Dashboard - Linked Data Development in Ex Libris Products
Brought to you by
IGELU-ELUNA Linked Open Data Working Group
Lihong Zhu, Communications Editor, lzhu2 -at- wsu -dot- edu;
Laura Akerman, Working Group Coordinator,  l
iblna -at- emory -dot- edu;  
Last updated:  May 7, 2019

Feature list




Release and/or update date



Last updated by WG


Cataloging and Technical Services

Linked Data Roadmap--Cataloging and Technical Services (Linked Data Vision, March 2019, by Itai Veltzman, Product Manager)

  • Roadmap 2020 H1: Support search indexing of prime linked data records
  • Roadmap 2020 H2: Supporting prime cataloging of new resources as Linked Data
  • The future:
  1. BIBFRAME / RDA-RDF, JSONLD, ontology and formats
  2. Identifying based on URIs
  3. Loading of prime Linked Data
  4. (Graph structure) bibliographic records from other systems
  5. Enriched data displayed in routine workflows
  6. Local Authorities as URI
  7. URI Management in Alma as a source for URI and Reconciliation
  8. Ability to control how URI are being searched across different sources
  9. OpenURL Resolving
  10. Resource Sharing / ILL

May 7, 2019



Released feature

API released 2016

DevNet:  https://developers.exlibrisgroup.com/alma/integrations/linked_data/rda-rdf

2 APIs are available:  GET Manifestation, GET Work

An API key is not needed to retrieve an individual record in this format; retrieval pattern is, e.g.:

https://open-na.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/alma/<institution code>/rda/entity/manifestation/<mms id>.rdf

The /rda/ directory in the path was added in early December 2017.

LOD Working Body investigating - it appears not all parts of the MARC record are mapped.

Problem with XML validation from rendering of predefined entities ( "  &  ' < and > ) in XML.  Fix planned for Alma June 2018 release (per Basecamp posting).

March 19, 2018


RDA/RDF Publishing

Publishing release, December 2017 Alma update

RDA/RDF publishing release Dec. 3, 2017

DevNet:  https://developers.exlibrisgroup.com/alma/integrations/linked_data/rda-rdf

Libraries will be able to expose their catalog to linked data consumer applications in RDF format:

  • Alma December 2017 release included: Support for Publishing in RDA/RDF – General Publishing will have an option to provide a RDA/RDF record based on the MARC record that is retrieved in the API.
  • Currently no web view

Jan. 04, 2018



API release,  December 2017 Alma update

API release Dec. 3, 2017



Alma December 2017 release: included: BIBFRAME API – This API will expose catalog records as BIBFRAME. 2 APIs are available: (1) Get instance; (2) Get work

March 7, 2019



Released feature, Alma Nov. 2017 release; enhancement anticipated in 2020.

Alma Nov. 2017 release:



Alma Nov. 2017 release: BIBFRAME is now an option for configuring a publishing job.

Note that BIBFRAME publishing is currently supported with FTP protocol only.

On the 2020 Alma road map: Publish Bibliographic Records in BIBFRAME: It will be possible to publish records in BIBFRAME format. Feature highlights:

• The general publishing profile will be enhanced to have an option to publish the records in BIBFRAME format.

• This will allow for more integrations and sharing options among catalogues.

March 7, 2019


BIBFRAME__ Alma Resource Management

Released features, November 2017 Release

Alma Nov. 2017 release



Alma Nov. 2017 release: Alma exposes BIBFRAME representation of a BIB record in the record simple view Alma UI.

Support for the BIBFRAME model and ontology as they mature. This step is in process and is being executed in collaboration with a leading institution. As part of the work leading up to the release of the initial BIBFRAME support in Alma, Ex Libris has been collaborating with Harvard University and the Library of Congress. The LC MARC21 to BIBFRAME 2 converter has been integrated into Alma, and Harvard has provided initial feedback on the implementation of these features.

Some issues (including RDF validation) with the initial conversion seem to have been resolved with the December 2017 Alma release which updated the conversion files to the most recent LC version.

Other issues are under discussion on BaseCamp, including handling of 773 tag conversion when those have been used for "boundwiths".

Issues:  Nov. 5 2017:  the BIBFRAME XML does not validate against the BIBFRAME schema - one element (Role) does not have a namespace assigned.  Update: ExLibris managed to fix the missing namespaces situation in Alma. The fix will be part of the Alma February 2018 release. More Updates: Looks like Ex Libris’ correction does not work when the field has an attribute. Correction planned for Alma June release, problem with BIBFRAME conversion when element has an attribute (language).

On the 2020 Alma road map: BIBFRAME – Basic Record Editing and Searching: As part of our Linked Data collaboration program, catalogers will be able to natively edit records in the BIBFRAME format and search for them. Feature highlights:

• Ability to natively edit records in the BIBFRAME format using the Alma Metadata Editor.

• Ability to have a basic search capability on the native BIBFRAME record.

March 7, 2019



Released feature; enhancements/fixes January 2018

Alma Released in 2016



On Ex Libris short-term road map:

Incremental enhancements/fixes to the existing APIs (e.g. JSON-LD changes), per Josh Weisman.

Sept. 4, 2018


JSON-LD_Alma Resource Management UI

Released feature

Alma Released in 2016



Alma exposes linked data elements in 2 Alma UI places: Repository Search title results, and MD Editor when editing a title (Note: In these pages the JSON-LD data appears in a table view and not as “native” json)

March 7, 2019



Released feature, undergoing discussion/development


DevNet: https://developers.exlibrisgroup.com/alma/integrations/linked_data

The bibliographic information is enriched with URIs in the public domain.  


  • “Search URLs” (not URIs for authorities or entities) are considered problematic by community in general
  • The search URLs for Wikidata no longer work (reported September 2017)  
  • Alma linked data enrichment uses subfield 0 to add URIs, 0 also used for authority linking with record numbers; browse cross reference normalization in Primo having a problem distinguishing - Ex Libris is working on it (reported April 2018)
  • “Alma linked data enrichment, and handling of subfields 0 and 1” was posted to the Basecamp on September 24, 2018 based on the email from Vicky Phillips of National Library of Wales to the Linked Data mailing list.  Issues included

-- Subfield 1 is not being appropriately converted - this is an issue with the Library of Congress converter and they are aware they need to revise it.

     --The linked data enrichment (adding URIs to subfield 0) resulted in redundant URIs in output when a cataloger had already added the same URI to the record.

     --655 Genre/form fields that are linked to an authority for the LC Genre/form term are not being enriched by Alma.

    --Subfield 0 in tag 380 is not being mapped by the LC converter.

     --A question was raised about whether Alma sandboxes can be used to test linked data features in Alma.

     **Response from Tamar Fuches, ExLibris (Nov. 2018):  LD APIs do not work in the sandbox environment. LD in Alma UI and in publishing do work. Currently the APIs are not supported in sandbox environment. I understand that you rather not running things against productions. In the lined data case, the APIs are only in a "read" mode, so there are no implications from running them against production.  

March 7, 2019


LD triple store

It is not on the Alma 2019/2020 roadmap

Libraries will be able to expose their catalog to linked data consumer applications such as a triple store

March 7, 2019

Alma/(Primo or other system?)

Author card widget

External code

Available on GitHub


Originally developed by Steven Meyer at U. Wisconsin - Madison. DevNet posting by Josh Weisman:
https://developers.exlibrisgroup.com/blog/Simple-Linked-Data-Powered-Author-Card   Uses Alma API and other linked data targets to assemble a thumbnail and biographical information

July 12, 2018


Discovery and Delivery

Linked Data Roadmap--Discovery and Delivery (Linked Data Vision, March 2019, by Itai Veltzman, Product Manager)

  • Underlying Metadata -- Discovery of the underlying metadata and access to it via URIs
  • Search Platform -- Improving discoverability by general search platforms (i.e. Google) by embedding schema.org in discovery pages
  • Non-Library -- Use of linked data by non-library applications
  • API -- The use of RESTful APIs to provide support for applications based on linked data
  • Interface -- The discovery system as the key interface to make data accessible to people and computers

May 7, 2019


RESTful Linked Data API

API, Published to DevNET



Implemented a set of RESTful APIs that expose linked data in JSON-LD format. Currently, the Primo PNX REST API is available. In addition all Primo REST API’s use URI’s as embedded links when referring to Primo records.

In order to work with the RESTful linked data API's, please make sure to read the Getting Started with Primo REST APIs page.

The response for the Primo PNX REST API full record request is in JSON-LD format

November 5, 2017


JSON-LD Context for Primo PNX documents

Published to GitHub

Feb 19, 2014


This appears to be part of early experimentation with creating linked data from PNX documents.

ssues:  Note that the Ex Libris Github site has a context file which differs from the context in use.  The one on Github is broken with a two year old pull request that would fix it:  https://github.com/ExLibrisGroup/Primo.PNX-context/pull/3

November 1, 2017


Linked Data Vocabulary

Released feature


The DC terms ontology, extended by other ontologies as needed, is being used as a basis for modeling the bibliographic data. See our Primo PNX context for full information.

March 7, 2019



Released feature


The links are created as embedded URIs, and are always in the public domain. The following links are available per relevant API:

This list is not exhaustive. In an effort to continually provide new linked-data services based on useful URIs, Ex Libris will enrich additional fields with URIs in accordance with research that the company is conducting.

March 7, 2019


primo-explore-linked-data-demo : Adding an linked data widget to the Primo full view

Published, github

Oct. 8, 2017



Instructions on how to add the widget to your primo explore development envelope

We have at least one working installation of this demo.  This widget accesses the LC subject linked data to retrieve broader and narrower terms, then presents the terms as search links in the full record view.

Boston University now reports that the problem previously seen accessing LC's id.loc.gov data sources in New UI has been resolved --  LC is now supporting https:// URLs :-) .

March 19, 2018


Normalization rules for the links/uri section (PNX)

Published in Primo release note Feb. 2017

Feb. 2017


Item 32649.  Gives details of the fields built by the normalization rules incorporating URIs from data sources like Alma, for future use in Primo:

The following changes have been made to the Alma MARC Template:

1. Field: Links/uri Normalization rules have been added to this new PNX field to include linked data information for the following MARC fields: 020, 035 (in case of OCLC number information), 100, 110, 111, 600, 610, 611, 630, 648, 650, 651, 653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658, 700, 710, 710

The linked data information will be stored in the PNX links/uri field in the following structured format: 1. $$A - The type of data the URI is provided for Values can be: isbn, oclc_nr, subject, creatorcontrib

2. $$V - The field value

3. $$U - The URI (multiple occurrences possible)

March 7, 2019


Making Library Catalog Visible on the Web

Released features, May 2018 Primo release

May 2018


Making Library Catalog Visible on the Web:

  • Expose library records in common schemas for structured data markup on web pages using schema.org
  • Linked data is about creating relations among resources, building library resources graph.

May 2018 Primo release: The following enhancements were made to make Library catalog visible on the web that allow it to be indexed by Internet search engines:

  • Supporting crawling for new UI deep links - Library catalog can be exposed to web crawling tools once activating Primo Generate Sitemap Tool, with this release we made it possible to crawl also deep links generated with the new UI format.
  • Structured data using schema.org - library records can be exposed in common schemas for structured data markup on web pages, such as schema.org. Each resource is wrapped with structured representation by mapping its PNX fields to the corresponding Schema.org vocabulary. In this release a first phase of Linked Data is done to create structured representation based on schema.org to the library resources, we will continue with next phase of Linked Data to create relations among resources using linking to other resources such as authors, subjects and more options.

Presentation at IGELU 2018 by Josh Weisman and Nili Natan from Ex Libris:

First Phase:

  • Making new UI deep links also available for search engines crawlers
  • Structured representation: mapping PNX fields to the corresponding Schema.org fields (using JSON-LD format)
  • Working with two customers on this project
  • Assisting Schema.org external consultant

Next Phase based on Report from Schema.org Consultant:

  • Improve SEO Related Issues: • HTML structure validator • Character Sets Encoding • Improve URL Formats • Suppress Crawl Access to None Accessible Links
  • Identifying Template Entities for each of the bibliographic entity types: Consider to use templates for Organization

Define Successful Criteria for this Project:

• How to improve ranking for Primo Records in the web? • How to measure indexing success? • Define the flow for a Google user

Long-term roadmap:

  • Next phase of Linked Data is to create relations among resources
  • Records with connections and availability should be ranked higher by search engine
  • Linking: • Author/Creator/Contributor • Subjects • IDs • customized link fields
  • Availability
  • Search Context
  • Primo Central Resources Graph

2019 Primo Roadmap:

First half of 2019: Improving structured data with the Schema.org vocabulary and linked data

Jan. 15, 2019


Linked Data Features

Anticipated features in 2019 Summon Roadmap

Not released yet

Summon Roadmap 2019


  • In Summon Roadmap 2019: Leverage linked data to create relationships and better expose metadata for use within Summon and in linking to external sources. Initial release will be a site map to improve indexing via search engines (Google, in particular)

March 7, 2019

Major Documentation Links
(subject to change but we will try to keep them updated!)

Ex Libris Developer Network:  https://developers.exlibrisgroup.com

Product documentation:  Alma

o   The general publishing profile can now be used to publish records in RDA/RDF. In Publishing Profiles (see Publishing Profiles), the Output Format field now includes the RDA/RDF format.

o   BIBFRAME is available through API.


Product documentation:  Primo

o  Making Library Catalog Visible on the Web. Library Records from the new Primo UI can now be made visible on the Web using the Primo Sitemap Tool, which generates (per given search scope) deep links to relevant records and creates robots.txt files for use by search engines crawlers. In addition, Primo will expose library records in common schemas for structured data markup on web pages, such as schema.org, to be indexed by Internet search engines. In the first phase of this enhancement, Primo will provide support for linked data by mapping PNX fields to the corresponding schema.org fields. In the next phase of linked data, we will create relationships between resources and link to external authorities, based on assumptions that resources with connections and availability should be ranked higher by the search engine.


Other documents/blog posts

Josh Weisman, January 15, 2018.


Josh Weisman, Nov. 30, 2017.

View it on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQE1zfLv5eI&feature=youtu.be 

Presentation slides: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1GVEp8yfc_mFvgiSg6PqLWYa8CHbHcgGj/view?usp=sharing

Shlomo Sanders, September 1, 2016  http://initiatives.exlibrisgroup.com/2016/09/linked-data-collaboration-program-update.html 

Yoel Kortick, Jan. 2016?   https://knowledge.exlibrisgroup.com/@api/deki/files/48900/Misc_-_Linked_Data_in_Alma_and_Publishing_the_Linked_Data_to_Primo.pptx 

Shlomo Sanders, August 23, 2015.   http://initiatives.exlibrisgroup.com/2016/09/linked-data-collaboration-program-update.html