φοροῦντες ἐν τοῖς οἴκοις τῶν βασιλέων εἰσίν.
Ἐξήλθετε. Aor act ind 2nd pl of ἐξέρχομαι, to come out, go out.
Matthew 11:23 - Byz vs CT
Matt 12:32 - μέλλοντι. Present active participle dative masculine singular of μέλλω, BDAG: “3. The ptc. is used abs. in the mng. (in the) future, to come (Pind., O. 10, 7 ὁ μέλλων χρόνος ‘the due date’) ὁ αἰὼν μέλλων the age to come (s. αἰών 2b), which brings the reign of God (opp. ὁ αἰὼν οὗτος or ὁ νῦν αἰών) Mt 12:32; [...].”
Matthew 12:37 - δικαιωθήση … “vindicated” as Hart translates, and BDAG 2.b.β
Matthew 13:2 - καὶ συνήχθησαν πρὸς αὐτὸν ὄχλοι πολλοί, ὥστε αὐτὸν εἰς πλοῖον ἐμβάντα καθῆσθαι, καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος ἐπὶ τὸν αἰγιαλὸν εἱστήκει.
αἰγιαλὸν - DBH: “strand.” Middle Liddell: “αἰγιᾰλός, ὁ, (αἴξ II) the sea-shore, beach, strand, Hom., Hdt.; αἰγιαλὸν ἔνδον τρέφει, i.e. he has a whole seabeach (i.e. quantities of voting-pebbles, ψῆφοι) in his house, Ar.”
BDAG: “αἰγιαλός, οῦ, ὁ shore, beach (Hom. et al., mostly of the sea, as OGI 199, 21; Judg 5:17 A; Philo, Aet. M. 42; Jos., Ant. 14, 292; TestZeb 6:3, TestSol 2:5; but also of lakes: e.g. PTebt 79 [148 BC]; 82; 83; PFay 82, 3; Jos., Bell. 3, 521 [Lake Gennesaret]) gener. ἑστάναι ἐπὶ τὸν αἰ. Mt 13:2; ἑστάναι εἰς τὸν αἰ. J 21:4; ἀναβιβάζειν ἐπὶ τὸν αἰ. Mt 13:48; cp. Ac 21:5. Suitable for beaching ships κόλπον ἔχοντα αἰ. a bay with a ( fine ) beach 27:39 (cp. X., An. 6, 4, 4 λιμὴν αἰγιαλὸν ἔχων); κατέχειν εἰς τ. αἰ. to head for the beach (s. κατέχω 7) vs. 40.—B. 32. DELG. M-M.”
Matthew 13:15 - ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου, καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶ βαρέως ἤκουσαν, καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν, μή ποτε ἴδωσι τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσι καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσι καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσι, καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτούς.
ἐπαχύνθη - DBH: “has grown crass,” BDAG: “παχύνω aor. 3 sg. ἐπάχυνεν 2 Km 22:12. Pass.: fut. 2 sg. παχυνθήσει (ApcMos 24); aor. ἐπαχύνθην (Aeschyl., Hippocr. et al.; PTebt 273, 31; Philo, Aet. M. 103); pf. 3 sg. πεπάχυται (Just., D. 12, 2; 1); in our lit. only in OT quotations.
2. fig. make impervious (orig. to water), make gross, dull (Plut., Mor. 995d τὰς ψυχάς; Philostrat., Vi. Apoll. 1, 8 νοῦν). Pass. in act. sense become dull (Herm. Wr. in Stob.=508, 32 Sc. of the ψυχή; SibOr 7, 106; Synes., Dreams 6 p. 136d; 137a ‘become dull’ [of eyes]) ἐπαχύνθη ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου Mt 13:15; Ac 28:27 (s. βαρύνω; both Is 6:10).—B. 887. DELG. M-M. TW.”
Matthew 13:24 - ὡμοιώθη - θη-middle (See Decker). Rachel Aubrey’s chapter in The Greek Verb Revisited
Matthew 13:32 - αὐξηθῇ - θη-middle (See Decker). Rachel Aubrey’s chapter in The Greek Verb Revisited
Matthew 13:30 - ἄφετε συναυξάνεσθαι ἀμφότερα μέχρι τοῦ θερισμοῦ, καὶ ἐν καιρῷ τοῦ θερισμοῦ ἐρῶ τοῖς θερισταῖς· συλλέξατε πρῶτον τὰ ζιζάνια καὶ δήσατε αὐτὰ εἰς δέσμας πρὸς τὸ κατακαῦσαι αὐτά, τὸν δὲ σῖτον συναγάγετε εἰς τὴν ἀποθήκην μου.
δέσμας - DBH: “sheaves”; BDAG: “δέσμη (Lobeck, Paralipomena Gramm. Graec. 1837, 396, or δεσμή as the gramm. Herodian I 324, 10; II 426, 6 [Lentz] would accent it) ης, ἡ bundle (since Demosth. and Theophr., HP 9, 17, 1; Diod. S. 19, 99, 2 δέσμη καλάμων; Dionys. Hal. 3, 61, 2; pap [Mayser 285; 435]; Ex 12:22) δῆσαι εἰς δέσμας tie up in bundles Mt 13:30.—DELG s.v. δέω 1. M-M. TW.”
Matthew 13:48 - see 13:2
Matthew 13:55 - οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱὸς; οὐχὶ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται Μαριὰμ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωσῆς καὶ Σίμων καὶ Ἰούδας;
Ἰωσῆς. “The name of one of Jesus’s brothers is “Joses” according to the earliest MS (𝔓103); it is “Joseph” in ℵ B. The names of Jesus’s four brothers are James, Joses, Simon, and Judas. “Joses” is the Galilean pronunciation (yose) of the Hebrew yosep (“Joseph”).”
Matthew 14:6 - γενεσίων δὲ ἀγομένων τοῦ Ἡρῴδου ὠρχήσατο ἡ θυγάτηρ τῆς Ἡρωδιάδος ἐν τῷ μέσῳ καὶ ἤρεσε τῷ Ἡρῴδῃ·
γενεσίων. Genitive neuter plural of γενεσία, birthday.
ἀγομένων. Present middle participle genitive neuter plural of ἄγω, celebrate (BDAG p. 16, no. 4).
γενεσίων δὲ ἀγομένων. Genitive absolute construction. This reading is found in Codex Washingtonensis, W(032), IV/V century. The Gospel of Matthew in W(032) is Byzantine Text, which is interesting for me as then the Byzantine manuscript used by the scribe was already in existence. When I come across people or writings opposed to the Byzantine Text, I am usual told that the Byzantine Text dates to after the 9th century, or that St. John Chrysostom is our first real source, or to Lucian of Antioch’s recension (I am not sure if Lucian actually made a recension). My current reading/research/knowledge (as of 2 November 2020) has pointed me to look to Asterius of Cappadocia—apparently an Arian and a student of Lucian of Antioch—and to Wulfila, an Arian and a bishop, whose translation of the Bible into Gothic apparently used the Byzantine Text. I am currently unsure of where to start with Wulfilia; but with Asterius I need to first read
Gordon D. Fee, "The Use of Greek Patristic Citations in New Testament Textual Criticism: The State of the Question," pp. 344–359 in Studies in the Theory and Method of New Testament Textual Criticism (ed. Eldon J. Epp and Gordon D. Fee; Studies & Documents 45; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993), p. 358.
Matthew 16:17 - DBH’s “Blissful” is incorrect in this context. See BDAG μακάριος, ία, ιον 2.a.
Matthew 16:22 - DBH’s “remonstrate with him” is odd and I don’t think is strong enough to convey what ἐπιτιμάω means. When I look to all my lexicons, none of them have “remonstrate” with ἐπιτιμάω. In Louw & Nida 33.419 we read: “ἐπιτιμάωa: to express strong disapproval of someone — ‘to rebuke, to denounce.’ προσλαβόμενος αὐτὸν ὁ Πέτρος ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ ‘Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him’ Mt 16:22.”
But on further study and reflection, perhaps I am wrong. Lattimore translates it as “and tried to warn him. But interestingly enough we seem to find congruence with DBH in Robertson:
Peter took him (proslabomenos auton ho Petros). Middle voice, “taking to himself,” aside and apart, “as if by a right of his own. He acted with greater familiarity after the token of acknowledgment had been given. Jesus, however, reduces him to his level” (Bengel). “Peter here appears in a new character; a minute ago speaking under inspiration from heaven, now under inspiration from the opposite quarter” (Bruce). Syriac Sinaitic for Mark 8:32 has it “as though pitying him.” But this exclamation and remonstrance of Peter was soon interrupted by Jesus. God have mercy on thee (hileōs. Supply eiē or estō ho theos). This shall never be (ou mē estai soi touto). Strongest kind of negation, as if Peter would not let it happen. Peter had perfect assurance.
Matthew 17:21-missing in THGNT, bracketed in Zerwick
Matthew 18:8 - εἰ δὲ ἡ χείρ σου ἢ ὁ πούς σου σκανδαλίζει σε, ἔκκοψον αὐτὰ καὶ βάλε ἀπὸ σοῦ· καλόν σοί ἐστιν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν ζωὴν χωλὸν ἢ κυλλὸν, ἢ δύο χεῖρας ἢ δύο πόδας ἔχοντα βληθῆναι εἰς τὸ πῦρ τὸ αἰώνιον.
DBH is incorrect when he translates τὸ πῦρ τὸ αἰώνιον as “the fire of the Age” because τὸ αἰώνιον is not in the genitive case but rarther in the accusitive. Furthermore, it is also in the second attributive position, which is something one learns in First Year Koine Greek:
6.10. Attributive adjectives are typically a direct description of a noun: τὸν πρῶτον λόγον (“the first word”) or τοῖς κενοῖς λόγοις (“the empty words”) or πιστοῦ λόγου (“a faithful/dependable word”). Predicate adjectives make a statement about the noun: οἱ λόγοι ἀληθινοί εἰσιν (“the words are true”).
An adjective that modifies an articular noun will always have an article in front of the adjective. This is called the attributive position. Two attributive patterns may occur; there is no difference in meaning.
first attributive position article → adjective → noun
ὁ ἅγιος θεός, “the holy God”
second attributive position article → noun → article → adjective
ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἅγιος, “the holy God”
Further, in Robertson we read:
8. In verses 8 and 9 we have one of the dualities or doublets in Matthew (5:29-30). Jesus repeated his pungent sayings many times. Instead of eis geennan (5:29) we have eis to pur to aiōnion and at the end of verse 9 tou puros is added to tēn geennan. This is the first use in Matthew of aiōnios. We have it again in 19:16, 29 with zoē, in 25:41 with pur, in 25:46 with kolasin and zoēn. The word means ageless, without beginning or end as of God (Rom. 16:26), without beginning as in Rom. 16:25, without end as here and often. The effort to make it mean “aeonian” fire will make it mean “aeonian” life also. If the punishment is limited, ipso facto the life is shortened. In verse 9 also monophthalmon occurs. It is an Ionic compound in Herodotus that is condemned by the Atticists, but it is revived in the vernacular Koiné. Literally one-eyed. Here only and Mark 9:47 in the New Testament.
Matthew 18:11-missing in THGNT, bracketed in Zerwick
Matt 26:71 - punctuation
ΤΟ ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ
Μάρκον Αʹ:1-11 (EOB 1:1-11—The ministry of John the Baptist—The Lord’s baptism)
1:8 ἐγὼ μὲν ἐβάπτισα ὑμᾶς ἐν ὕδατι, αὐτὸς δὲ βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς ἐν Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ.
ἐν ὕδατι . . . ἐν Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ. NA28/UBS5 omits the preposition ἐν before ὕδατι with no change of meaning. THGNT has the same reading as PatGNT and ByzTextform; where NA28/UBS5, THGNT and ByzTextform agree against PatGNT is in the capitalization of Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ. A quick glance at some manuscripts will allow the reader to see if capitalization is warranted or not due to nomina sacra. I believe in future editions the THGNT might take these into consideration, and I hope they do incorporate them into the text with proper support from the mss. being shown in the apparatus.
Μάρκον Εʹ:1-20 (EOB 5:1-20—The healing of the demoniac—The demons (legion) sent in the pigs)
1:1 ΚΑΙ ἦλθον εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς θαλάσσης εἰς τὴν χώραν τῶν Γεργεσηνῶν.
τῶν Γεργεσηνῶν. To me, this is not a significant textual variant. THGNT/NA28/UBS5 read Γερασηνῶν; Byz2005 and F35 read Γαδαρηνῶν, as does the TR. Blessed Theophylact tells us “The more precise manuscripts read ‘the country of the Gergesenes,’ instead of ‘Gadarenes.’” For further information see p. 116 of Mark 1-8: A Handbook on the Greek Text by Rodney J. Decker, and p. 187 of the NT cited in footnote 30.
Μάρκον ΣΤʹ:6b-13 (EOB 6:6b-13—The sending of the Twelve)
6:11 καὶ ὅσοι ἐὰν μὴ δέξωνται ὑμᾶς μηδὲ ἀκούσωσιν ὑμῶν, ἐκπορευόμενοι ἐκεῖθεν ἐκτινάξατε τὸν χοῦν τὸν ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται Σοδόμοις ἢ Γομόρροις ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως ἢ τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ.
εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται Σοδόμοις ἢ Γομόρροις ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως ἢ τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ. Codex W(032) ends with ⲁⲩⲧⲱⲛ not αὐτοῖς and does not contain the longer ending. Mark 5:31-16:20 in W(032) is of the Caesarean text-type.
Μάρκον Ζʹ:1-23 (EOB 7:1-23—Traditions that nullify the word of God)
7:19 ὅτι οὐκ εἰσπορεύεται αὐτοῦ εἰς τὴν καρδίαν, ἀλλ̓ εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν, καὶ εἰς τὸν ἀφεδρῶνα ἐκπορεύεται, καθαρίζον πάντα τὰ βρώματα.
καθαρίζον πάντα τὰ βρώματα. This is an interesting example of how the difference in grammatical gender can cause a different understanding and much confusion. In the Byzantine Text as seen in the Patriarchal Text above, καθαρίζον is present active participle nominative neuter singular of καθαρίζω, and due to it being neuter, we get the understanding of “purging/cleansing all foods” and is apart of what Jesus is explaining to the disciples. However, the non-Byzantine reading (I have seen it in the Alexandrian and Caesarian Text-types, which is not difficult to find) is καθαρίζων, being masculine rather than neuter, and thus referring back to Jesus in verse 18 (which begins, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς·) and leads to the understanding that the words are not a part of what Jesus is explaining, but rather a comment by St. Mark, namely that Jesus in explaining the parable is “cleansing all foods” (the participle is present tense); and this is the reading Origen, St. Gregory The Wonder-Worker, and St. John Chrysostom have, καθαρίζων.
The Patristic witness leads me to conclude two textual options: 1. The Byzantine text has the wrong reading here, and it should be the masculine, or 2. The Byzantine text has the original reading here, and the Text that Origen and St. Gregory used had been corrupted. A problem that comes to mind is that if St. Chrysostom used the Byzantine Text (as most people say), then why does his Byzantine Text read καθαρίζων and our current Byzantine Text(s) read καθαρίζον? I need to find time to look through von Soden’s manuscripts (K, Kx, Kr etc.) to see the texts for myself to go further here; at any rate, the UBS5 apparatus does inform us that the Byzantine Text is divided on this reading whereas Byz2005 doesn’t (my Byz2018 is in a box in another Province, so I cannot check it at the moment). But also we could think of the wording as
constructio ad sensum, which is what David Bentley Hart (who translated from the Critical Text, thus καθαρίζων) appears to have done: “purging away everything that has been eaten?” (UBS5 has a Greek question mark at the end, as Hart translated.)
A few words about how we see this played out in Orthodox translations. First, we ignore The Orthodox Study Bible here because its New Testament is unfortunately translated from the Textus Receptus. Secondly, The Holy Apostles Convent Evangelistarion mistranslated this passage; they translated from the Patriarchal Text thus: this He said making all the foods clean. We read in the notes that the translator arrived at this translation probably under the influence of Vincent’s Word Studies in the New Testament or A.T. Robertson’s Word Pictures in the New Testament and from misidentifying the neuter καθαρίζον for the masculine καθαρίζων. However, the translator does support their translation by appealing to St. John Chrysostom (as discussed above). And finally, the EOB New Testament has both readings, but the translator put the correct reading—καθαρίζον, according to the Greek of the Patriarchal Text—in the footnote, “thus purging all foods” and added a question mark in the main text, as found in the Critical Text(s).
Mark 9:10 - Punctuation differences between Byz/TR and F35/PT. WEB follows Byz, but EOB accidentally? keeps the WEB translation rather than following the PT; HAC translates following the PT. See Decker 2nd volume κτλ. According to my English translation of The Diatessaron of Tatian: “And they kept the word within themselves, and told no man what they had seen.” Seems Tatian understood the text as found in Byz/TR.
John 1:9 - The EOB translates it incorrectly the OSB, HA Convent Evangelaristarion, and Vulgate correctly if following the Pat-GNT and TR. The EOB translates what NA28 says...the punctuation is different between the PatGNT and NA28. See Irons’ Syntax and Zerwick. Lattimore follows W&H (no punctuation) and translates it same as OSB etc. See Royster pp.14-16.
John 1:15 - [here] see Vincent compared to v 27, and Word Pictures compared to Vincent. Royster p. 21: “[here]”
John 1:27 - αὐτός ἐστιν ὁ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος, ὃς ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν, οὗ ἐγὼ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἄξιος ἵνα λύσω αὐτοῦ τὸν ἱμάντα τοῦ ὑποδήματος.
ὃς ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν - I had a difficult time with this, as the KJV/NKJV/Duay-Rheims translates γέγονεν as “preferred” but the EOB “ranks.” I found help only in Thayer:
1715. ἔμπροσθεν; emprosthen (Tdf. in Rev. 4:6 enprosthen (see en, III. 3; cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) 8)), adverb of place and of time (from en and prosthen, properly, in the fore part); (from Herodotus down); the Septuagint chiefly for lipnê; before. In the N.T. used only of place;
2. it serves as a preposition, with the genitive (Buttmann, 319 (274); Winer’s Grammar, sec. 54, 6); [...] d. before, denoting rank: gegonenai emprosthen tinos, to have obtained greater dignity than another, John 1:15, 30, also 27 R L brackets; (Gen. 48:20 ethēke ton Efraim emprosthen tou Manassē; (cf. Plato, legg. 1,631 d.; 5, 743 e.; 7, 805 d.)).*
“R” refering to the TR, due to this verse being different in the Alexandian Text. The verse is the same (ignoring punctuation and capitalization) in the TR and Byzantine Text. Regarding this understanding, see Royster’s comments above for verse 15 which hold for verse 27.
John 1:28 - par-gnt wrong? F35 correct, see royster p. 31
John 1:35 - Vincent and Robertson say the two disciples are Andrew and the Evangelist himself, but Royster quoting Blessed Theophylact inform us the two are Sts. Peter and Andrew. See Royster p. 35
John 2:4 → Matthew 8:29
John 2:22 - Decker reading p. 188-187 but contra Roberston Word Pictures
Romans 5:12 - the sacred gift of life p. 30
1 Timothy 3:16 - the sacred gift of life p. 26, but contra Ancient Christian Texts Ambroiaster?
1 Timothy 5:21 - See St. Athanasius’s “Letters to Serapion on the Holy Spirit.”
Hebrews 6:13-20 - see The Pedalion p. Xxii
1 John 2:27 - αυτω dative - him or it? See Hart’s nt too
Kεραία—Greek numeral sign, Unicode U+0374.
Nominative absolute—if you’ve read Wallace, unneeded.
pleonasm. n. The use of superfluous words or phrases (πλεονασμός, “having more than necessary”).
To make an accurate bibliography to a work like this which derives from a mixture of academia, piety, devotion, struggle, and faith is basically impossible. I have tried my best to accurately detail everything I’ve interacted with along my journey.
Aland, Barbara, Kurt Aland, Iōan D. Karavidopoulos, Carlo Maria Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, Barclay M. Newman, and Florian Voss. The Greek New Testament: A Reader's Edition. Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2017.
Anderson, Paul D. ““The Greek Orthodox Lectionary and the New Testament: History, Text, and Traditions.” The Journal of OCABS, Vol 5, No 1 (2012). Accessed July 24, 2019. http://ocabs.org/journal/index.php/jocabs/article/viewFile/65/35.
Berardino, A. Di. Di Berardino, Angelo, ed. Encyclopedia of Ancient Christianity. Accordance electronic edition, version 1.1. Downer’s Grove: InverVarsity Press, 2014.
Biblia Sacra Juxta Vulgatam Clementinam. Ed. electronica. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2005.
Black, David Alan. Learn to Read New Testament Greek. 3rd ed. Nashville, TN: B&H Publishing Group, 2009.
Blass, F., A. Debrunner, and Robert W. Funk. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Accordance electronic edition, version 1.3. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1961.
Brannan, Rick, Ken M. Penner, Israel Loken, Michael Aubrey, and Isaiah Hoogendyk, eds. The Lexham English Septuagint. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2012.
Brayford, Susan. Genesis, Septuagint Commentary Series. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
Cleenewerck, Laurent, ed. The Eastern/Greek Orthodox Bible: New Testament. Laurent A. Cleenewerck, 2011.
Cleenewerck, Laurent, ed. The Eastern/Greek Orthodox Bible: New Testament, Pocket Edition. Columbia, MO: New Rome Press, 2015.
Comfort, Philip Wesley, A Commentary on the Manuscripts and Text of the New Testament. Accordance electronic ed. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2015.
Decker, Rodney J., Reading Koine Greek. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2014.
Decker, Rodney J., Reading Koine Greek. Accordance electronic ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2014.
Deferrari, Roy J., Inviolata M. Barry, and Ignatius McGuiness. A Lexicon of Saint Thomas Aquinas Based on the Summa Theologica and Selected Passages of His Other Works. Baltimore, MD: Catholic University of America Press, 1948.
Deissman, Adolf. Light From the Ancient East. Fourth Edition. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1922.
Douay-Rheims Bible: Richard Challoner Revisions/The Holy Bible, Translated from the Latin Vulgate. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2009.
Farstad, Arthur L., and Zane C. Hodges. “The New Testament in the Original Greek According to the Byzantine/Majority-Textform.” Grace Evangelical Society. Accessed April 22, 2020. https://faithalone.org/journal-articles/book-reviews/the-new-testament-in-the-original-greek-according-to-the-byzantinemajority-textform/.
Goodman, William R. Freedman, David Noel, Allen C. Myers, and Astrid B. Beck, eds. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Accordance electronic ed., version 3.8. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000.
Harden, J. M. Dictionary of the Vulgate New Testament. London; New York: Society of Promoting Christian Knowledge; The Macmillan Co., 1921.
Hart, David Bentley. The New Testament: A Translation. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2019.
Haydock, George Leo. Haydock’s Catholic Bible Commentary. New York: Edward Dunigan and Brother, 1859.
Hellenic Bible Society. New Testament Patriarchal Text (ANTONIADIS TEXT) 1904. Hellenic Bible Society, 1904.
Irons, Charles Lee. A Syntax Guide for Readers of the Greek New Testament. Kregel Academic, 2016.
Jannaris, Antonios Nicholas. An Historical Greek Grammar: Chiefly of the Attic Dialect ; as Written and Spoken from Classical Antiquity down to the Present Time. London: Macmillan, 1897.
Kothe, Jochen. "Werbung." Theologische Literaturzeitung: Monatsschrift Für Das Gesamte Gebiet Der Theologie Und Religionswissenschaft. January 01, 1970. Accessed July 18, 2019. https://www.digizeitschriften.de/dms/img/?PID=urn:nbn:de:bsz:21-dt-20703|log00138.
Louw, Johannes P. and Eugene A. Nida, eds. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. 2d, Accordance electronic ed., version 4.2. New York: United Bible Societies, 1989.
Lust, J., E. Eynikel, and K. Hauspie, eds. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. Third corrected; Accordance electronic ed., version 1.0. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2015.
Muraoka, T. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. Louvain: Peeters, 2009.
Muraoka, T. A Syntax of Septuagint Greek. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters, 2016.
Olmstead, Wesley G. Matthew 1-14: A Handbook on the Greek Text. Baylor Handbook on the Greek New Testament. Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 2019.
Pharr, Clyde. “A Year—or More—of Greek.” Internet Archive. The Classical Journal, February 1918. https://archive.org/details/jstor-3288430/mode/1up.
Robertson, A. T. Word Pictures in the New Testament. Accordance electronic edition, version 2.0. Altamonte Springs: OakTree Software, 2001.
Robinson, Maurice A., and William G. Pierpont, eds. The New Testament in the Original Greek: Byzantine Textform 2018. VTR Publications, 2018.
–––––. The New Testament in the Original Greek: Byzantine Textform 2005, with Morphology. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2006.
Robinson, Maurice A. and William G. Pierpont, eds. The New Testament in the Original Greek: Byzantine Textform 2005. 1st, Accordance electronic edition, version 1.4. Altamonte Springs: OakTree Software, 2005.
Rose, Fr. Seraphim. Genesis, Creation, and Early Man: The Orthodox Christian Vision. Platina, CA: Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 2000.
Royster, Archbishop Dmitri. The Epistle of St. James: A Commentary. Yonkers, NY: St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2010.
Swete, Henry Barclay. Commentary on Mark: The Greek Text. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Kregel Publications, 1977.
Thayer, Joseph H. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Accordance electronic ed., version 1.7. Altamonte Springs: OakTree Software, 2004.
The Orthodox New Testament. Ninth ed. Vol. 1. Buena Vista, CO: Holy Apostles Convent, 2014.
Varner, William. James: a Commentary on the Greek Text. Fontes Press, 2017.
Voss, David O. “Is Von Sodens a Kr a Distinct Type of Text?” Journal of Biblical Literature 57, no. 3 (1938): 311. https://doi.org/10.2307/3259821.
Zerwick, Max. Biblical Greek Illustrated by Examples. English ed., adapted from the fourth Latin ed. Vol. 114. Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici. Rome: Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1963.
OSB accordance and physical
accordance and physical pat gnt
Accordance pocket new testament greek dictionary
Accordance swete LXX
Accordance TDNT, Volume 2
Majority text and apar logos
Acc Stephanus 1550 TR
Acc 1901 ASV
Acc w & h & physical w & h
Acc Weber Vulgate
Acc Clementine Vulgate
Accorance XII & XIII
 George Leo Haydock, Haydock’s Catholic Bible Commentary (New York: Edward Dunigan and Brother, 1859), Ge 6:2.
 George Leo Haydock, Haydock’s Catholic Bible Commentary (New York: Edward Dunigan and Brother, 1859), Ge 7:2.
 George Leo Haydock, Haydock’s Catholic Bible Commentary (New York: Edward Dunigan and Brother, 1859), Ge 7:11.
 Fr. Seraphim Rose, Genesis, Creation, and Early Man: The Orthodox Christian Vision (Platina, CA: Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 2000), 296.
 Susan Brayford, Genesis, Septuagint Commentary Series (Leiden: Brill, 2007), 312.
 Takamitsu Muraoka, A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint (Louvain: Peeters, 2009), 458.
 F. Blass, A. Debrunner, and Robert W. Funk, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Accordance electronic edition, version 1.3 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1961), §400 .
 Antonios Nicholas. Jannaris, An Historical Greek Grammar: Chiefly of the Attic Dialect ; as Written and Spoken from Classical Antiquity down to the Present Time (London: Macmillan, 1897), 578. Note: In the text Jannaris has ͂ over the capital Υ of τοῦ.
 A. Di Berardino, ed. Encyclopedia of Ancient Christianity, Accordance electronic edition, version 1.1 (Downer’s Grove: InverVarsity Press, 2014), Vol 3, p. 137.
 “σωτηρία,-ας,” A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint (LEH), 603.
 T. Muraoka, A Syntax of Septuagint Greek (Leuven, Belgium: Peeters, 2016), 149.
 T. Muraoka, A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint (Leuven, Belgium: Peeters, 2009), 491.
 Ibid., 731.
 Rahlfs-Hanhart LXX
 Thank you and credit to James R. Street, Nerdy Language Majors, 6 June 2019.
 Biblia Sacra Juxta Vulgatam Clementinam., Ed. electronica (Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2005), Mt 5:47.
 Laurent Cleenewerck, ed., The Eastern/Greek Orthodox Bible: New Testament, Pocket Edition (Columbia, MO: New Rome Press, 2015), 15-16.
 A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, Accordance electronic edition, version 2.0. (Altamonte Springs: OakTree Software, 2001), Matthew 6:11.
 Paul D. Anderson, “The Greek Orthodox Lectionary and the New Testament: History, Text, and Traditions,” The Journal of OCABS, Vol 5, No 1 (2012), accessed July 24, 2019, http://ocabs.org/journal/index.php/jocabs/article/viewFile/65/35.
 Laurent Cleenewerck, ed., The Eastern/Greek Orthodox Bible: New Testament, Pocket Edition (Columbia, MO: New Rome Press, 2015), 15-16.
 Zane Clark Hodges, Arthur L. Farstad, and William C. Dunkin, The Greek New Testament according to the Majority Text, 2nd ed. (Nashville: T. Nelson Publishers, 1985), Mt 6:23.
 abs. = absolute (BDAG)
 Philip Wesley Comfort, A Commentary on the Manuscripts and Text of the New Testament, Accordance electronic ed. (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2015), 151.
 William R. Goodman, Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, s.v. “CODEX WASHINGTONENSIS,” 268.
 “ἐπιτιμάω,” L&N, 436.
 A. T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, Accordance electronic ed. (Altamonte Springs: OakTree Software, 2001), paragraph 466. The bold and underline are mine.
 Rodney J. Decker, Reading Koine Greek, Accordance electronic ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2014), 96.
 A. T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, Accordance electronic ed. (Altamonte Springs: OakTree Software, 2001), paragraph 500.
 The Orthodox New Testament, Ninth ed., vol. 1 (Buena Vista, CO: Holy Apostles Convent, 2014), 187.
 William R. Goodman, Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, s.v. “CODEX WASHINGTONENSIS,” 268.
 Henry Barclay Swete, Commentary on Mark: The Greek Text (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Kregel Publications, 1977), 152.
 David Bentley Hart, The New Testament: A Translation (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2019), 78.
 The Orthodox New Testament, Ninth ed., vol. 1 (Buena Vista, CO: Holy Apostles Convent, 2014), 153.
 Laurent Cleenewerck, ed., The Eastern/Greek Orthodox Bible: New Testament, Pocket Edition (Columbia, MO: New Rome Press, 2015), 166.
 “ἔμπροσθεν,” Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, paragraph 3688.
 Pocket NT Greek Dictionary