Co-construction of knowledge

Thoughtful group work and collaboration

Variety of abilities

Making and fixing mistakes

Helping (not telling)

Questioning and probing of complex concepts

Reflection on process

Building consensus through discourse and using evidence

Willingness to test new ideas

Sensemaking and coming up with our own explanations

Quick and accurate calculations

Individual achievement

Knowledge of and use of science jargon

Memorization of equations and facts

Teacher and textbook as authorities on what is true

Measuring correctly the first time in labs

Compliance and following directions


Learning is a social and collaborative process. Knowledge is constructed together.

Learning requires multiple abilities. Everyone can contribute some. No one can contribute all.

Some people are “naturally” good at physics and physics is “too difficult” for some.

Learning happens through making and fixing mistakes.

Helping isn’t the same as giving answers.

Everyone can learn physics and become better at skills through practice.

Models are built from experiments and evidence.

The teacher’s role is to facilitate a healthy classroom climate and guide students to useful thinking.

There is only one right answer to a problem.

Labs are used to show that the teacher/textbook is right.

Quicker means smarter.

Textbooks and teachers are authorities on what is right.

Learning happens through memorization and repetition.

The teacher’s role is to provide students with information and procedures.