Roman Work Booklet

Created by the University of York Archaeology and Heritage 2019 CR, VC & SR

Planning a Roman Themed School Day- Teachers Guide        3

A Brief History of Rome        4

Map of Rome        6

Roman Soldiers        8

Roman Numerals Chart        9

Roman Numerals Maths Challenge        10

ROMAN NUMERAL SUDOKU        11

Write Your Name in Latin        13

A Roman Feast        14

Roman Houses        16

Design a Roman Coin        17

Roman Storyboard        18

Arts and Crafts        19

Laurel Crown        19

Roman Bulla        20

Roman Mosaic        21

Roman Origami Sword        22


Planning a Roman Themed School Day- Teachers Guide

Having a Roman themed day can be so much fun for both you and the children.

Ideas:

A Brief History of Rome

Legend of Rome

Mars (the god of war), had twin boys called Romulus and Remus. Romulus and Remus were abandoned and raised by a mother wolf close to the river Tiber in modern day Italy. They were later adopted by a shepherd and his wife.

When the twins grew up, they decided to build a city where the shepherd had found them, but they could not decide who would be in charge of the city. In the end, Romulus killed his brother Remus by hitting him with a shovel, and named the city Rome after himself.

History

The city of Rome was founded over 3,000 years ago by farmers and fishermen around the river Tiber because. They chose to settle here because the land was rich in salt marshes. Salt was a valuable resource.

Romans traveled by river to trade the salt with other villages and as the Romans became more powerful, they began to fight for more land. They quickly took over all of Italy and then most of Western Europe, Britain, North Africa and the Middle East.

Roman Republic

Rome was ruled by kings until King Tarquin was overthrown due to unhappy citizens. They decided to form a republic, a government where lots of people have control. The Roman government was known as the Senate. It was full of wealthy landowners that were elected every year by the ordinary citizens (plebeians). As Rome gained more land, it was harder to govern as a Republic because there were too many disagreements.


Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar is perhaps the most famous of all the Roman emperors. He ruled for 5 years and passed laws to relieve hardship and reduce debt. He established the calendar that became accepted throughout the Roman world and which we still use today. This calendar included 365 days in a year and divided the year into 12 months

Many people feared he would be crowned king, so Julius Caesar was killed publically by lots of people including two of his close friends.

After Julius Caesar’s murder , the republic collapsed and emperors ruled Rome. Octavian was the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar considered Octavian his adopted son. Octavian avenged Caesar’s death by defeating Caesar’s enemies. In 27 BC he changed his name to Augustus, which means “respected one.”


Map of Rome

See if you can label where important monuments and locations are in Rome! Here’s some pictures to give you some inspiration.


Roman Gods

The Romans worshipped the same gods as the Greeks, but they used different names.

See if you can match the description to the correct god/goddess and write it in the correct box.

Jupiter

Juno

Mars

Ceres

Neptune

Venus

Diana

Mercury

Vulcan

Roman Soldiers

Rome is famous for its military strategies which helped them to grow their empire across most of the world.

Their armies were split up into many legions. A Legion was a group of about 6,000 Roman fighting soldiers. Legions were divided into Centuries, a unit of 80 soldiers. Each Century was commanded by a Centurion. A Roman Centurion wore a tunic, helmet, armor, belt, sandals and carried a shield and sword. Soldiers were trained to use their swords, shoot arrows, throw a javelin and use a sling. They were trained to be deadly fighters.

See if you can label the soldier’s outfits and then colour them in.

Roman Numerals Chart

Number

Roman Numeral

1

I

2

II

3

III

4

IV

5

V

6

VI

7

VII

8

VIII

9

IX

10

X

Did you know that the Romans didn’t have a number for 0 (zero) and they used the Latin word “nulla” instead.

Number

Roman Numeral

20

XX

30

XXX

40

XL

50

L

60

LX

70

LXX

80

LXXX

90

XC

100

C

500

D

1000

M


Roman Numerals Maths Challenge

The Romans used these capital letters as numbers:

I

V

X

L

C

D

M

1

5

10

50

100

500

1000

E.g XI = 10 + 1 which is 11

IX = 10 - 1 which is 9

Work out what these Roman numerals are as numbers:

1) VII=

2) IX=

3) CX=

4) LII=

5) IIC=

6) DI=

7) XII=

8) XVII=

9) XIV=

10) IX=

Write these numbers in Roman numerals:

1) 17

2) 8

3) 23

4) 51

5) 2019

6) 531

7) 12

8) 196

9) 69

10) 1164

Roman Numeral Sudoku

Roman numerals are still being used today, can you think of any place you’ve seen them? Can you think of any other things that Romans used that we use today?

IV

II

III

IV

II

I

IV

III

IV

VI

II

IV

VI

I

III

IV

V

VI

III

VI

III

II

IV

III

VI

IV

I

V

I

V

II

III

VI

VI

V

III

II

VIII

VIII

IV

V

III

VI

III

VI

IV

I

VII

VII

II

V

I

III

V

I

VII

VI

VIII

III

VI

II

VIII

V

III

II

I

VIII

VIII

IV

VI

VII

II

V

V

I

VII

VI

IX


Write Your Name in Latin

The Romans used almost the same alphabet as us but their hand writing was different. Below are the letters in capital English and handwritten Latin. There are only a few rules you need to know:

  1. All “C”s were pronounced as “K”  
  2. “V” was pronounced as “W”
  3. “U” was written as a “V” but still said the same way
  4. “J” was written as “I” but pronounced like the “Y” in “yes”
  5. The Romans did not use “X”, “Y” and “Z”.

Practise writing your name in the space below:


A Roman Feast

A Dinner with Trimalchio is a chapter from Petronius's Satyricon and is one of the most famous pieces of surviving Roman literature. In this chapter, Trimalchio, a rich freedman (ex-slave) is hosting a dinner party to show everyone how rich he is. At this dinner party he serves 12 ridiculous courses which are written below. Have a go at drawing them in the space provided.

Did you know that Roman’s usually ate whilst reclining on a sofa?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Roman Houses

This is a basic plan of a rich person’s Roman house. How different is it to your house now? 

Letter

Roman Name

Modern Name

A

Atrium

Formal entrance hall

Al

Ala

‘Wings’ opening up the entrance hall

C

Cubiculum

Small room usually bedroom

Cu

Culina

Kitchen

E

Exedra

Garden

P

Peristylium

Colonnaded Garden

T

Taberna

Shop

Ta

Tablinum

Office/ study

Tri

Triclinium

Dining Room

V

Vestibulum

Entrance

  1. Colour in the house based on the key- give each area a different colour.
  2. The tablinum was a shop at the front of the house, what kind of things do you think the Romans would sell in their shops? What would you like to sell?

  1. Extension activity: Get a blank piece of paper and design your own Roman house

Design a Roman Coin

Roman coins were usually made of gold, silver, bronze or copper and had a picture of the Emperor on it.

Here are some examples of Roman coins. Colour them in.


Roman Storyboard

Hercules

For a very long time, Hercules didn’t know he was half man and half god. His mother was a mortal but his father was the king of all gods, Jupiter.

Jupiter loved his son. Venus, Jupiter's' wife, hated Hercules. She was very jealous. She tried to kill him in lots of different ways, including sending big snakes into his cot. Hercules crushed the snakes because he was very strong.

To keep him safe from Venus,Jupiter sent him to live with a mortal family on earth. Hercules grew up, got married and had kids. He was happy, but he did not fit in on earth. He was too big and too strong. He was hard to miss. Venus soon discovered his location.

The rest of the story of Hercules is called his ‘labours’ which together tell the tale of how Hercules used clever tricks and great courage to stay alive and earn his way into the heavens, to take his place with the gods.

One day, whilst thinking of ways to kill Hercules, Venus decided to cast an evil spell on him which made him kill his wife and kids. He went insane and decided to visit the most powerful wizard in the land (the oracle of Delphi) for advice.

The wizard told him to visit King Eurystheus who would give him 12 labours to complete which would grant him immortality, but Venus’s spies heard.

Before Hercules could arrive at the king’s palace, Venus got there first. Eurystheus (Eury for short) was the king of a little village. Venus convinced Eury that Hercules was coming to steal his crown and be king! Eury believed her. Venus suggested that Eury challenged Hercules to 12 labors (missions or tasks.) If he failed, Hercules had to defend Eury from anyone who tried to take Eury's crown. Eury loved that idea. Hera and Eury designed 12 impossible tasks. They were certain that one of the 12 labors they designed would surely kill Hercules, probably the very first one. Hercules was not interested in Eury's crown, but he accepted the challenge as Venus knew he would.

Hercules not only lived, he had great adventures, discovered true friends, and rid the world of some really nasty critters.

Task- Highlight what you think are the most important parts of this story and draw a storyboard to show the story.

Arts and Crafts

Laurel Crown

What you will need:

Method

  1. Cut out the inner circle of the plate and a gap in the rim that is big enough to make the plate fit around your head.
  2. Using green paper, cut out lots of leaf shapes (or use real leaves).
  3. Stick them all over one side of the plate using PVA glue.
  4. Leave it to dry and then wear it like a Roman!

Roman Bulla

A bulla was a pouch worn by Roman children to give them good luck and keep them safe from evil spirits. They were made from many different materials depending on how rich the family was, they were usually material such as linen but could be metal and they would contain a coin or something precious. Girls wore them until they got married and boys wore them until they were old enough to become citizens. Use the plan below to make your own.

What you will need: Felt, string, scissors + decorative materials (optional).

Method:

  1. Cut out a circle of material like the template above.
  2. Decorate it (optional)- could use sequins, fabric pens, beads
  3. Make holes around the edge as shown on the template (be careful not to go too close to the edge).
  4. Thread a piece of long string through the holes and pull it tight to make pouch.
  5. Hang it around your neck

Roman Mosaic

What you will need:

Method

  1. Stick the graph paper to a piece of card to make sure it doesn't go soggy.
  2. Create your design using a pencil. Simple ones usually work best. Try writing your name!
  3. In each square write the starting letter of the colour you will use to prevent confusion later
  4. Using a ruler and pencil, draw out 1cm x 1cm grids on the different coloured papers you’ll be using and cut them out. This can take a lot of time so perhaps work in a group or do it in advance.

(TOP TIP- keep the different colours separate by using piles or plastic cups)

  1. Use a glue stick to assemble your mosaic!

You can also do this by colouring in your design instead of cutting and sticking- as long as you’re having fun you are doing it right!


Roman Origami Sword

What you will need:

Method

  1. Cut the square piece of paper in half. We will need both parts.
  2. Fold one piece of paper in half horizontally and then unfold.
  3. Fold the right side down approximately 3cm.
  4. Flip the paper over and fold the top and bottom halves into the centre.
  5. Make 2 diagonal folds on the right side to create a point.
  6. Fold paper in half again. This completes the folding with this piece of paper.
  7. Using the other piece of paper, fold it in half horizontally and vertically and then unfold.
  8. Fold the top and bottom halves into the centre
  9. Fold the bottom half over the top half
  10. Fold the left side to the centre crease
  11.  Fold the right side over to the left and tuck it between the layers
  12. Rotate the paper
  13. Make 2 diagonal folds with the top and bottom right hand corners then unfold.
  14. Gently pry open the paper and bring the upper layer over to the left. Press paper flat to make a triangle at the top and bottom.
  15. Slot the 2 pieces together.