DAYTON

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

dayton-bulldog-sm.png

Creating a Community of Learners and Leaders

2018-2019

Student Handbook

        

INTRODUCTION

The staff of Dayton Elementary welcomes you to our school family. This document contains a summary of Dayton and Tippecanoe School Corporation’s most important policies.  To view TSC’s complete policy information, click here  http://www.neola.com/tippecanoe-in/.

If you have any questions or concerns, please contact the front office. We are here to serve you!

Ryan Simmons, Principal

Dayton Elementary School

730 College Street

Dayton, IN 47941

Telephone: (765) 447-5004

rmsimmons@tsc.k12.in.us

ACADEMIC HONOR ROLL (GRADES 4/5)

A student qualifies for honor roll if he/she attains a B or higher in all of the following subjects:  Reading,social studies, mathematics, science, and health.

ATTENDANCE POLICY

Indiana law mandates compulsory attendance as stated in Section 20-8.1-3-17 Indiana Code. Any student who demonstrates excessive absences/tardies and is in violation of the stated school attendance policy will be referred to Truancy Mediation.  Truancy Mediation will determine what court action is warranted. In the event of an absence please call the school (447-5004) by 9:00 a.m. Please examine the TSC attendance policy received at registration for further information regarding school attendance.

ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE

Students are not allowed in the building until 8:50 a.m. unless they participate in the school breakfast program which allows them to enter the building at 8:45 a.m.  The buses unload at 8:50 a.m., and a student is considered tardy if he/she is not in his/her classroom by 9:00 a.m.  Please do not send walkers or drop off students early, as there is no supervision prior to 8:50 a.m.

Dismissal is at 3:25 for walkers and car riders.  Dismissal is at 3:30 for bus riders.

                                AMENDMENTS TO THE LAW ON MISSING CHILDREN

The burdens placed on school by SEA 416 are (generally):

1.  Schools must require a student who initially enrolls in the school corporation in any grade to provide the name and address of the school the student last attended, if any, and a certified copy of the student's birth certificate or other reliable proof of the student's date of birth.  The statute does not require schools to keep the proof of age.  Schools can, therefore, return it after someone on behalf of the school is satisfied that it is a reliable proof of age.

2.  If the birth certificate or other proof of the student's date of birth is not provided to the school within 30 days of the student's enrollment, or if it appears inaccurate or fraudulent, the school must notify the Indiana Clearinghouse for Information on Missing Children, 1-800-831-9853.

BICYCLE RIDERS

Bicycle riders should park their bikes in the bike racks on the south side of the building.  Bicycle riders are urged to be cautious and look out for both pedestrians and vehicles.  No bicycles are to be ridden in the area of bus loading and unloading.

BULLDOG NEWS

The Bulldog News newsletter is distributed biweekly from the school office.  This communication contains pertinent information about the school, a calendar of upcoming school holidays, events, and activities, and the breakfast and lunch menus for the month.  It is also available on the Dayton Elementary School’s website at www.tsc.k12.in.us.

BULLYING (5517.01)

Dayton Elementary follows the school board policy in regards to Bullying. The policy is listed below.

The School Board is committed to providing a safe, positive, productive, and nurturing educational environment for all of its students. The Board encourages the promotion of positive interpersonal relations between members of the school community. Bullying behavior toward a student, whether by other students, staff, or third parties is strictly prohibited and will not be tolerated. This prohibition includes physical, verbal, and psychological abuse as provided herein. The Board will not tolerate any gestures, comments, threats, or actions which cause or threaten to cause bodily harm or personal degradation. Engaging in bullying behavior through the use of data or computer software that is accessed through a computer, computer system or computer network also is prohibited. This policy applies when a student is on school grounds immediately before or during school hours, immediately after school hours, or at any other time when the school is being used by a school group; off school grounds at a school activity, function, or event; traveling to or from school or a school activity, function, or event; or, using property or equipment provided by the school. Additionally, this policy applies regardless of the physical location when:

 

A.

the individual committing the bullying behavior and any of the intended targets of the bullying behavior are students attending a school within the Corporation; and

 

B.

the bullying behavior results in a substantial interference with school discipline or an unreasonable threat to the rights of others to a safe and peaceful learning environment.

Bullying as defined in State law means overt, unwanted, repeated acts or gestures, including verbal or written communications or images transmitted in any manner (including digitally or electronically), physical acts committed, aggression, or any other behaviors committed by a student or group of students against another student with the intent to harass, ridicule, humiliate, intimidate, or harm the other student and create for the targeted student an objectively hostile school environment that:

 

A.

places the targeted student in reasonable fear of harm to the targeted student's person or property;

 

B.

has a substantially detrimental effect on the targeted student's physical or mental health;

 

C.

has the effect of substantially interfering with the targeted student's academic performance; or

 

D.

has the effect of substantially interfering with the targeted student's ability to participate in or benefit from the services, activities, and privileges provided by the school.

This type of behavior is a form of harassment, although it need not be based on any of the legally protected characteristics, such as sex, race, color, national origin, marital status, or disability. It includes, but is not limited to, such behaviors as stalking, intimidation, menacing behavior, coercion, name-calling, taunting, making threats, and hazing. It also includes the use of digital or electronic communications to engage in such behaviors.

However, Indiana law exempts the following from the definition of "bullying":

 

A.

Participating in a religious event.

 

B.

Acting in an emergency involving the protection of a person or property from an imminent threat of serious bodily injury or substantial danger.

 

C.

Participating in an activity consisting of the exercise of a student's rights protected under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution or Article I, Section 31 of the Constitution of the State of Indiana, or both.

 

D.

Participating in an activity conducted by a nonprofit or governmental entity that provides recreation, education, training, or other care under the supervision of one or more adults.

 

E.

Participating in an activity undertaken at the prior written direction of the student's parent.

 

F.

Engaging in interstate or international travel from a location outside Indiana to another location outside Indiana.

Any student who believes s/he has been or is currently the victim of bullying should immediately report the situation to the building principal or assistant principal, or the Superintendent. The student also may report concerns to a teacher or counselor who will be responsible for notifying the appropriate administrator or Board official. This report may be made anonymously. Complaints against the building principal should be filed with the Superintendent. Complaints against the Superintendent should be filed with the Board President. A parent may file a complaint on behalf of a student in the same manner.

Every student is encouraged, and every staff member is required, to report any situation that they believe to be bullying behavior directed toward a student. Reports may be made to those identified above. Staff members who fail to report bullying or who fail to conduct an investigation when assigned that duty are subject to disciplinary action, up to and including discharge.

All complaints about bullying behavior that may violate this policy shall be promptly investigated.

If the investigation finds an instance of bullying behavior has occurred, it will result in prompt and appropriate disciplinary action, up to and including expulsion for students, discharge for employees, exclusion for parents, guests, volunteers, and contractors, and removal from any official position and/or a request to resign for Board members. Bullying acts may be reported to law enforcement officials.

The complainant shall be notified of the findings of the investigation and as appropriate, any remedial action that has been taken to the extent disclosure is permitted by law.

Retaliation against any person who reports, is thought to have reported, files a complaint, or otherwise participates in an investigation or inquiry concerning allegations of bullying is prohibited and will not be tolerated. Such retaliation shall be considered a serious violation of Board policy and independent of whether a complaint is substantiated. Suspected retaliation should be reported in the same manner as bullying. Making intentionally false reports about bullying for the purpose of getting someone in trouble is similarly prohibited and will not be tolerated. Retaliation and making intentionally false reports may result in disciplinary action as indicated above.

For a definition of and instances that could possibly be construed as hazing, consult Policy 5516.

To the extent appropriate and/or legally permitted, confidentiality will be maintained during the investigation process. However, a proper investigation will, in some circumstances, require the disclosure of names and allegations.

I.C. 5-2-10.1, 20-20-8-8, 20-30-5-5.5, 20-33-8-0.2, 20-33-8-13.5, 20-34-6-1

BUSES

Bus transportation is provided for all students attending Dayton Elementary except students who live in the town limits.  Each child should know his/her bus number and driver's name, both to and from school.  Students must ride their assigned bus unless special permission is granted by the principal.  A note from the parent must be brought to the school office before a bus transfer will be issued.  If a bus is loaded to capacity, transfer requests may be denied.  Each student should receive a copy of “School Bus Discipline” from their bus driver at the beginning of the school year. A copy of the policy is available from the school offices.

CAFETERIA

Cafe Prepay is our online lunch system.  Go to www.myschoolbucks.com and pay for your child’s meals by using a credit card or by scheduling a direct withdrawal from your checking or savings accounts. Café Prepay, www.myschoolbucks.com allows you to see your child’s account balance online.  Please note: Participation reports cannot be accessed during the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. as we are serving lunches during that time.

Application forms requesting free/reduced lunch and breakfast meals are found on PowerSchool through the online registration process.

A nutritious breakfast and hot lunch are offered daily for students in grades K-5.  Soda pop, candy, and fast food items are not to be consumed in the school cafeteria.

COMPUTER USE

Each student has access to the educational computers available in labs or classrooms.  Every student is assigned a password, and it is the student's responsibility not to share this password with anyone.  Tippecanoe School Corporation provides a comprehensive and well rounded educational experience for all students.  Students use computer networks, information systems, and the Internet as part of the standard curriculum.  An Acceptable Use Policy (AUP), adopted by the Board of School Trustees, guides the use of these networks and is available on the district website (www.tscschools.net) and in each school office.

DISCIPLINE

Be safe          Be respectful          Be responsible

Students at Dayton Elementary School are expected to “Do the right thing” and “Treat people right”.  We recognize positive choices through positive reinforcement.  We strive to prevent discipline problems; however, there are times when students make poor choices which result in negative consequences.  Teachers communicate their classroom plan to parents.  Some of the consequences which are used include warning, loss of privileges, parent contact, time away, parent/teacher/principal conference, behavior contract, isolated instruction, or out of school suspension.

DRESS CODE

Students should use good judgment in attire and grooming – simplicity, safety, neatness, and appropriateness.  Therefore during cold weather, students should be dressed warmly enough to be comfortable when recess is outside.  Students are expected to go outside for recess unless it is raining or bitterly cold.  With warmer weather comes the desire to wear summer play clothes, which may include shorts.  Muscle/tank shirts, tube tops, spandex shorts, and/or bare midriffs are prohibited.  Dresses, shorts, and miniskirts must be a moderate length.  Flip-flop shoes are not appropriate for school due to safety concerns on the playground.

ENROLLMENT INFORMATION

Dayton Elementary is open enrollment. If you wish to attend Dayton Elementary, please go to the Enrollment section on the TSC website and follow the steps.

Your child must be five years old on or before August 1 in order to enter kindergarten.  To be considered for entry to kindergarten after the August 1st birth date deadline, parents must contact, in writing, Dr. Scott Hanback, Superintendent, Tippecanoe School Corporation, 21 Elston Road, Lafayette, IN 47909.

The hospital copy of the certificate of birth is not valid proof of age.  The birth certificate for a person born in Lafayette, Indiana, may be obtained from the Tippecanoe County Health Department, 629 N. Sixth Street, Lafayette, IN 47901.  For a birth certificate for a child born in another Indiana city or town, mail to: State Board of Health, Vital Statistics Division, 1330 West Michigan Avenue, Indianapolis, IN 46202.

FIELD TRIPS

Field trips are an integral part of the school's learning program.  They provide each student with experiences which cannot be incorporated in the regular school setting.  Field trips take advantage of other learning resources in our community.  All field trips will be announced ahead of time.  Parents give permission for students to attend field trips.  Parent volunteers may be needed for field trips.  Since parent volunteers will be supervising students, preschoolers may not accompany classes on field trips.  Unless the field trip is within walking distance of the school, students will ride in a school bus.  Preschoolers may not ride in the buses.

GREATER LAFAYETTE AREA SPECIAL SERVICES (GLASS)

Greater Lafayette Area Special Services (GLASS) conducts a yearly search for all children with disabilities from birth through age twenty-one.  The purpose of the search is to ensure that every child with a disability, who resides within Tippecanoe County, is receiving the special education and related services that are his/her right under state and federal law.  If you are aware of any child suspected of having a disability, regardless of the severity, please contact the GLASS office (765-771-6006) or your school principal for information regarding referral procedures.

GLASS is a cooperative effort sponsored by Lafayette School Corporation, Tippecanoe School Corporation, and West Lafayette School Corporation.  The GLASS office is at 2300 Cason Street, Lafayette, IN 47904.

HARASSMENT POLICY 

SEXUAL HARASSMENT- Tippecanoe School Corporation prohibits sexual harassment of and by students and employees. A copy of the specific policy language (Policy 3362 and 4353) is available in each school office.

STUDENT ANTI-HAZING -Hazing activities of any type are inconsistent with the educational process.  All such activities are prohibited at any time in school facilities, on school property, and at any corporation-sponsored event.  Hazing is defined for purposes of this policy as performing any act, or coercing another person to perform any act of initiation into any class, group, or organization that causes or creates a risk (mental, emotional, or physical harm).  Permission, consent, or assumption of risk by an individual subjected to hazing shall not exempt this policy.  All employees of the Corporation should be particularly alert to possible situations, circumstances, or events which might include hazing.  If hazing or planned hazing is discovered, the students involved shall be informed of the prohibitions contained in this policy and shall be ordered to stop such behavior.  All hazing incidents shall be reported immediately to the Superintendent.  The Superintendent shall distribute this policy to all students and Corporation employees, and shall incorporate it into building, staff, and student handbooks.  It also shall be the subject of discussion at employee staff meetings or in-service programs

STUDENT HARASSMENT- Harassment of a student(s) by other students or any member of the staff is incompatible with a physically and psychologically safe environment in which to learn.  Harassment shall include any speech or action that creates a hostile, or offensive learning environment.  The Superintendent will ensure that the Student Code of Conduct contains language prohibiting any form of sexual harassment and any use of racial, religious, or ethnic verbal or physical harassment.  Administrative guidelines will provide a means for a student to report harassment from a student, staff member or school visitor, to avoid embarrassment to the student and protect the confidentiality of the student when possible. All such reports are to be investigated by the Superintendent promptly. Anyone who violates this policy and/or the Code of Conduct shall be subject to disciplinary action. Due Process rights shall be ensured (Policy 5611).

HOMEWORK POLICY

The following is the Homework Policy adopted by Dayton Elementary School complying with a Department of Education requirement.  Homework assigned to students will follow this policy.

1.  Homework is a form of independent practice which is to be given after successful guided practice occurs in the classroom.

2.  The amount or volume of homework should be planned so as to be compatible with the ability of the student.

3.  All students should be given credit and/or recognized for completing assigned homework.

Responsibilities:

Students:  Be attentive to instruction and seek help, if needed, during the classroom-guided practice so as to understand the homework assignment.

Parents:  Provide a positive environment for "studying"; assist their child, when needed; notify their child's teacher when questions arise.

Teachers:  Use the homework policy as a guide.  Communicate clearly the details of the homework assignment.  Provide prompt feedback.

Principal:  Facilitates communication among parents, teachers, and students relative to the homework and the homework policy.

HONESTY

In support of Tippecanoe School Corporation's mission of maintaining the highest professional standards, honesty is expected at all levels.  Cheating is unacceptable.  Individuals violating this corporation policy will be disciplined per our school discipline plan.

ILLNESS AND SCHOOL PARTICIPATION

Students are to participate in recess and physical education whether it is inside or outside.  After an illness, a student may be excused from participating for two days with a note from a parent or guardian.  A doctor's excuse is needed for a child to be excused from recess or physical education for more than two days.

INDIANA ACADEMIC STANDARDS

The Indiana Academic Standards serve as a guide for all instruction that takes place at Dayton Elementary School. The standards for each grade level and subject area can be found on the Indiana Department of Education’s website, located at: http://dc.doe.in.gov/Standards/AcademicStandards/index.shtml 

INSURANCE

Student insurance sign-up forms will be distributed to students in the fall.  This insurance is optional.  The insurance program is explained on the brochure.

ITEMS FROM HOME

Cell phones and other electronic devices are not to be used by students during school hours.  These items are to be kept in book bags and turned off at all times during the school day.  Cell phones could have content and displays that could be offensive.  These devices are very expensive and therefore we highly discourage students bringing them to school.  

Items brought from home are the owner's responsibility and will remain in the classroom.  Students must have prior approval from the classroom teachers before bringing items from home.  The school cannot be held responsible for loss, theft, or breakage.  Careful consideration needs to be taken before sending valuable merchandise to school.

MEDIA CENTER (LIBRARY)

Classes are scheduled into the media center for one-half hour sessions per week.   When books become overdue, no additional books may be checked out until the overdue books have been returned.  No audio visual software or equipment is checked out by students.  When books are lost or damaged, it is the student's responsibility for full payment of the book.  Dayton Elementary School patrons may check out books for a period of one week.

MEDICAL/HEALTH SERVICES

Immunizations

According to Indiana Code 20-8.1-7-10.1 © (1), when a student enrolls for the first time in a school corporation, a statement of the student's immunizations which shows that the student has received at least the minimum number of immunizations for the student's age will be supplied to the school by the parent or guardian.  All immunizations MUST be current at the time of registration.  Students without current immunizations will not be allowed to attend school.

Student Medications:

        1.  All prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medication must be FDA approved and will be kept in the school office, unless a student has authorized permission to possess and self-administer the medication according to IC 20-8.1-5.1-7.5.

        2.  Written instructions from the parent/guardian are required for all prescription and OTC medication.  The instructions must include:  name of medication, reason for medication, amount to administer, and time to be administered.  OTC medication amounts must be age-appropriate per product label, and may not be given more frequently than stated on label except with physician prescription.

        3.  Prescription and OTC medication must be in the original container affixed with a current pharmacy or                       package label.

        4.  Medication ordered three times a day or less should be given before and after school and/or at bedtime.               Prescription medication with a specific time listed that is during school hours will be given as directed.

        5.  Medications must be picked up in the school office, and will be released to the parent or a designee who is at least 18 years old with written permission from the parent.  OTC or non-controlled medication may be returned home by the student with written permission from the parent.  Controlled substances (stimulants, prescription pain medications, anxiety medication, etc.) can NOT be sent home with a student.

Injury

The corporation physician provides standing orders for health care for TSC students.  The following medications and supplies are being used as first aid measures within TSC schools:  contact lens solutions, eye irrigation, topical antiseptics, topical analgesics, throat lozenges, band aids, bandages, elastic wraps, heating pads, and ice packs.  Diphenhydramine (an oral antihistamine) may be used for severe allergic reactions.  It is the parent or guardian's responsibility to notify the school if he/she prefers that these products not be used when treating his/her child.

Illness

Students with vomiting, diarrhea, undiagnosed skin rashes, eye infections, or fever over 100° should not attend school.  Students should not return to school until symptoms have resolved, or they are fever free for 24 hours.  Students being treated with antibiotic medications should receive the medication for 24 hours before returning to school.  Students will be sent home from school with temperatures over 100°, and may be excluded from school for vomiting, diarrhea, skin rashes, eye infections, or other symptoms of illness.

Health Screenings

Head lice checks are done individually on an as-needed basis if signs of possible head louse infestation are noted, such as excessive head scratching or bugs in the hair.  Students may be excluded from school if live lice or nits within ¼ inch of scalp are found.  Students must be checked by the school nurse before they may return to class.  A parent or designee must accompany the child to the school office for confirmation of treatment and removal of all lice from the student’s hair before readmission to school.  

Vision screening is done with all students in grades K, 1, 3, 5, and 8.

Hearing screenings are completed with grades 1, 4, 7, and 10.

Postural or Scoliosis screenings are conducted with students in grades 5, 6, 7, 8, & 9.

Parents or guardians will be notified by a referral letter if a concern is identified during the screening process.  Referrals are based upon Indiana state referral recommendations.  Further medical evaluation should be obtained.  Questions regarding these procedures should be directed to your child’s school nurse.

PARKING

School buses load and unload at the rear of the building using the west driveway.  During school hours, parents are free to park in the front parking lot.  During Dismissal, parents must go through the parent pick-up laneParents choosing to drop off students or pick them up must use the front parking lot.  Parent vehicles must be parked in a parking space or in a single-file line along the north side of the front parking lot.  The drop-off/pick-up lane is marked on the blacktop.  Traffic congestion presents a potentially dangerous situation for pedestrians and drivers.  Please use caution during arrival and dismissal times.

PLAGIARISM

Plagiarism, as defined by the Random House Dictionary, is "to steal (the language, ideas, or thoughts) from (another) representing them as one's own original work."  Intentional or not, when a student fails to acknowledge the source of words or ideas that are not his/her own, the result is plagiarism, that is, theft.  Plagiarism is not tolerated in the Tippecanoe School Corporation.

There are several kinds of plagiarism:

1.  Copying word for word or incompletely paraphrasing a phrase, sentence, group of phrases, group of sentences, or whole paragraphs from another source without crediting the source.  This kind of         plagiarism can be quantified as the copying, at a minimum, of six words or more in a row, including a, an, and the, from another source without citing the source.

2.  Giving a speech or submitting a paper, poster, project, or other assignment that has been written completely or partially by someone else.

3.  Cutting and pasting material found on the Internet or in other electronic databases into one's own paper, speech, poster, project, or other assignment without crediting the source.

4.  Downloading entire texts and presenting them as one's own work.

5.  Presenting ideas from another source as one's own original thoughts.  These can be ideas taken from textual sources or from speeches, lectures, television programs, or other forms of oral language.

6.  Improperly citing sources with the intent of misleading the reader (e.g., making up citations) as to the source of the information present.

        A student who is unsure of how to cite (credit) the source of material he/she has copied has the responsibility to check with a teacher and/or consult Writer's Inc. or the MLA Handbook.  

Penalties – Elementary School  

While no official penalties exist for plagiarism offenses, it is expected that classroom teachers would use such occasions as educational opportunities for all students.  Time should be devoted to discussion and explanation of plagiarism.

PTO

A PTO (parent-teacher organization) has been a contributing part of the Dayton Elementary School community for many years.  Every parent and teacher is automatically a member and is encouraged to donate time helping with activities of his/her choice. Volunteer opportunities are numerous! 

RECYCLING

The Tippecanoe School Corporation believes good stewardship of our natural resources and our environment is an essential part of students' civic responsibility.  The school corporation is committed to establishing an educational environment for students that models active participation and responsible waste reduction and recycling.  The corporation's recycling efforts will be coordinated by the Director of Buildings and Grounds.

RELEASE OF INFORMATION

Certain information, including the student's name, date and place of birth, major field of study, participation in officially recognized activities and sports, weight and height of members of athletic teams, dates of attendance, awards received, and other similar information may be released without parental consent unless the parents notify the school district that they do not want certain designated information released without prior consent.

REPORT CARDS

The Tippecanoe School Corporation "Report of Student Progress" is conveyed to parents four times a year following the end of the nine-week grading period.  At Dayton Elementary School, mid nine-week reports will be sent home to parents of all children.

 SCHOOL CANCELLATIONS AND DELAYS

Please sign up to register at https://trypinwheel.com/ in order to receive email and/or text updates for school cancellations or other important information. This information will also be found on the TSC website at www.tsc.k12.in.us and the Dayton Elementary Facebook Page.

SIGN-IN/SIGN-OUT REGISTER

To better account for student attendance and to increase security for students, a sign-in/sign-out system will be used.  Any time parents, relatives, or guardians of students pick up students from school or bring them to school after the morning tardy bell; they must sign the "Sign-In/Sign-Out Register" in the school office.

STANDARDIZED TESTING PROGRAMS

The state-mandated ISTEP+  (Indiana State Test of Educational Proficiencies)  will be given to students in grades 3, 4, and 5.  The dates of administration are determined by the state of Indiana Students in grade 3 will also take IREAD.  Please refrain from scheduling vacations or appointments during these testing windows.

STUDENT ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE

The Student Activities Committee (SAC) is composed of two elected students from each classroom in grades 4 and 5.

TELEPHONE CALLING

Teachers and students are not to be called from class unless an emergency exists. Voice mail messages may be left for teachers and staff members. Students are not allowed to use the school phones unless an emergency exists and they have permission from the supervising adult. Urgent messages for students will be delivered to the classrooms.

TEXTBOOK FEES

Textbooks and workbooks are rented.  Students are responsible for care of the books assigned to them.  Loss or damage of these books will result in parents being responsible for full payment of replacement cost to the school.

TITLE 1 READING/MATH PROGRAM

The Title 1 Reading/Math Program is available for students having difficulty in reading and math.  Reading and math test scores and teacher recommendations are the primary criteria to be eligible for the program.

VISITORS

All visitors must report to the office to sign in and receive a visitor's badge.  Parents and visitors are welcome at all times.  Parents are encouraged to visit school.  We suggest that parents plan visits in advance.  This may make your visit more meaningful.