Compiled by Margo Tripsa

 PEAK and SIOP Brief Strategies

PEAK=Performance Excellence for All Kids

SIOP= Sheltered Instruction and Observation Protocol


(Click on the link below to jump to the section you want)

1. BEGIN LESSON                                                                Page 1

2. VOCABULARY                                                                Page 4

3. TEACH LESSON                                                                Page 6

4. PRACTICE SKILLS/INTERACT WITH CONTENT                         Page 11

5. END LESSON                                                                Page 22

6. ANY LESSON STEP                                                        Page 27




Working with a partner and with the aid of a Learning Support Station;

-shower activity; excellent strategy to familiarize the students with future content. Explain that they will be sharing everything they can find out about a future topic for a full five minutes by taking turns talking and listening using support materials. Warn them that most people run out of things to say after a few minutes and they should turn to their notes, books, posters or Learning Support Stations for ideas.

-Encourage them to highlight and/or make notes to help them throughout the activity. Suggest to the students that they pay close attention to certain parts of the reading, including section titles, headings, first sentence of each paragraph, charts, graphs, pictures and captions.

Ask the students to make sure everyone is in groups of two. Ask the students in each pair to decide who will play the role of “Frog” and who will play the role of “Turtle

Teach the following rules before starting.
a. Share for a
full five minutes.
b. Only
one person is to be talking at a time. The other person is to remain silent and listen until the command to switch roles.
Switch on my command. Do not finish what you are saying (Direct the students to switch roles every 20-40 seconds or whenever you see a student getting stuck.)
Do NOT ask questions of one another during the activity.
Do NOT answer any questions.


The teacher asks students to respond to a prompt regarding selected visuals that were used in the teaching of previous lessons or units. Instant Replay can be done either individually or in small groups.

Prompts could include the following:

-Draw an icon that best represents the importance or message of each visual.

-Briefly summarize the message of the visual.

-List important points regarding the visual.

Direct the students to form groups and get all needed materials.

Tell the students you will display one visual at a time. Remind them that they are to begin responding to the prompt only after you give the launch button

Present the first visual, pause a few seconds and then state the launch button.

Use your signal to close the student response and then display the next visual. Continue this process until the end or for no more than about ten minutes.

Have the students quickly regroup for each visual or prompt to keep it more active and to promote deeper, fresh processing.


Use wallpapering ideas to collect ideas based on the student' current knowledge.

Hang up chart paper and have students write their thoughts on a topic. They may not talk to each other while jotting down their thoughts, but they can comment on each other’s ideas.


Students begin a non-graded quiz to work in an on-going, unlimited way, in responding to a prompt. After they have progressed for a few minutes, the teacher directs all the students to begin walking around the room looking at others’ work for answers, insights, steps, points or whatever they have not included on their own quiz. They “short-term” memorize whatever they see that they consider “correct,” return to their papers, and add it. They also are encouraged to make any corrections they deem appropriate to their own papers. They continue this corrective, additive “walk about” until the teacher calls time.

This is considered a “quiz for learning”, that is not to be scored. If appropriate and necessary, consider offering effort points that will have a minimal impact on grades but recognize sustained effort throughout the Walk-About.


This activity requires students to think about a concept by identifying “things” that fit the concept and “things” that don’t fit it. When first introducing this activity, it is best to name the specific concept with which the students are working.

Example: Eastern U.S. States is the concept. • “You can have New York, but you can’t have California.”
• “You can have New Hampshire, but you can’t have Nevada.”

2. Once the students are familiar with the strategy, try it without first giving the concept with which they are working. Again, this requires more complex thinking on the part of the students.


Anticipatory Guide - Students are given a series of statements that relate to a reading selection, lecture, or video. Students indicate AGREE or DISAGREE. After the information has been presented, students check to see if they were correct. EXTEND: Have students write correction in their own words.


Idea Starts -Use a prompt for writing, such as a quote, a photo, words from a vocabulary list, an article, a poem, opening lines to a story, an unusual object, a film, or a guest speaker.


K-W-L – 3-column poster. Students establish what they Know, Want to know, and at the end of the lesson they tell what they Learned.


Quick-Write - Pre-reading or pre-writing focus activity. Students are asked to respond to a question or prompt in writing for 5 minutes. Emphasis is on getting thoughts and ideas on paper. Grammar, spelling, style not important. If students get stuck they can repeat phrases over and over until a new idea comes to mind. (Assessment strategy) Student writes for 2-3 minutes about what he heard from a lecture or explanation/read/learned.  Could be an open ended question from teacher.


WHO/WHAT AM I? 9-139

Tell them they will all have one of the cards taped to their backs. Have students form small groups and let them see the cards on each other’s backs. They are not to tell one another what’s on each other’s backs. Students ask questions of one another until they can say to their group, “I think I’m (an item from Step one) because (this) is what I know.” They keep playing until they “get it.”


word, picture, word in context (sentence), definition


Deuces Wild is actually several vocabulary strategies built into one large activity. Students roll a die to determine which strategy they will use to review a concept. Because twos are wild, the students have a choice as to which strategy they prefer to complete. Before implementing this strategy, take the time to use each of the individual strategies separately as an activity.

1=Write it 5x’s & Say Aloud 5x’s


3=Write an example of the word from your own life.

4=Draw a symbol or graphic that shows the meaning of the word

5=Send “spies” to another group & bring back something to share. Write down what you find.

6=Complete: (The word) is like because _________________.


The four boxes have prompts that are all designed to facilitate students learning the concept.





Contextualizing Vocabulary

Contextualizing Vocabulary – choose several vocabulary words that are essential to understanding the lessons’ most important concepts and present the definitions in context, not just using dictionaries that might offer multiple meanings. Process

-        Introduce and define terms simply and concretely.

-        Demonstrate how terms are used in context.

-        Explain use of synonyms, or cognates to convey meaning.


Mystery Word – Ask for a volunteer to sit in a chair facing the class, but with his or her back to the word wall so the target vocabulary cannot be seen. Choose a word from the word’s meaning (see Read My Mind) until the student is able to guess the word.


Read My Mind – Choose a word from your word wall and give one clue to its meaning. Have students raise their hands to guess the word. (Only allow one guess per clue in order to provide as many clues as possible.) Clues can be any of the following: definition, synonym, antonym, part of speech, number of syllables, prefix means, suffix means, rhymes with  _        , “fill in the blank in this sentence,” ends with this letter, begins with this letter. When a student guesses correctly, ask him or her to give the definition of the words and to use it in context. As the class becomes familiar with the various types of clues used in this activity, have individual students

take your place as clue provider. Alternatively, you could create two teams to play the “Read My

Mind” game.


Vocabulary Cards - Each student selects a difficult vocabulary word from the story and creates a card in the following manner: The word and its definition in the front, and a drawing and the vocabulary word in a sentence in the back. These cards are shared with team members, then exchanged with other groups.


Vocabulary Self-Selection – encourages students to self-select key vocabulary that is essential to understanding the concept. Students select vocabulary as individuals, in pairs, or in small groups. After discussion and learning about the terms, the students share their lists with the entire class, which then agrees upon a class vocabulary list. This is an effective method because

students learn to trust their own judgments about which content words are most important for

them to know and seek out definitions on their own.


Word Splash – The board is SPLASHED with new vocabulary from the sessions. Students get into groups of 4 and are given 1 minute to look at the words. Teacher erases one of the words. The first group to raise its had and correctly say the word, spell it, and use it in a sentence wins the point.


Have students create crossword puzzles for their classmates.


Interactive Notes 9-55

The teacher begins by giving notes in a traditional manner, and the students record those notes on the left side of a T-Chart. At certain points while giving notes, typically at the conclusion of each point, the teacher stops and asks the students to interact with the just received new information in a prescribed way. The students record their responses to the prompts on the right side of the T-Chart. Typically, this strategy is used when “soaking” the new content of a lesson.

Plan your prompts ahead of time. Some teachers even write them on an overhead or create a separate slide for each prompt if they are using PowerPoint.

Example prompts might include…

  • Create an icon or picture that represents ________________
  • Compare and contrast ________________ and ________________
  • Relate _________________ to something in your real life
  • Create a mini content poster for…
  • Finish this sentence, “This reminds me of …”
  • What might be the opposite of …
  • Create a flow chart
  • Develop a relevant Thinking Map for …
  • Write a relevant question that someone in the room might need to have answered
  • What are possible effects of …?
  • What are the main points of the notes so far today? What are sub points?
  • Defend my claim that _______________________
  • Write a brief summary of the notes so far today.
  • Create an example of _______________ Provide a convincing argument defending the quality of what you have done for any of these prompts.


At an appropriate breaking point in a lesson, students determine and share in small groups what they believe some students would consider clear points to remember to this point. Then, each student records on an index card the points the group has agreed are clear and need to be remembered. Students move about and exchange cards. Students return to their original group to share and reflect on the points surfaced by other groups. Finally, the groups determine what points are probably confusing to some students in the room.


Clock Appointments – The variety of partner combinations in this activity encourages a range of interactions for practicing language. Instructions:

1.  Distribute a clock face to each student with space to write at the 12, 3, 6, and 9:00 spaces.

2.  Have the class walk around and make an appointment with other students for each of the four time slots. It works best if they begin at 12:00 and work clockwise. Inevitably, there will be a few students with empty slots. You may have to help ensure everyone’s appointments are full by asking whether anyone is missing a clock appointment and facilitating matching students who need appointments.

3.  When it is time for students to practice with one another, announce, “Find your 12

o’clock (or 3:00, 6:00, 9:00) appointment and tell him or her three things  _        . Be sure to use one of the sentence frames to share your idea.”

Concept Sketches

Concept Sketches – (different from concept maps) are sketches or diagrams that are concisely annotated with short statements that describe the processes, concepts, and interrelationships shown in the sketch. Having students generate their own concept sketches is a powerful way for students to process concepts and convey them to others. Concept sketches can be used as preparation for class, as an in-class activity, in the field or lab, or as an assessment tool. (


Quick-Draw - Students sketch ideas that relate to a topic.

SHARED READING (in Harrell and Jordan)

-use this strategy when the text is too difficult for the students to read independently. Students and teacher read the text altogether. Even when the students cannot read along with the teacher, they are hearing the words pronounced as their eyes follow the text.

Holaway, 1979

LEVELED QUESTIONS (in Harrell and Jordan)

-are used when teachers adapt the way they ask questions so that students can respond to them according to their language acquisition stage.

BUDDY READ (in Harrell and Jordan)

One student reads, the other listens or takes notes. They stop periodically to discuss and create a graphic organizer for study.

DICTOGLOSS (in Harrell and Jordan)

A dictoglos involves students in listening to repeated, fluent readings of English text. At first they just listen, but on subsequent readings they take down as much of the text as possible. Then they get together in pairs and again in fours to combine their notations and re-create as much of the text as possible. The activity provides an authentic reason for communication and practice in re-creating, rewriting, and rereading English text.

-developed by Ruth Wajnryb (1990)


Flash Cards - After 10 minutes into a lecture or concept presentation, have students create a flash card that contains the key concept or idea.  Toward the end of the class, have students work in pairs to exchange ideas and review the material.


In-Text Questions - Students answer teacher-constructed questions about a reading selection as they read it. Questions are designed to guide students through the reading and provide a purpose for reading. Students preview In-Text questions first then answer them as they read the article. Students review their answers with their small group, and then share them with the whole group.


Jigsaw (Home Group/ Expert Group) - This is a strategy in which small groups of students become experts in one aspect of the larger topic being studied. They then teach this information to another group.

•        Divide the class into groups of three to five students

•        Each group becomes experts on one aspect of a larger topic by working with information

provided by the teacher or finding additional information. Members of the expert group engage in tasks designed to help them become familiar with the information.

•        Each expert then returns to a mixed group with members of each of the other expert groups. Students in this group teach one another the information learned in the expert


The jigsaw requires the participation and cooperation of all students. It encourages interaction

since the goal is to put the pieces of the lesson together and create a whole picture of the topic being studied. Learn more about this technique from the originator of the strategy, Elliot Aronson:


Learning Logs - Double-entry journals with quotes, summaries, notes on the left and responses reactions, predictions, questions, or memories on the right.


Reading Log- Students complete while reading a selection. The left-hand side contains topic headings for sections of the reading. Students are to briefly summarize each topic. On the right-- hand side students reflect on the implications of each topic.


Mnemonic Strategies – Ideas from:

•        Create hooks for the students to store new learning in the mind

•        Should include visualization and/or acronyms

•        Can be connected to students personally

•        Can be linked to room items, number sequences, words, phrases, cartoons, tongue- twisters, alliterations, rhymes, or poems


Muddiest Point - Students are asked to write down the muddiest point in the lesson (up to that point, what was unclear)


Pantomime-A-Tale - This technique can be used with fiction or nonfiction reading selections. Divide an article into sections. Each group prepares their assigned section as a pantomime. There should be one group member who reads the section, with appropriate pauses, and three members who act it out without using words. Rehearsal is important, so allow time for it.


Talking Stick – This strategy is structured so that each student has the opportunity, and responsibility, to speak multiple times. Students can “pass” (decline to respond) only once. This allows reluctant speakers to hear others in their small group before having to contribute. Instructions:

1.  Designate an object as the “talking stick” and have student pass it around the group – first clockwise, and later, randomly.

2.  The teacher gives a prompt and indicates the number or letter of the group member to begin. The first student with the “talking stick” speaks while everyone listens. The

student then passes the object to the left. The process continues until everyone in the group has had a chance to speak or until the teacher gives a signal to stop.

3.  To extend the activity, once everyone in the group has had a turn speaking, anyone in the group may ask for another turn by saying something like, “I’d like to add another

thought. Please hand me the talking stick.


Think A-loud – The think-aloud strategy asks students to say out loud what they are thinking about when reading, solving math problems, or simply responding to questions posed by teachers or other students. Effective teachers think out loud on a regular basis to model this process for students. In this way, they demonstrate practical ways of approaching difficult problems while bringing to the surface the complex thinking processes that underlie reading comprehension, mathematical problem solving, and other cognitively demanding tasks. Thinking out loud is an excellent way to teach how to estimate the number of people in a crowd, revise a paper for a specific audience, predict the outcome of a scientific experiment, use a key to decipher a map, access prior knowledge before reading a new passage, monitor comprehension while reading a difficult textbook, and so on. Getting students into the habit of thinking out loud enriches classroom discourse and gives teachers an important assessment and diagnostic tool.


Think-Pair-Share - When asked to consider an idea or answer a question, students write their ideas on paper (think). Each student turns to another student nearby and reads or tells his or her own responses (pair, share). This is an oral exchange, not a reading of each other's papers.


Writing Headlines—Good way to practice summarizing an activity, story or project. Suppose you have asked your student groups to read a story or an article, or you want them to describe the results of a science experiment. After having the groups discuss it among themselves, you can check on their observations and comprehension by having them write a headline or title for a book review. Students will practice their summarizing skills and, as they get more proficient, their descriptive language skills, when writing news headlines. More advanced student may provide most of the language, but beginning students can copy the final product, perhaps in a fancy “script.”

•        Provide models of Headlines.

•        Students work in pairs writing a headline for an activity.

•        Pairs share out their headlines and class votes on most effective headline.

READ ALOUD PLUS (in Herrell and Jordan)

This strategy involves the teacher reading text aloud to students while adding visual support, periodic paraphrasing, and/or rewriting as the “plus” or extension to the read-aloud. The students are actively involved in the “plus” part of the lesson and are so more motivated to listen carefully as the teacher reads aloud.

Jordan & Herrel, 2001

GIST or Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text

-is a strategy for supporting comprehension of informational text. After each short section is read silently, the members of the group work collaboratively to generate one sentence that summarizes the “gist” of the passage. In some very dense text, this summary sentence is generated paragraph by paragraph. Once a sentence is generated, members of the group write it on their own papers, so that each group member ends up with a concise summary of the text.

Cunningham, 1982

SQ3R (Robinson, 1946):

SQ3R is a comprehension strategy that helps students think about the text they are reading while they're reading. Often categorized as a study strategy, SQ3R helps students "get it" the first time they read a text by teaching students how to read and think like an effective reader.

This strategy includes the following five steps (Robinson, 1946):

  • Survey: Students review the text to gain initial meaning from the headings, bolded text, and charts.
  • Question: Students begin to generate questions about their reading from previewing it.
  • Read: As students read, they need to look for answers to the questions they formulated during their preview of the text. These questions, based on the structure of the text, help focus students' reading.
  • Recite: As students move through the text they should recite or rehearse the answers to their questions and make notes about their answer for later studying.
  • Review: After reading, students should review the text to answer lingering questions and recite the questions they previously answered.

RUNNERS for reading passages

Read the title

Underline important key words in the questions

Number the paragraphs (if needed)

Now read the selection...and as you read

Enclose key words that can help you find answers

Reread the questions, and mark out incorrect answers

Select the best answer!

Printable Bookmarks



ICECREAM PARTY REVIEW (for adults: cocktail)  SIOP

-Write down one question that you would include in a quiz about _______ on an index card, submit your questions to the teacher, the teacher mixes the cards and randomly distribute them to other students.

  1. -Mingle around and find a partner
  2. -Take turns reading the question and have your partner answer
  3. -At the call of time, say "can we switch?" switch the card with your partner
  4. Notes: If they don't know the answer, they help each other, or go to the teacher if they cannot figure it out. Whoever writes the question MAY write the answer on the back.
  5. You can switch 3 times. So, basically you’ll ask whoever you meet a question that was asked by another person and you’ll have that person answer.


=A traditional Scottish dance

Two lines, share your notes (answer to a specific question, input) with the partner in front of you, then ask one student to move to the other end of his/her the line so that everyone has to move a position and share with the next person. The other line does not move.


The “fishbowl” is a teaching strategy that helps students practice being contributors and listeners in a discussion. Students ask questions, present opinions, and share information when they sit in the “fishbowl” circle, while students on the outside of the circle listen carefully to the ideas presented and pay attention to process.  Then the roles reverse. This strategy is especially useful when you want to make sure all students participate in the discussion, when you want to help students reflect on what a “good discussion” looks like, and when you need a structure for discussing controversial or difficult topics. Fishbowls make excellent pre-writing activities, often unearthing questions or ideas that students can explore more deeply in an independent assignment.

Don’t forget to debrief the fishbowl discussion. After the discussion, you can ask students to reflect on how they think the discussion went and what they learned from it.  Students can also evaluate their participation as listeners and as participants.


 During this strategy, students form two different circles: half of the group stands in a circle facing outward while the other half forms a circle around them facing inward. Students exchange information until the teacher signals the outer circle to move in one direction. The students now have a different partner with whom to exchange.


1. Decide which students will be in each circle (inside and outside).

2. Put a question or statement on the board.

3. Give students at least ten seconds to think on their own ("think time").

4. Ask students in the inside circle to share their response with the classmate facing them in the outside circle. When they have done this, ask them to say "pass", at which point the students in the outside circle will share their responses with the classmate facing them in the inside circle.

5. Have the outside circle move one step to the left or right and discuss the same question with the new partner. Option: post a new question for another discussion.

Concept Definition Maps

Concept Definition Maps – Structured word webs used to explore more complex concepts. The center circle may be a broad concept such as “habitat” and spokes leading off the circle may be organized to respond to questions such as “What is it?”, “What are some examples?” and “Why is it important?”


This is a lively activity that combines components of Table Races, Timed Olympics and Team Huddle. Each student group is given time to ensure that each of its members has correctly recorded the response to a given complex prompt. At the teacher’s signal, each group’s recorder, the student on each team determined by a random selection of a number from one to five, is to stand at his/her section of the white board. The remaining members of each team are to stand about 10 feet away from their recorder at the whiteboard. When the teacher gives the appropriate start signal, the recorder is to begin recording as much as he/she can of a correct response to the prompt while his/ her team members may shout as much information as they can to help the recorder. When time is called, the members of the groups whose recorders made strong progress in correctly responding to the prompt receive points according to a three point rubric.

Homework Olympics 9-52

This strategy combines Table Races, Team Huddle and the management technique of setting a time limit as opposed to a predetermined and arbitrary task completion. Students in groups will be given time to make sure everyone in their groups can completely and correctly respond to prompts on the white board or chart paper. To prepare, each group is to ensure everyone in their groups has written out and can explain the complete and correct responses to the prompt(s). After a reasonable amount of prep time has been given, one student from each group will be selected at random to completely and correctly respond to the prompts on the board or chart paper. Other team members may shout help from a distance to their member at the board.


A. Students gather notes from focused information sheets posted on classroom or hallway walls. Each student walks with prepared, organized handouts with prompts, graphic organizers, maps and other tools to inform students clearly as to the information that must be accessed and recorded.

B. Texts should be displayed “gallery-style” - in a way that allows students to disperse themselves around the room, with several students clustering around a particular text. 

During a Gallery Walk, students explore multiple texts or images that are placed around the room.  Teachers often use this strategy as a way to have students share their work with peers or respond to a collection of quotations.  Because this strategy requires students to physically move around the room, it can be especially engaging to kinesthetic learners.

-critique using post it notes

C. Students form as many groups as there are questions, and each group moves from question to question. After writing the group's response to the first question, the group rotates to the next position, adding to what is already there. At the last question, it is the group's responsibility to summarize and report to the class.

MIX IT UP 9-65

  • In this strategy, students work alone and with other students to process information. They are then “mixed up” to share their information with other classmates. Students utilize their textbooks, notes and the response support station to ensure that all the information they share is correct.
    After the teacher provides a question or topic for discussion, students work together to provide answers. Share the next question with the new groups. They discuss; a new number is drawn, and the process continues until all the questions have been shared.


Using a white board, chalk board, overhead or interactive board or projector, the teacher displays an important “operational” sentence, definition or formula that the students are to learn. After the teacher has led the students in choral reading “it” several times, the students, one at a time, are brought up to erase, cover, or “blacken over” single symbols, words or letters (in a formula), and then lead the class in choral reading of all of “it” including what is no longer visible.



Thumb- Characters

1st finger- Setting

Tall finger- Problem

Ring finger-events

Little finger- solution


To facilitate students surfacing unclear and confusing points from a lesson. Occasionally during a lesson, have students determine in small groups what they believe some students probably think is the ‘muddiest’ information “at this point.” Have each student record on a note card what the group agreed is confusing and needs to be clarified.
-Ask ALL students to record the confusing points on a note card.
-Ask students to move about the room, form groups of 2 or 3 and share the confusing points on their cards and to offer possible clarification if they have any. Have the students write any clarification they heard on their cards.
-Ask the students to turn in their card to you as they return to their seats. Use the cards as appropriate to modify your lesson for needed clarity.


The basic idea is that students working in groups will respond to one rigorous prompt after another. The prompts are associated with different colored foam Frisbees that are thrown around the classroom in a free-for-all-fashion for 15 to 20 seconds. At the teacher’s signal, the Frisbee tossing stops, and students make sure everyone has a Frisbee. The students form groups with same color Frisbees and begin working on the associated prompt.

Four ways 9-46

Students are given a topic or term to place in the center of the 4 Ways diagram. The teacher assigns four ways for students to process the term or allows students to select their favorite methods. Students complete the diagram with one method in each corner box. On the back of the diagram, students then explain and defend each of their four representations.

Five liners 9-42

Using Cinquain poetry (a 5-line poem describing a noun), students describe a topic, item, or concept. The structured poem requires students to surface adjectives, verbs, phrases, and synonyms to describe the selected item.

Cinquain- A 5 line poem that describes a noun

Line 1) a one-word title, a noun
Line 2) two adjectives (words that describe the noun)
Line 3) three “ing” participles (words that tell what your noun does
such as running, jumping, yelling)
Line 4) a phrase about the noun
Line 5) a synonym for your title, another noun

Next Step Processing
In written or verbal form, have the students explain why they chose the words in their poem to describe the topic.

No peeking concept drills 11-22

Teams compete to see which team can get rotating members of their team to correctly determine what is portrayed on a note card held up to their foreheads, under their chin, or above their heads in ways that the person holding the card cannot see what is on it but team members throwing out clues can.

Develop multiple identical sets of ten to twenty, 3×5 “concept” cards. On each card, record a word, formula, picture, or whatever you wish the students to process. You will need one set for about every 3 or 4 students in your classroom. Mostly groups of three or four will tend to work best.
c. The hint giving team members may describe, draw, give examples, etc… but may not spell or in any other way directly convey what is on the card that is being held.


Four Corners – You can use this activity to introduce a topic or let students share their prior knowledge. Choose a topic that has four possible dimensions (e.g., Topic: food resources. Dimensions: cleared land, forest, river, ocean).

•        Assign one dimension to each corner of the room

•        Students move to the corner they are interested in or knowledgeable about.

•        In their corners, students pair and explain why they chose that corner and what they know about the topic.

•        A student from one corner shares ideas with the whole class.

•        Next, you may want to ask a student from another corner to paraphrase.

•        This process continues until each corner has shared.

This activity is also a method for creating voluntary groups. After the Four Corners technique is

over, you may want the students to keep their corner groups for another group task.


To promote fast-paced interaction with content.

Groups of students race one another to have every member of the group develop a verified response to a set of problems. (For factual content adaptations, see the last half of the procedures.) When groups finish, they race to a set of responses on a chart or the whiteboard to slap the correct response with a fly swatter or their hands.

Sketch and talk 9-116

This is an academic activity similar to the game Pictionary™. Played in groups of two teams of two or three students each with all teams in the class competing with each other for most concepts “guessed” correctly before the end of game time is called.

-Give each team a stack of content concept cards. Each card has an important word, phrase, fact, concept, formula or relationship on one side and the other side is blank. The cards are placed face down.


Survey with Your Feet is an up-and-moving strategy in which the students are given several concepts
to make decisions based on their perspectives or through the perspectives of others. Each of the
concepts is written on a separate large sheet of paper posted around the room. The students are
then asked to determine which concept is a “best fit” given a certain perspective, and then on cue,
they stand and move next to the concept that they believe fits the open-ended prompt for the given
perspective. When signaled, the students justify their decisions with the students around them standing by the same concept.


Students record information on an index card after accessing support from notes, homework, text, etc for a given prompt from the teacher. Students then move about the room greeting classmates and exchanging index cards with each person they greet while quickly reading the cards before passing them on to someone else.
Students are directed to share the content on their cards in small groups and then return to their seats to share and further process the new information with their peers.

Determine a prompt that will cause meaningful review or extension of the content such as any of the following:
a. What are important points to remember that came from the (homework/fun, reading, play, picture, or ….)?
b. What stands out as important from yesterday?
c. List everything you can find about …


The Dice game is a fast moving “game-like” activity for groups of two (or three) in which students race under the control of the roll of a die to see who can complete the most work on an assigned task. One student in each group rolls a die until a six is rolled while the other student in the pair works on a content task as quickly as possible. As soon as a six is rolled, the die roller takes the pen or pencil from the worker and begins the same task on his or her own paper while the other student grabs the die and starts rolling it as quickly as possible trying to get a six in order to be able to once again work on the task. Students continue in this manner until time is called.

The activity is most effective with content tasks that can be done very quickly by individuals.

Use fast, upbeat music to help create an exciting, emotional environment as emotion causes learning.


Students brainstorm topics, concepts, and important information in order to create a crossword puzzle. Students develop strong clues or questions for the puzzle terms. Puzzles are then shared to continue the processing. This works well with individuals as well as small groups.


Groups of students race each other to generate the most responses to a prompt or prompts which can call for recalling information, finding information in a resource, drawing diagrams, solving problems, combining sentences – it can be almost anything. What makes this work so well is that within each group, all members of the group must record exactly the same information in the same order on their own papers. This forces the groups to slow down and make sure all their group members have the identical “material” (same content, same order, same way) recorded on their papers.

4. Let your students know that it is “okay” and even desirable for them to use resources – including sending spies to get ideas from other groups.
5. Have students double check with each other to make sure everyone has the same, correct understanding of the activity and the challenge.
6. Loudly countdown to an end, stop the music and say stop. Allow a few moments for the energy to dissipate.


In this very fast paced, “everybody learns and everybody wins,” contest-like strategy, students work in groups ensuring each group member correctly responds to a prompt from the teacher while racing other groups to get more recorded responses to prompts than any other group. Students utilize their group members and the Learning Support Station to ensure everyone is correct. As soon as a group shows the teacher everyone has the correct, complete response, including any required “codes,” the group races to its area of the “ board” to record the correct response.

In advance, prepare the following:
1. A set of questions, prompts, and/or problems to be distributed to each group.
Tip: for maximum success, have more questions than the groups can answer in the allotted time. Plan on stopping the activity before any group can finish its last prompt or sooner. (See Manage by Time.)
2. Learning Support Stations with “qualifying codes” for each answer to ensure students are checking their responses. Tip: Prepare about one Learning Support Station for each 4 or 5 groups. Qualifying codes improve the activity’s effectiveness by ensuring better responses and greater safety. An effective way to put qualifying codes on the Support Station is to put a code such as AK, FL or NC (state abbreviations work well) next to each answer. Students must record the “qualifying code for
each answer along with their answer on their papers or tablets. Codes work best when they are random and not related to the answers. This requires students to “double check” their answers to ensure students are processing correct information.

-The MANAGER’S job is to ensure ALL group members are doing their job.

-The CHECKER’s job is to double check the Learning Support Station whenever desired AND when everyone in the group is done. It is also to bring back the qualifying codes for everyone.

-The QUALIFIER’S role is to take all the group  member’s papers to the teacher for approval as soon as the Checker verified that they are all complete and correct.


The teacher places enough pieces of chart paper on the walls and on student workspaces so that each student or pair of students has one at which to start a Roundabout. An identical list of prompts is attached to each piece of chart paper. The students then distribute themselves amongst the sheets of chart paper, begin responding to the prompts, and then rotate to the next sheet to correct and continue responding. This process continues until time is called.


As a teacher is modeling and/or lecturing, students use Response Journals to record “correct answers” for each question the teacher designates as a “Response Journal Question”.

  1. Example prompts might include…
    b. What should I do next?
    c. Why was this important?
    d. Create an icon or picture that represents ________________.
    f. Compare and contrast ________________ and_.
    g. Relate _________________ to something in your real life.
    h. Create a mini content poster for________________ .
    i. Finish this sentence, “This reminds me of ________________.”
    j. What might be the opposite of ________________ .
    k. Create an acronym for________________ .
    l. Create a simile or metaphor for ________________ .
    m. Create a flow chart.
    n. Develop a relevant Thinking Map for…..
    v. Write a relevant question that someone in the room might need to have answered.
    x. What are possible effects of ________________ ?
    y. What are the main points of the notes so far today? What are sub points?
    z. Defend my claim that _______________________.
    aa. Write a brief summary of the notes so far today.
    ab. Create an example of _______________.


In small groups, students develop reasons why each of two separate ideas, concepts or procedures is “happier” than the other. Periodically students are invited to share what they have and then to go deeper.


Questions: How would things be different if Columbus had discovered California? How do elephants benefit from their enormous ears? / What might be the result of . . . ? What could happen if . . . ? / What would be the benefits of . . . ? /What are example problems that show …?

-Groups of 2-4 students. Have each group move to a sheet of chart paper with a question with no more than one group per station, or assign each group of students to one of the questions as its “home base” and starting point.

-When you “push the launch button,” have the students read the question at their stations. One student should begin to orally respond to the question. Whatever this first person says orally must be written on the chart paper by everyone in the group, whether they agree with the statement or not.

-Then another student responds and all in the group records on the paper what the student has said. Continue in this manner until time is called.

-At the end of the allotted time, ask the groups to rotate one position to a new question and read the question. Have each student place a check beside the recorded responses with which they agree.

-Then have students repeat the process of saying a response and everyone records every response of the group.

-When the groups have each returned to their original question, change their task. Ask them to begin summarizing beginning with the responses with the most agreement.


Carousel - This activity encourages all students to interact through reading and writing.

        Write different but related questions or prompts on chart paper and post the papers around the room.

        Students move around the room either freely or in small groups and write ideas or answers on each paper. Alternately, you can have them record the ideas on sticky notes at their desks ahead of time and then post the notes on the appropriate papers.

        Share and process the ideas with the whole group with a gallery walk (students silently move from poster to poster, reading and noting important ideas) small group to whole group presentations or some other technique.

A carousel uses wait time for planning and a degree of anonymity in answering to create a non- threatening atmosphere in which all students have an equal chance share their ideas.


This activity is a rapidly moving, individual version of Carousel Graffiti.

In advance, prepare a set of enough prompts (questions or problems) to keep each of your students busy for at least 15 minutes. Make one copy of the set for each student in the class. The activity will be controlled by time and not driven by completion, so include enough material so that your fastest workers can’t finish in the time you will want your slowest learners still working.

Plan a path for your students to follow around the walls or from student desk to student desk. Then, on your signal, have each student move to the next one in order, and so on. Explain to students that they probably will not finish each prompt – they are to work as far as they can in the time provided.

The teacher will call “time to stop” when she deems appropriate and before any student has completed all the prompts.

At the end, the teacher will pick up all the students’ answer sheets for quick monitoring, not grading. This is a classroom activity, not a graded event.


Students can engage in Cartoon Conversations individually or in groups of two or three. In this strategy, the students create a product depicting concepts, people or procedures from their subject matter interacting in a substantive conversation. The students first create visuals or icons that represent each concept selected for their work, then the students draw a cartoon that shows the concepts interacting and having a conversation with each other relevant to the concepts. Typically, this strategy works best when adding depth and breadth rather than as an introduction to concepts.


  1. Create a “practice area” by putting up the banner paper on the walls about shoulder height of most of the students around the room.
  2. Ask students to choose 2 – 3 markers of different readable colors.
  3. Ask students to spread themselves along the banner paper around the room with each one standing by about 2-3 linear feet of the paper for writing.
  4. Instruct students to turn to face the center of the room and stop talking and working any time you say, “Freeze!”


“Balloon Toss” provides an energizing, quick review of content for students who are familiar with the content and another learning opportunity for students not quite there. The activity is most effective with content tasks that do not require much writing and can be done very quickly by individuals. Examples of content tasks might include:

-Listing states and state capitals

-Developing lists of words that can be used instead of the word “said”

-Listing transition words

-Creating charts

Taking it to the Next Level

Ask students to make sure everyone is included in groups of two or three. Encourage the Process Observers to join a group at this point. Ask students to compare the content on the balloons in their groups. If they find content that is not on their balloon, have them add it.

Consider using any of the following prompts for students to take the content to a deeper level.

What are the three to five most meaningful (important, relevant) things recorded from the perspective of …?

Make sure everyone in your group can tell us five to seven things from your balloon without looking.

Which three to five things that you wrote are most important to remember? List and do a choral say aloud with them.

What is really important that didn’t get included on any of the balloons?

What on your balloons is important but very hard to remember? What might be a good way to help people remember that?


Students are given a grid with each section labeled for 2 to 3 letters of the alphabet and with one section labeled for numbers. They are then challenged to enter into the sections of the grid all the words, phrases or numerical entries that they can that are relevant to a targeted topic. Once this is done with several loops for going further, the students are then given a “Next Steps Processing Question” that will draw their thinking to a more complex level regarding the content.


Find the Fib - Team activity where groups of students write two true statements and one false statement, then challenge other teams (or the teacher) to "Find the Fib."


Lines of Communication— This language practice structure provides multiple opportunities for language production. Repeated practice in a low-stress situation gives shy or reluctant students more confidence to share and take risks.


1.  The teacher gives a prompt or asks a question.

2.  Students stand in two rows facing each other.

3.  Students take turns responding to the prompt with the person standing across from them, and then discuss together for 30-seconds to one-minute.

4.  At the signal (bell, musical cue, chimes, etc.) students wrap up their comments or discussion and move one position to the left. The student at the end of one of the lines

who is left without a partner moves down the center aisle to the far position of the opposite line to find a new partner.

5.  The teacher finds a new prompt and the procedure continues until everyone has had a chance to share with every other member of the group, or as long as interest and focus



Reciprocal Teaching - Two students work together to read a passage. Each may have a text or they may share a text. Student A reads one paragraph aloud, then asks Student B one or two good questions. B answers or explains why (s)he cannot. A and B discuss questions and answers. The process is repeated in reverse.


One student begins by summarizing a section of the text and questioning the others about the meaning of the section. Any difficult parts are identified and discussed then predictions are made about the next section to be read. The students take turns summarizing, clarifying, and questioning until all sections of the text have been read, summarized, and discussed. This strategy encourages to self-monitor for understanding.


Round Table - The teacher asks a question that has many possible answers. In groups, the students make a list of possible answers by one at a time saying an answer out loud and writing it down on a piece of paper. The paper is then passed to the next student to record another answer. The process continues until the teacher tells the students to stop.


Send-A-Problem – This cooperative learning activity can be used with many content areas.

•        Each student on a team makes up a review question and writes it on a 3x5 card (or a problem, such as a math problem, a scientific hypothesis, a historical question, or a literature prediction such as what will happen next in the story?).

•        The writer asks the question of the other members of the team. When everyone agrees on

an answer it is written on the back of the card.

•        The teams then send their card to another team. Teams respond by having one student

read the first question.

•        Each team member writes down an answer. Team members then compare and discuss

their answers. If they agree, they turn the card over to see if they concur with the sending team. If not, they write their answer on the back of the card as an alternative answer. (OR the receiving group answers the problem and the response to give points or a grade, if desired.)

•        A second student reads the next question, and so on. The stacks of cards are sent to a third, then a fourth group until all teams have had a chance to answer all questions. When the cards return to the senders, the teacher should provide an opportunity to discuss and clarify.

STORY REENACTMENT (in Herrell and Jordan)

This strategy encourages students to act out stories after they have read them or have heard them read. It involves creating props for the students to use in reenacting stories so that they can use the book language they have heard or read, and better comprehend the text by acting it out in sequence.

TALK SHOW (in Herrell and Jordan)

This strategy encourages the production of verbal English based on information and verbalizations studied ahead of time. The time to work in small groups and plan the presentation helps English language learners gain confidence and competence in the production of spoken English. This strategy involves three students working together to create a in interview in which one plays the talk show host(ess), one plays the person to be interviewed, and the third person provides a silent “acting out” or interpretation for the non-English speaker. The use of the third person in the group to provide nonverbal communication of the information being discussed often adds a very entertaining twist to the interview.

INTERACTIVE WRITING (in Herrell and Jordan)

-is a form of shared writing or language experience lesson in which the teacher and students compose a story or text and share the pen in writing the words down on  chart or writing paper. Interactive writing provides scaffolding for young children moving from invented spelling into conventional spelling or to older students who are in need of skill- and confidence-building.

Pinnel & McCarrier, 1994




One Minute Paper - Teacher decides what the focus of the paper should be.  Ask students

“What was the most important thing you learned? What important question remains unanswered?

Set aside 5-10 minutes of next class to discuss the results. May be used in the middle of a class also.


In this strategy, the students are asked to develop a sentence that best expresses what they have learned or know about a given concept or topic. Ask them to make their sentences clear and specific.


At the end of a lesson it is always beneficial to have the students spend a few moments reflecting over the learning..
2. Ask students to identify the two thoughts or concepts they think are most important and to explain why they think so.
3. Ask students to also identify the one thought or concept about which they have a question or need clarification.
These questions become great “frames” for future lessons.

GIST- 13-word summary (Guided Reading-p.16):

GIST Strategy: 13 word summary








This is a great collaborative and high energy activity for reviewing a previous lesson before picking up where you left off.


  1. Give the students 2-3 minutes to individually review their materials from the day before and select what they consider to be the three most important concepts.
  2. Have them form triads.
  3. Have each student in the triads share her reflections for two minutes with her triad members.
  4. Ask each triad to determine the three most important concepts from the day before.
  5. Have one person from each triad report to the whole class one of their three most important concepts.


Round Robin is a quick and easy strategy for eliciting feedback from students after a major concept has been taught. The entire activity takes approximately five minutes, yet it gives the teacher a quick snapshot of where the students are with the learning. It can be used any time during the class period when it is appropriate to check for learning.


-Ask the students to determine the one to three words that best capture what is most important or meaningful in the learning.

-Ask each student to share his/her one to three words in turn.

-Students may “pass” or piggyback on someone else’s idea.

-Respond only by saying “Thank you.” (This strategy works best when the teacher doesn’t give any verbal or non-verbal feedback that implies any value beyond valuing the fact that the student either gave a response or passed).


This strategy has the students doing exactly that through “writing a note to a fictitious friend.”
Describe to the students the major parts of a friendly letter. Also emphasize the importance of clarity, precision, accuracy, depth and breadth.


  1. Ask students to individually reflect over the learnings they have had concerning a given topic.
  2. In their “learning logs,” or on a sheet of paper, have students respond to the following prompts:
  1. What are at least three most important things you have learned today? Or, what are at least three important things you have learned during this unit?
  2. What are two questions you would still like answered?
  3. What is at least one way that connects what you have learned with what you knew before.
  1. Ask students to write until time is called. Remember to manage by time not completion.
  2. Periodically, collect the students’ logs in order to read and respond to students’ reflections.

4-2-1 (9-36)

This strategy uses learning partners or small teams to foster in-depth reflection and integration of significant information.
Ask the students to:

-Individually generate four words that capture the most important aspects of the learning experience.

-Share, with learning partners or in small teams, their four words and compile a list of the words they have in common. From this list, determine two words that they agree capture the most important aspects.

-Determine the 1 word or Big Idea that best represents the most important learning of the experience.

-Share the various lists generated by their group in order for the whole class to make as many learning connections as possible.


3-2-1 - Students jot down 3 ideas, concepts, or issues presented.

Students jot down 2 examples or uses of idea or concept.

Students write down 1 unresolved question or a possible confusion.


Tell it on 3:





  1. Model a physical representation of a concept. It is important to use physical representations that can be done individually, For example: arms stretched out in a horizontal circle in front of you can represent lines of latitude.
  2. As you stretch out your arms, say the word “latitude.” Repeat this several times.
  3. Have students perform the gesture and repeat the word with you.
  4. Do this several times.


-When students have enough knowledge to recall and expand for a full five minutes on the content that you have been teaching, try Partner Review as a fun way to engage them.

-Explain that they will be sharing everything they can remember about “the topic” for a full five minutes by taking turns talking and listening. Warn them that most people run out of things to say after about two minutes and should turn to their notes, books and posters for ideas.

-Ask the students to spend a few minutes silently preparing for the strategy using their notes or a specific section in their textbook or article. Encourage them to highlight and/or make notes to help them throughout the activity.

Teach the following rules before starting.
Share for a full five minutes. During the entire time, share all you can remember. You may use any notes and/or resources available to you if you run out of things to say.
 Only one person is to be talking at a time. The other person is to remain silent and listen until the command to switch roles.
Switch on my command. Do not finish what you are saying. (Direct the students to switch roles every 20-40 seconds or whenever you see a student getting stuck.) Tell students you will
know this rule is being followed because the room will go silent during the switch.
d. Try to
avoid repeating yourself and other students.
Do NOT ask questions of one another during the activity.
Do NOT answer any questions.


Class Vote - Present several possible answers or solutions to a question or problem and have students vote on what they think is best.


Gallery Walk – A cooperative learning strategy in which the instructor poses several questions/problems and posts each question/problem at a different table or at a different place on the walls (hence the name "gallery"). Students form as many groups as there are questions, and each group moves from question to question (hence the name "walk"). After writing the group's response to the first question, the group rotates to the next position, adding to what is already there. At the last question, it is the group's responsibility to summarize and report to the class.


Jumbled Summary -- Teacher presents randomly ordered key words and phrases from a lesson to students. Students put the terms and phrases in a logical order to show understanding.


Ranking and Consensus Building - Students individually rank items in a list from least important to most important. Each group or pair comes to a consensus on the order.


Reader Response Chart - Students draw a T-chart on their paper. On the left side they write 3 interesting quotes from the story and on the right side students respond to the quote with personal reactions, memories, questions, compare/contrast, or something to learn more about.


Twelve Word Summary - In 12 words or less, students summarize important aspects of a particular chunk of instruction or reading.


These prompts are designed to be used one at a time to encourage reflection. An excellent option for their use is to provide three prompts and ask the students to respond to the one that is most meaningful to them at the time.

Sample Prompts

  1. What I did best today was …
  2. I was excited to learn that …
  3. The reason I’m learning this is …
  4. What I liked best about what I learned was …
  5. A question I have about what I’m learning is …
  6. Some ways I might be able to use what I’m learning are …
  7. If only people 500 years ago had known what I’m learning now, what probably would have happened differently is …
  8. My thinking has changed from … to …
  9. If I did this again, I would …
  10. The best thing about my work is …
  11. It is hard for me to learn … because …
  12. If only … , it would be easier for me to learn …
  13. I think what I’m learning is most like the color … because …
  14. What I’m learning about is most like the animal … because …
  15. What I’m learning is most like … because …
  16. What I learned how to do today is …
  17. I could best show what I’ve learned by …
  18. If only …
  19. If … knew this, …
  20. Three things I could do even better are …
  21. One thing I will do better is …
  22. One way I will use what I’ve learned is …
  23. One thing I can infer is … because …
  24. One thing I can conclude … because …
  25. I would predict that …

Reflection prompts 2


  • Describe a plus (what went well today)
  • Describe a minus (what didn’t go well)
  • Describe something you found interesting


  • Describe a green light (agree with)
  • Describe a yellow light (not sure about)
  • Describe a red light (don't agree with)


  • List your squares (things that square w/your beliefs)
  • List your triangles (3 ideas to remember)
  • List your circles (questions circling your head)


  • List key ideas (what was it about)
  • List your insights (what did you learn)
  • List your questions (what are you wondering)
  • List implications for action (what will you do)


  • Comfort zone (what are you sure you know)
  • Learning zone (what do you not know well)
  • Twilight zone (what do you not understand at all)


Write on a piece of paper what 3rd grade students (for instance) who haven’t read this book should know….the most important thing in the book….

Write down what you want to remember later about this topic….


CONTENT GRAFFITI- any phase 9-21

Students use dry erase markers to respond to prompts by writing on their desks or tables This process results in student’s enthusiastically responding in typically large writing, ensuring easy monitoring and assessing of their work on a readily available surface. After each prompt, the teacher gives the signal and the students use a cloth, paper towel, or disinfecting wipe to clean the work area. The novelty of writing on their desks excites the students and promotes engagement.


Use wallpapering ideas to collect ideas based on the student' current knowledge.

Hang up chart paper and have students write their thoughts on a topic. They may not talk to each other while jotting down their thoughts, but they can comment on each other’s ideas.


After students watch a video they can have a conversation with their shoulder partner using these three prompts: I saw, I think, I wonder…..


Agreement Circles -- Used to explore opinions. As students stand in a circle, facing each other, the teacher makes a statement. Students who agree with the statement step into the circle.


Clustering/Webbing/Mapping - Students, in a large group, small groups, or individually, begin with a word circled in the center, then connect the word to related ideas, images, and feelings which are also circled.

GIST (during, after or review)

GIST Summarizing procedure assists students in “getting the gist” from extended text

1.  Students and teacher read a section of text printed on a transparency

2.  After reading, assist students in underlining 10 or more words or concepts that are

deemed “most important”

3.  List words on the board

4.  Together, write a summary statement or two using as many words as possible.

5.  Write a topic sentence to precede summary sentences.


Students walk around the classroom and randomly select partners with whom to share information and get new information about an assigned topic. Instructions: Before beginning, give students quiet time to consider what they know about a particular topic, and to record a number of possible responses (sketches, words, phrases, or sentences) on a sheet designed for that purpose.

1.  Pose a question that is open-ended enough to generate a range of responses or provide a

worksheet with multiple questions to discuss and respond to.

2.  Provide a set amount of time (about 6 -8 minutes) to get up and find a classmate with

whom to share ideas.

3.  Partners ask for clarification about any detail not understood, comment on anything of

interest, then select one idea from the other’s list and add it to their own, with their partner’s name next to it.

4.  When one exchange is completed, students move on to a new partner.

5.  At the end of the exchange period, the teacher facilitates a class debriefing of ideas. A

volunteer is asked to share one new idea from a conversation partner, utilizing the language structure of reporting, such as:

•        I learned from  _         that  _        .

•        I found out from  _         that  _        .

•         _         said (mentioned) that  _        .

•        My partner,  _         told me (said that)  _        .

6.  The students whose idea has just been reported shares the next idea gleaned from another conversation partner, and the process continues.


Label a few index cards with headings and have the students group the rest of the cards under the right headings. Have students sort cards in specific categories.


Round Robin - Cooperative learning structure in which team members share ideas verbally on a topic. Group members share in order, without interruption, comment, discussion, or questions from other members so that everyone has an opportunity to share.


Round Robin Writing - This activity works well with open-ended higher order questions and in general, with questions that have more than one possible answer.

•        Pair students.

•        Each pair has one sheet of paper and one pencil.

•        Pose a question with multiple answers (e.g., Why do people immigrate?)

•        The students pass the sheet back and forth and record as many responses as possible.

They should not talk about the answers, but record them in writing.

•        Ask students to share responses with larger groups or the whole class.


Snowball – Write a response on paper (either to a prompt or a question) then crumple into ball shape. Teach numbers students off by 1 and 2. Then calls for all 1s to stand in one line and all 2s to stand across from them. The 1s are to throw their “snowball” across to the 2s. The 2s are to pick one up, find the originator, read the paper back to them, then describe in his or her own words what he or she thinks the originator  (#1) meant. #1 either agrees or clarifies. Then repeat the process where the 2s throw and the 1 catch, read, elaborate, and seek clarification.


Speedwriting – Describes how "speedwriting" requires that all learners become actively engaged in their own learning because, rather than generating ideas orally, students are instructed to write down all their ideas as quickly as they can. Considers how the social engagement of discussion and the sharing of ideas during the writing phase drew even the most reluctant students into the activity.


Take a Stand (Agree/Disagree, True/False, Yes/No) – A kinesthetic way to quickly allow students to give their answers to questions. Teacher poses a question. Students stand up if they AGREE/it’s TRUE/ for YES and sit down if they DISAGREE/ it’s FALSE/ for NO.


Herrell, Adrienne l., Jordan, Michael (2008), 50 Strategies for Teaching English language learners (3rd edition), Columbus, OHIO: Upper Saddle River

Rogers, S. (2011). Teaching for excellence. Conifer, CO: PEAL Learning Systems.