Ethical Principles and Values Hierarchies 

Loewenberg AND Dolgoff Ethical Principles Screen 

from Loewenberg, F.M. & Dolgoff, R. (2000). Ethical Decisions for Social Work Practice (6th ed.).Itasca, Il.: FE Peacock

To be used when an applicable code of ethics does not provide specific rules

Reamer Social Work Values Hierarchy 

from Reamer, F.G. (1999). Social Work Values and Ethics (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press


Medical Model Principles Hierarchy 

from Beauchamp, T.L. and Childress, J.F. (1989). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press


Ethical Decision making Models 

Congress ETHIC Decision making Model,

adapted from: Congress, E.P. (1996). Social Work Values and Ethics, Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

E - Examine personal, professional, client, agency, societal values

T - Think about the applicable ethical standards, laws and legal precedents that apply

H - Hypothesize different decisions, their outcomes and the impact on relevant systems

I - Identify who will benefit and who will be harmed by these specific decisions keeping in mind the professional values and mission

C -Consult

Loewenberg and Dolgoff Decisionmaking Model,

Loewenberg, F.M. & Dolgoff, R. (2000). Ethical Decisions for Social Work Practice (6th ed.).Itasca, Il.: FE Peacock


Reamer Decisionmaking Model,

adapted from: Reamer, F. (1999). Social Work Values and Ethics (2nd ed.), New York:Columbia University Press.