Compiled by Margo Tripsa
PEAK and SIOP Brief Strategies
PEAK=Performance Excellence for All Kids
SIOP= Sheltered Instruction and Observation Protocol
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Click on the link below to jump to the section you want)
1. BEGIN LESSON Page 1
2. VOCABULARY Page 4
3. TEACH LESSON Page 6
4. PRACTICE SKILLS/INTERACT WITH CONTENT Page 11
5. END LESSON Page 22
6. ANY LESSON STEP Page 27
1. BEGIN LESSON
BUILDING BACKGROUND/ REVIEW
PARTNER PREVIEW 9-77
Working with a partner and with the aid of a Learning Support Station;
-shower activity; excellent strategy to familiarize the students with future content. Explain that they will be sharing everything they can find out about a future topic for a full five minutes by taking turns talking and listening using support materials. Warn them that most people run out of things to say after a few minutes and they should turn to their notes, books, posters or Learning Support Stations for ideas.
-Encourage them to highlight and/or make notes to help them throughout the activity. Suggest to the students that they pay close attention to certain parts of the reading, including section titles, headings, first sentence of each paragraph, charts, graphs, pictures and captions.
Ask the students to make sure everyone is in groups of two. Ask the students in each pair to decide who will play the role of “Frog” and who will play the role of “Turtle
Teach the following rules before starting.
INSTANT REPLAY 9-54
The teacher asks students to respond to a prompt regarding selected visuals that were used in the teaching of previous lessons or units. Instant Replay can be done either individually or in small groups.
Prompts could include the following:
-Draw an icon that best represents the importance or message of each visual.
-Briefly summarize the message of the visual.
-List important points regarding the visual.
Direct the students to form groups and get all needed materials.
Tell the students you will display one visual at a time. Remind them that they are to begin responding to the prompt only after you give the launch button
Present the first visual, pause a few seconds and then state the launch button.
Use your signal to close the student response and then display the next visual. Continue this process until the end or for no more than about ten minutes.
Have the students quickly regroup for each visual or prompt to keep it more active and to promote deeper, fresh processing.
WALLPAPERING / TABLE BLOGGING
Use wallpapering ideas to collect ideas based on the student' current knowledge.
Hang up chart paper and have students write their thoughts on a topic. They may not talk to each other while jotting down their thoughts, but they can comment on each other’s ideas.
WALK-ABOUT QUIZ ?
Students begin a non-graded quiz to work in an on-going, unlimited way, in responding to a prompt. After they have progressed for a few minutes, the teacher directs all the students to begin walking around the room looking at others’ work for answers, insights, steps, points or whatever they have not included on their own quiz. They “short-term” memorize whatever they see that they consider “correct,” return to their papers, and add it. They also are encouraged to make any corrections they deem appropriate to their own papers. They continue this corrective, additive “walk about” until the teacher calls time.
This is considered a “quiz for learning”, that is not to be scored. If appropriate and necessary, consider offering effort points that will have a minimal impact on grades but recognize sustained effort throughout the Walk-About.
YOU CAN HAVE…BUT YOU CAN’T HAVE….9-143
This activity requires students to think about a concept by identifying “things” that fit the concept and “things” that don’t fit it. When first introducing this activity, it is best to name the specific concept with which the students are working.
Example: Eastern U.S. States is the concept. • “You can have New York, but you can’t have California.”
2. Once the students are familiar with the strategy, try it without first giving the concept with which they are working. Again, this requires more complex thinking on the part of the students.
Anticipatory Guide - Students are given a series of statements that relate to a reading selection, lecture, or video. Students indicate AGREE or DISAGREE. After the information has been presented, students check to see if they were correct. EXTEND: Have students write correction in their own words.
Idea Starts -Use a prompt for writing, such as a quote, a photo, words from a vocabulary list, an article, a poem, opening lines to a story, an unusual object, a film, or a guest speaker.
K-W-L – 3-column poster. Students establish what they Know, Want to know, and at the end of the lesson they tell what they Learned.
Quick-Write - Pre-reading or pre-writing focus activity. Students are asked to respond to a question or prompt in writing for 5 minutes. Emphasis is on getting thoughts and ideas on paper. Grammar, spelling, style not important. If students get stuck they can repeat phrases over and over until a new idea comes to mind. (Assessment strategy) Student writes for 2-3 minutes about what he heard from a lecture or explanation/read/learned. Could be an open ended question from teacher.
WHO/WHAT AM I? 9-139
Tell them they will all have one of the cards taped to their backs. Have students form small groups and let them see the cards on each other’s backs. They are not to tell one another what’s on each other’s backs. Students ask questions of one another until they can say to their group, “I think I’m (an item from Step one) because (this) is what I know.” They keep playing until they “get it.”
FOUR CORNER VOCABULARY (Siop)
word, picture, word in context (sentence), definition
DEUCES WILD- VOCAB. 9-31
Deuces Wild is actually several vocabulary strategies built into one large activity. Students roll a die to determine which strategy they will use to review a concept. Because twos are wild, the students have a choice as to which strategy they prefer to complete. Before implementing this strategy, take the time to use each of the individual strategies separately as an activity.
1=Write it 5x’s & Say Aloud 5x’s
3=Write an example of the word from your own life.
4=Draw a symbol or graphic that shows the meaning of the word
5=Send “spies” to another group & bring back something to share. Write down what you find.
6=Complete: (The word) is like because _________________.
VOCABULARY CARDS 9-131
The four boxes have prompts that are all designed to facilitate students learning the concept.
1- DESCRIPTION, EXPLANATION, EXAMPLE
2-PICTURE, ICON, EXPLANATION, EXAMPLE
3-CRITICAL ATTRIBUTES OR CHARACTERISTICS; OTHER
4-ANYTHING TO HELP UNDERSTAND WHAT IT IS OR IS NOT; MEANINGFUL SENTENCE
Contextualizing Vocabulary – choose several vocabulary words that are essential to understanding the lessons’ most important concepts and present the definitions in context, not just using dictionaries that might offer multiple meanings. Process
- Introduce and define terms simply and concretely.
- Demonstrate how terms are used in context.
- Explain use of synonyms, or cognates to convey meaning.
Mystery Word – Ask for a volunteer to sit in a chair facing the class, but with his or her back to the word wall so the target vocabulary cannot be seen. Choose a word from the word’s meaning (see Read My Mind) until the student is able to guess the word.
READ MY MIND- ADAPT
Read My Mind – Choose a word from your word wall and give one clue to its meaning. Have students raise their hands to guess the word. (Only allow one guess per clue in order to provide as many clues as possible.) Clues can be any of the following: definition, synonym, antonym, part of speech, number of syllables, prefix means, suffix means, rhymes with _ , “fill in the blank in this sentence,” ends with this letter, begins with this letter. When a student guesses correctly, ask him or her to give the definition of the words and to use it in context. As the class becomes familiar with the various types of clues used in this activity, have individual students
take your place as clue provider. Alternatively, you could create two teams to play the “Read My
Vocabulary Cards - Each student selects a difficult vocabulary word from the story and creates a card in the following manner: The word and its definition in the front, and a drawing and the vocabulary word in a sentence in the back. These cards are shared with team members, then exchanged with other groups.
VOCABULARY SELF SELECTION
Vocabulary Self-Selection – encourages students to self-select key vocabulary that is essential to understanding the concept. Students select vocabulary as individuals, in pairs, or in small groups. After discussion and learning about the terms, the students share their lists with the entire class, which then agrees upon a class vocabulary list. This is an effective method because
students learn to trust their own judgments about which content words are most important for
them to know and seek out definitions on their own.
Word Splash – The board is SPLASHED with new vocabulary from the sessions. Students get into groups of 4 and are given 1 minute to look at the words. Teacher erases one of the words. The first group to raise its had and correctly say the word, spell it, and use it in a sentence wins the point.
CROSSWORD PUZZLE MAKER
Have students create crossword puzzles for their classmates.
3. TEACH LESSON
Interactive Notes 9-55
The teacher begins by giving notes in a traditional manner, and the students record those notes on the left side of a T-Chart. At certain points while giving notes, typically at the conclusion of each point, the teacher stops and asks the students to interact with the just received new information in a prescribed way. The students record their responses to the prompts on the right side of the T-Chart. Typically, this strategy is used when “soaking” the new content of a lesson.
Plan your prompts ahead of time. Some teachers even write them on an overhead or create a separate slide for each prompt if they are using PowerPoint.
Example prompts might include…
CLEAR AS A BELL 9-12
At an appropriate breaking point in a lesson, students determine and share in small groups what they believe some students would consider clear points to remember to this point. Then, each student records on an index card the points the group has agreed are clear and need to be remembered. Students move about and exchange cards. Students return to their original group to share and reflect on the points surfaced by other groups. Finally, the groups determine what points are probably confusing to some students in the room.
Clock Appointments – The variety of partner combinations in this activity encourages a range of interactions for practicing language. Instructions:
1. Distribute a clock face to each student with space to write at the 12, 3, 6, and 9:00 spaces.
2. Have the class walk around and make an appointment with other students for each of the four time slots. It works best if they begin at 12:00 and work clockwise. Inevitably, there will be a few students with empty slots. You may have to help ensure everyone’s appointments are full by asking whether anyone is missing a clock appointment and facilitating matching students who need appointments.
3. When it is time for students to practice with one another, announce, “Find your 12
o’clock (or 3:00, 6:00, 9:00) appointment and tell him or her three things _ . Be sure to use one of the sentence frames to share your idea.”
Concept Sketches – (different from concept maps) are sketches or diagrams that are concisely annotated with short statements that describe the processes, concepts, and interrelationships shown in the sketch. Having students generate their own concept sketches is a powerful way for students to process concepts and convey them to others. Concept sketches can be used as preparation for class, as an in-class activity, in the field or lab, or as an assessment tool. (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/coursedesign/tutorial/strategies.html)
Quick-Draw - Students sketch ideas that relate to a topic.
SHARED READING (in Harrell and Jordan)
-use this strategy when the text is too difficult for the students to read independently. Students and teacher read the text altogether. Even when the students cannot read along with the teacher, they are hearing the words pronounced as their eyes follow the text.
LEVELED QUESTIONS (in Harrell and Jordan)
-are used when teachers adapt the way they ask questions so that students can respond to them according to their language acquisition stage.
BUDDY READ (in Harrell and Jordan)
One student reads, the other listens or takes notes. They stop periodically to discuss and create a graphic organizer for study.
DICTOGLOSS (in Harrell and Jordan)
A dictoglos involves students in listening to repeated, fluent readings of English text. At first they just listen, but on subsequent readings they take down as much of the text as possible. Then they get together in pairs and again in fours to combine their notations and re-create as much of the text as possible. The activity provides an authentic reason for communication and practice in re-creating, rewriting, and rereading English text.
-developed by Ruth Wajnryb (1990)
Flash Cards - After 10 minutes into a lecture or concept presentation, have students create a flash card that contains the key concept or idea. Toward the end of the class, have students work in pairs to exchange ideas and review the material.
In-Text Questions - Students answer teacher-constructed questions about a reading selection as they read it. Questions are designed to guide students through the reading and provide a purpose for reading. Students preview In-Text questions first then answer them as they read the article. Students review their answers with their small group, and then share them with the whole group.
Jigsaw (Home Group/ Expert Group) - This is a strategy in which small groups of students become experts in one aspect of the larger topic being studied. They then teach this information to another group.
• Divide the class into groups of three to five students
• Each group becomes experts on one aspect of a larger topic by working with information
provided by the teacher or finding additional information. Members of the expert group engage in tasks designed to help them become familiar with the information.
• Each expert then returns to a mixed group with members of each of the other expert groups. Students in this group teach one another the information learned in the expert
The jigsaw requires the participation and cooperation of all students. It encourages interaction
since the goal is to put the pieces of the lesson together and create a whole picture of the topic being studied. Learn more about this technique from the originator of the strategy, Elliot Aronson: http://www.jigsaw.org/
Learning Logs - Double-entry journals with quotes, summaries, notes on the left and responses reactions, predictions, questions, or memories on the right.
Reading Log- Students complete while reading a selection. The left-hand side contains topic headings for sections of the reading. Students are to briefly summarize each topic. On the right-- hand side students reflect on the implications of each topic.
Mnemonic Strategies – Ideas from: http://www.fun-with-words.com/mnem_example.html
• Create hooks for the students to store new learning in the mind
• Should include visualization and/or acronyms
• Can be connected to students personally
• Can be linked to room items, number sequences, words, phrases, cartoons, tongue- twisters, alliterations, rhymes, or poems
Muddiest Point - Students are asked to write down the muddiest point in the lesson (up to that point, what was unclear)
PANTOMINE A TALE
Pantomime-A-Tale - This technique can be used with fiction or nonfiction reading selections. Divide an article into sections. Each group prepares their assigned section as a pantomime. There should be one group member who reads the section, with appropriate pauses, and three members who act it out without using words. Rehearsal is important, so allow time for it.
Talking Stick – This strategy is structured so that each student has the opportunity, and responsibility, to speak multiple times. Students can “pass” (decline to respond) only once. This allows reluctant speakers to hear others in their small group before having to contribute. Instructions:
1. Designate an object as the “talking stick” and have student pass it around the group – first clockwise, and later, randomly.
2. The teacher gives a prompt and indicates the number or letter of the group member to begin. The first student with the “talking stick” speaks while everyone listens. The
student then passes the object to the left. The process continues until everyone in the group has had a chance to speak or until the teacher gives a signal to stop.
3. To extend the activity, once everyone in the group has had a turn speaking, anyone in the group may ask for another turn by saying something like, “I’d like to add another
thought. Please hand me the talking stick.
Think A-loud – The think-aloud strategy asks students to say out loud what they are thinking about when reading, solving math problems, or simply responding to questions posed by teachers or other students. Effective teachers think out loud on a regular basis to model this process for students. In this way, they demonstrate practical ways of approaching difficult problems while bringing to the surface the complex thinking processes that underlie reading comprehension, mathematical problem solving, and other cognitively demanding tasks. Thinking out loud is an excellent way to teach how to estimate the number of people in a crowd, revise a paper for a specific audience, predict the outcome of a scientific experiment, use a key to decipher a map, access prior knowledge before reading a new passage, monitor comprehension while reading a difficult textbook, and so on. Getting students into the habit of thinking out loud enriches classroom discourse and gives teachers an important assessment and diagnostic tool.
Think-Pair-Share - When asked to consider an idea or answer a question, students write their ideas on paper (think). Each student turns to another student nearby and reads or tells his or her own responses (pair, share). This is an oral exchange, not a reading of each other's papers.
Writing Headlines—Good way to practice summarizing an activity, story or project. Suppose you have asked your student groups to read a story or an article, or you want them to describe the results of a science experiment. After having the groups discuss it among themselves, you can check on their observations and comprehension by having them write a headline or title for a book review. Students will practice their summarizing skills and, as they get more proficient, their descriptive language skills, when writing news headlines. More advanced student may provide most of the language, but beginning students can copy the final product, perhaps in a fancy “script.”
• Provide models of Headlines.
• Students work in pairs writing a headline for an activity.
• Pairs share out their headlines and class votes on most effective headline.
READ ALOUD PLUS (in Herrell and Jordan)
This strategy involves the teacher reading text aloud to students while adding visual support, periodic paraphrasing, and/or rewriting as the “plus” or extension to the read-aloud. The students are actively involved in the “plus” part of the lesson and are so more motivated to listen carefully as the teacher reads aloud.
Jordan & Herrel, 2001
GIST or Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text
-is a strategy for supporting comprehension of informational text. After each short section is read silently, the members of the group work collaboratively to generate one sentence that summarizes the “gist” of the passage. In some very dense text, this summary sentence is generated paragraph by paragraph. Once a sentence is generated, members of the group write it on their own papers, so that each group member ends up with a concise summary of the text.
SQ3R (Robinson, 1946):
SQ3R is a comprehension strategy that helps students think about the text they are reading while they're reading. Often categorized as a study strategy, SQ3R helps students "get it" the first time they read a text by teaching students how to read and think like an effective reader.
This strategy includes the following five steps (Robinson, 1946):
RUNNERS for reading passages
Read the title
Underline important key words in the questions
Number the paragraphs (if needed)
Now read the selection...and as you read
Enclose key words that can help you find answers
Reread the questions, and mark out incorrect answers
Select the best answer!
4. PRACTICE SKILLS/INTERACT WITH CONTENT
AFTER TEACHING / INTERACTION/ APPLICATION
ICECREAM PARTY REVIEW (for adults: cocktail) SIOP
-Write down one question that you would include in a quiz about _______ on an index card, submit your questions to the teacher, the teacher mixes the cards and randomly distribute them to other students.
=A traditional Scottish dance
Two lines, share your notes (answer to a specific question, input) with the partner in front of you, then ask one student to move to the other end of his/her the line so that everyone has to move a position and share with the next person. The other line does not move.
The “fishbowl” is a teaching strategy that helps students practice being contributors and listeners in a discussion. Students ask questions, present opinions, and share information when they sit in the “fishbowl” circle, while students on the outside of the circle listen carefully to the ideas presented and pay attention to process. Then the roles reverse. This strategy is especially useful when you want to make sure all students participate in the discussion, when you want to help students reflect on what a “good discussion” looks like, and when you need a structure for discussing controversial or difficult topics. Fishbowls make excellent pre-writing activities, often unearthing questions or ideas that students can explore more deeply in an independent assignment.
Don’t forget to debrief the fishbowl discussion. After the discussion, you can ask students to reflect on how they think the discussion went and what they learned from it. Students can also evaluate their participation as listeners and as participants.
INSIDE OUTSIDE CIRCLE
During this strategy, students form two different circles: half of the group stands in a circle facing outward while the other half forms a circle around them facing inward. Students exchange information until the teacher signals the outer circle to move in one direction. The students now have a different partner with whom to exchange.
1. Decide which students will be in each circle (inside and outside).
2. Put a question or statement on the board.
3. Give students at least ten seconds to think on their own ("think time").
4. Ask students in the inside circle to share their response with the classmate facing them in the outside circle. When they have done this, ask them to say "pass", at which point the students in the outside circle will share their responses with the classmate facing them in the inside circle.
5. Have the outside circle move one step to the left or right and discuss the same question with the new partner. Option: post a new question for another discussion.
Concept Definition Maps
Concept Definition Maps – Structured word webs used to explore more complex concepts. The center circle may be a broad concept such as “habitat” and spokes leading off the circle may be organized to respond to questions such as “What is it?”, “What are some examples?” and “Why is it important?”
HOMEWORK PLAYOFFS 11-19
This is a lively activity that combines components of Table Races, Timed Olympics and Team Huddle. Each student group is given time to ensure that each of its members has correctly recorded the response to a given complex prompt. At the teacher’s signal, each group’s recorder, the student on each team determined by a random selection of a number from one to five, is to stand at his/her section of the white board. The remaining members of each team are to stand about 10 feet away from their recorder at the whiteboard. When the teacher gives the appropriate start signal, the recorder is to begin recording as much as he/she can of a correct response to the prompt while his/ her team members may shout as much information as they can to help the recorder. When time is called, the members of the groups whose recorders made strong progress in correctly responding to the prompt receive points according to a three point rubric.
Homework Olympics 9-52
This strategy combines Table Races, Team Huddle and the management technique of setting a time limit as opposed to a predetermined and arbitrary task completion. Students in groups will be given time to make sure everyone in their groups can completely and correctly respond to prompts on the white board or chart paper. To prepare, each group is to ensure everyone in their groups has written out and can explain the complete and correct responses to the prompt(s). After a reasonable amount of prep time has been given, one student from each group will be selected at random to completely and correctly respond to the prompts on the board or chart paper. Other team members may shout help from a distance to their member at the board.
GALLERY WALK NOTES 9-47
A. Students gather notes from focused information sheets posted on classroom or hallway walls. Each student walks with prepared, organized handouts with prompts, graphic organizers, maps and other tools to inform students clearly as to the information that must be accessed and recorded.
B. Texts should be displayed “gallery-style” - in a way that allows students to disperse themselves around the room, with several students clustering around a particular text.
During a Gallery Walk, students explore multiple texts or images that are placed around the room. Teachers often use this strategy as a way to have students share their work with peers or respond to a collection of quotations. Because this strategy requires students to physically move around the room, it can be especially engaging to kinesthetic learners.
-critique using post it notes
C. Students form as many groups as there are questions, and each group moves from question to question. After writing the group's response to the first question, the group rotates to the next position, adding to what is already there. At the last question, it is the group's responsibility to summarize and report to the class.
MIX IT UP 9-65
VANISHING CONTENT 9-129
Using a white board, chalk board, overhead or interactive board or projector, the teacher displays an important “operational” sentence, definition or formula that the students are to learn. After the teacher has led the students in choral reading “it” several times, the students, one at a time, are brought up to erase, cover, or “blacken over” single symbols, words or letters (in a formula), and then lead the class in choral reading of all of “it” including what is no longer visible.
FIVE FINGER RETELL STRATEGY
Use the FIVE FINGER RETELL STRATEGY
1st finger- Setting
Tall finger- Problem
Little finger- solution
MUDDY PAWS 9-67
To facilitate students surfacing unclear and confusing points from a lesson. Occasionally during a lesson, have students determine in small groups what they believe some students probably think is the ‘muddiest’ information “at this point.” Have each student record on a note card what the group agreed is confusing and needs to be clarified.
FRISBEE AND SNOWBALL QUIZES/CHALLENGES 11-18
Four ways 9-46
Students are given a topic or term to place in the center of the 4 Ways diagram. The teacher assigns four ways for students to process the term or allows students to select their favorite methods. Students complete the diagram with one method in each corner box. On the back of the diagram, students then explain and defend each of their four representations.
Five liners 9-42
Using Cinquain poetry (a 5-line poem describing a noun), students describe a topic, item, or concept. The structured poem requires students to surface adjectives, verbs, phrases, and synonyms to describe the selected item.
Cinquain- A 5 line poem that describes a noun
Line 1) a one-word title, a noun
Next Step Processing
No peeking concept drills 11-22
Teams compete to see which team can get rotating members of their team to correctly determine what is portrayed on a note card held up to their foreheads, under their chin, or above their heads in ways that the person holding the card cannot see what is on it but team members throwing out clues can.
Four Corners – You can use this activity to introduce a topic or let students share their prior knowledge. Choose a topic that has four possible dimensions (e.g., Topic: food resources. Dimensions: cleared land, forest, river, ocean).
• Assign one dimension to each corner of the room
• Students move to the corner they are interested in or knowledgeable about.
• In their corners, students pair and explain why they chose that corner and what they know about the topic.
• A student from one corner shares ideas with the whole class.
• Next, you may want to ask a student from another corner to paraphrase.
• This process continues until each corner has shared.
This activity is also a method for creating voluntary groups. After the Four Corners technique is
over, you may want the students to keep their corner groups for another group task.
SLAP HAPPY 11-31
To promote fast-paced interaction with content.
Groups of students race one another to have every member of the group develop a verified response to a set of problems. (For factual content adaptations, see the last half of the procedures.) When groups finish, they race to a set of responses on a chart or the whiteboard to slap the correct response with a fly swatter or their hands.
Sketch and talk 9-116
This is an academic activity similar to the game Pictionary™. Played in groups of two teams of two or three students each with all teams in the class competing with each other for most concepts “guessed” correctly before the end of game time is called.
-Give each team a stack of content concept cards. Each card has an important word, phrase, fact, concept, formula or relationship on one side and the other side is blank. The cards are placed face down.
SURVEY WITH YOUR FEET 11-33
Survey with Your Feet is an up-and-moving strategy in which the students are given several concepts
SWAP MEET 9-119
Students record information on an index card after accessing support from notes, homework, text, etc for a given prompt from the teacher. Students then move about the room greeting classmates and exchanging index cards with each person they greet while quickly reading the cards before passing them on to someone else.
Determine a prompt that will cause meaningful review or extension of the content such as any of the following:
THE DICE GAME 11-11
The Dice game is a fast moving “game-like” activity for groups of two (or three) in which students race under the control of the roll of a die to see who can complete the most work on an assigned task. One student in each group rolls a die until a six is rolled while the other student in the pair works on a content task as quickly as possible. As soon as a six is rolled, the die roller takes the pen or pencil from the worker and begins the same task on his or her own paper while the other student grabs the die and starts rolling it as quickly as possible trying to get a six in order to be able to once again work on the task. Students continue in this manner until time is called.
The activity is most effective with content tasks that can be done very quickly by individuals.
Use fast, upbeat music to help create an exciting, emotional environment as emotion causes learning.
CONTENT CROSSING (PUZZLE) 9-20
Students brainstorm topics, concepts, and important information in order to create a crossword puzzle. Students develop strong clues or questions for the puzzle terms. Puzzles are then shared to continue the processing. This works well with individuals as well as small groups.
TABLE JAM 11-35
Groups of students race each other to generate the most responses to a prompt or prompts which can call for recalling information, finding information in a resource, drawing diagrams, solving problems, combining sentences – it can be almost anything. What makes this work so well is that within each group, all members of the group must record exactly the same information in the same order on their own papers. This forces the groups to slow down and make sure all their group members have the identical “material” (same content, same order, same way) recorded on their papers.
4. Let your students know that it is “okay” and even desirable for them to use resources – including sending spies to get ideas from other groups.
TABLE RACES 11-36
In this very fast paced, “everybody learns and everybody wins,” contest-like strategy, students work in groups ensuring each group member correctly responds to a prompt from the teacher while racing other groups to get more recorded responses to prompts than any other group. Students utilize their group members and the Learning Support Station to ensure everyone is correct. As soon as a group shows the teacher everyone has the correct, complete response, including any required “codes,” the group races to its area of the “ board” to record the correct response.
In advance, prepare the following:
-The MANAGER’S job is to ensure ALL group members are doing their job.
-The CHECKER’s job is to double check the Learning Support Station whenever desired AND when everyone in the group is done. It is also to bring back the qualifying codes for everyone.
-The QUALIFIER’S role is to take all the group member’s papers to the teacher for approval as soon as the Checker verified that they are all complete and correct.
The teacher places enough pieces of chart paper on the walls and on student workspaces so that each student or pair of students has one at which to start a Roundabout. An identical list of prompts is attached to each piece of chart paper. The students then distribute themselves amongst the sheets of chart paper, begin responding to the prompts, and then rotate to the next sheet to correct and continue responding. This process continues until time is called.
RESPONSE JOURNALS 9-88
As a teacher is modeling and/or lecturing, students use Response Journals to record “correct answers” for each question the teacher designates as a “Response Journal Question”.
DEFENDING PREFERENCES 9-28
In small groups, students develop reasons why each of two separate ideas, concepts or procedures is “happier” than the other. Periodically students are invited to share what they have and then to go deeper.
CAROUSEL GRAFFITI 11-9
Questions: How would things be different if Columbus had discovered California? How do elephants benefit from their enormous ears? / What might be the result of . . . ? What could happen if . . . ? / What would be the benefits of . . . ? /What are example problems that show …?
-Groups of 2-4 students. Have each group move to a sheet of chart paper with a question with no more than one group per station, or assign each group of students to one of the questions as its “home base” and starting point.
-When you “push the launch button,” have the students read the question at their stations. One student should begin to orally respond to the question. Whatever this first person says orally must be written on the chart paper by everyone in the group, whether they agree with the statement or not.
-Then another student responds and all in the group records on the paper what the student has said. Continue in this manner until time is called.
-At the end of the allotted time, ask the groups to rotate one position to a new question and read the question. Have each student place a check beside the recorded responses with which they agree.
-Then have students repeat the process of saying a response and everyone records every response of the group.
-When the groups have each returned to their original question, change their task. Ask them to begin summarizing beginning with the responses with the most agreement.
Carousel - This activity encourages all students to interact through reading and writing.
▪ Write different but related questions or prompts on chart paper and post the papers around the room.
▪ Students move around the room either freely or in small groups and write ideas or answers on each paper. Alternately, you can have them record the ideas on sticky notes at their desks ahead of time and then post the notes on the appropriate papers.
▪ Share and process the ideas with the whole group with a gallery walk (students silently move from poster to poster, reading and noting important ideas) small group to whole group presentations or some other technique.
A carousel uses wait time for planning and a degree of anonymity in answering to create a non- threatening atmosphere in which all students have an equal chance share their ideas.
CIRCLE CHASE 9-10
This activity is a rapidly moving, individual version of Carousel Graffiti.
Plan a path for your students to follow around the walls or from student desk to student desk. Then, on your signal, have each student move to the next one in order, and so on. Explain to students that they probably will not finish each prompt – they are to work as far as they can in the time provided.
The teacher will call “time to stop” when she deems appropriate and before any student has completed all the prompts.
At the end, the teacher will pick up all the students’ answer sheets for quick monitoring, not grading. This is a classroom activity, not a graded event.
CARTOON CONVERSATION 9-7
Students can engage in Cartoon Conversations individually or in groups of two or three. In this strategy, the students create a product depicting concepts, people or procedures from their subject matter interacting in a substantive conversation. The students first create visuals or icons that represent each concept selected for their work, then the students draw a cartoon that shows the concepts interacting and having a conversation with each other relevant to the concepts. Typically, this strategy works best when adding depth and breadth rather than as an introduction to concepts.
WALL DRILL ?
BALLOON TOSS 11-6
ALPHABET BOXES + NUMBERS 9-2
Students are given a grid with each section labeled for 2 to 3 letters of the alphabet and with one section labeled for numbers. They are then challenged to enter into the sections of the grid all the words, phrases or numerical entries that they can that are relevant to a targeted topic. Once this is done with several loops for going further, the students are then given a “Next Steps Processing Question” that will draw their thinking to a more complex level regarding the content.
FIND THE FIB
Find the Fib - Team activity where groups of students write two true statements and one false statement, then challenge other teams (or the teacher) to "Find the Fib."
LINES OF COMMUNICATION
Lines of Communication— This language practice structure provides multiple opportunities for language production. Repeated practice in a low-stress situation gives shy or reluctant students more confidence to share and take risks.
1. The teacher gives a prompt or asks a question.
2. Students stand in two rows facing each other.
3. Students take turns responding to the prompt with the person standing across from them, and then discuss together for 30-seconds to one-minute.
4. At the signal (bell, musical cue, chimes, etc.) students wrap up their comments or discussion and move one position to the left. The student at the end of one of the lines
who is left without a partner moves down the center aisle to the far position of the opposite line to find a new partner.
5. The teacher finds a new prompt and the procedure continues until everyone has had a chance to share with every other member of the group, or as long as interest and focus
Reciprocal Teaching - Two students work together to read a passage. Each may have a text or they may share a text. Student A reads one paragraph aloud, then asks Student B one or two good questions. B answers or explains why (s)he cannot. A and B discuss questions and answers. The process is repeated in reverse.
One student begins by summarizing a section of the text and questioning the others about the meaning of the section. Any difficult parts are identified and discussed then predictions are made about the next section to be read. The students take turns summarizing, clarifying, and questioning until all sections of the text have been read, summarized, and discussed. This strategy encourages to self-monitor for understanding.
Round Table - The teacher asks a question that has many possible answers. In groups, the students make a list of possible answers by one at a time saying an answer out loud and writing it down on a piece of paper. The paper is then passed to the next student to record another answer. The process continues until the teacher tells the students to stop.
SEND A PROBLEM
Send-A-Problem – This cooperative learning activity can be used with many content areas.
• Each student on a team makes up a review question and writes it on a 3x5 card (or a problem, such as a math problem, a scientific hypothesis, a historical question, or a literature prediction such as what will happen next in the story?).
• The writer asks the question of the other members of the team. When everyone agrees on
an answer it is written on the back of the card.
• The teams then send their card to another team. Teams respond by having one student
read the first question.
• Each team member writes down an answer. Team members then compare and discuss
their answers. If they agree, they turn the card over to see if they concur with the sending team. If not, they write their answer on the back of the card as an alternative answer. (OR the receiving group answers the problem and the response to give points or a grade, if desired.)
• A second student reads the next question, and so on. The stacks of cards are sent to a third, then a fourth group until all teams have had a chance to answer all questions. When the cards return to the senders, the teacher should provide an opportunity to discuss and clarify.
STORY REENACTMENT (in Herrell and Jordan)
This strategy encourages students to act out stories after they have read them or have heard them read. It involves creating props for the students to use in reenacting stories so that they can use the book language they have heard or read, and better comprehend the text by acting it out in sequence.
TALK SHOW (in Herrell and Jordan)
This strategy encourages the production of verbal English based on information and verbalizations studied ahead of time. The time to work in small groups and plan the presentation helps English language learners gain confidence and competence in the production of spoken English. This strategy involves three students working together to create a in interview in which one plays the talk show host(ess), one plays the person to be interviewed, and the third person provides a silent “acting out” or interpretation for the non-English speaker. The use of the third person in the group to provide nonverbal communication of the information being discussed often adds a very entertaining twist to the interview.
INTERACTIVE WRITING (in Herrell and Jordan)
-is a form of shared writing or language experience lesson in which the teacher and students compose a story or text and share the pen in writing the words down on chart or writing paper. Interactive writing provides scaffolding for young children moving from invented spelling into conventional spelling or to older students who are in need of skill- and confidence-building.
Pinnel & McCarrier, 1994
5. END LESSON
EXIT TICKET / ONE MINUTE PAPER
One Minute Paper - Teacher decides what the focus of the paper should be. Ask students
“What was the most important thing you learned? What important question remains unanswered?
Set aside 5-10 minutes of next class to discuss the results. May be used in the middle of a class also.
ENCAPSULATING SENTENCES 9-35
In this strategy, the students are asked to develop a sentence that best expresses what they have learned or know about a given concept or topic. Ask them to make their sentences clear and specific.
TWO STARS AND A WISH 9-126
At the end of a lesson it is always beneficial to have the students spend a few moments reflecting over the learning..
GIST- 13-word summary (Guided Reading-p.16):
GIST Strategy: 13 word summary
BACK TRACKS 9-3
This is a great collaborative and high energy activity for reviewing a previous lesson before picking up where you left off.
ROUND ROBIN 9-90
Round Robin is a quick and easy strategy for eliciting feedback from students after a major concept has been taught. The entire activity takes approximately five minutes, yet it gives the teacher a quick snapshot of where the students are with the learning. It can be used any time during the class period when it is appropriate to check for learning.
-Ask the students to determine the one to three words that best capture what is most important or meaningful in the learning.
-Ask each student to share his/her one to three words in turn.
-Students may “pass” or piggyback on someone else’s idea.
-Respond only by saying “Thank you.” (This strategy works best when the teacher doesn’t give any verbal or non-verbal feedback that implies any value beyond valuing the fact that the student either gave a response or passed).
NOTE TO A FRIEND 9-76
This strategy has the students doing exactly that through “writing a note to a fictitious friend.”
FINAL COUNTDOWN 9-41
This strategy uses learning partners or small teams to foster in-depth reflection and integration of significant information.
-Individually generate four words that capture the most important aspects of the learning experience.
-Share, with learning partners or in small teams, their four words and compile a list of the words they have in common. From this list, determine two words that they agree capture the most important aspects.
-Determine the 1 word or Big Idea that best represents the most important learning of the experience.
-Share the various lists generated by their group in order for the whole class to make as many learning connections as possible.
3-2-1 - Students jot down 3 ideas, concepts, or issues presented.
Students jot down 2 examples or uses of idea or concept.
Students write down 1 unresolved question or a possible confusion.
TELL IT ON 3
Tell it on 3:
PHYSICAL REPRESENTATIONS ?
PARTNER REVIEW 9-78
-When students have enough knowledge to recall and expand for a full five minutes on the content that you have been teaching, try Partner Review as a fun way to engage them.
-Explain that they will be sharing everything they can remember about “the topic” for a full five minutes by taking turns talking and listening. Warn them that most people run out of things to say after about two minutes and should turn to their notes, books and posters for ideas.
-Ask the students to spend a few minutes silently preparing for the strategy using their notes or a specific section in their textbook or article. Encourage them to highlight and/or make notes to help them throughout the activity.
Teach the following rules before starting.
Class Vote - Present several possible answers or solutions to a question or problem and have students vote on what they think is best.
Gallery Walk – A cooperative learning strategy in which the instructor poses several questions/problems and posts each question/problem at a different table or at a different place on the walls (hence the name "gallery"). Students form as many groups as there are questions, and each group moves from question to question (hence the name "walk"). After writing the group's response to the first question, the group rotates to the next position, adding to what is already there. At the last question, it is the group's responsibility to summarize and report to the class.
Jumbled Summary -- Teacher presents randomly ordered key words and phrases from a lesson to students. Students put the terms and phrases in a logical order to show understanding.
RANKING AND CONSENSUS BUILDING
Ranking and Consensus Building - Students individually rank items in a list from least important to most important. Each group or pair comes to a consensus on the order.
READER RESPONSE CHART
Reader Response Chart - Students draw a T-chart on their paper. On the left side they write 3 interesting quotes from the story and on the right side students respond to the quote with personal reactions, memories, questions, compare/contrast, or something to learn more about.
TWELVE WORD SUMMARY
Twelve Word Summary - In 12 words or less, students summarize important aspects of a particular chunk of instruction or reading.
REFLECTION PROMPTS 9-87
These prompts are designed to be used one at a time to encourage reflection. An excellent option for their use is to provide three prompts and ask the students to respond to the one that is most meaningful to them at the time.
Reflection prompts 2
WHAT SHOULD X GRADE STUDENTS KNOW
Write on a piece of paper what 3rd grade students (for instance) who haven’t read this book should know….the most important thing in the book….
Write down what you want to remember later about this topic….
6. ANY LESSON STEP
CONTENT GRAFFITI- any phase 9-21
Students use dry erase markers to respond to prompts by writing on their desks or tables This process results in student’s enthusiastically responding in typically large writing, ensuring easy monitoring and assessing of their work on a readily available surface. After each prompt, the teacher gives the signal and the students use a cloth, paper towel, or disinfecting wipe to clean the work area. The novelty of writing on their desks excites the students and promotes engagement.
WALLPAPERING / TABLE BLOGGING
Use wallpapering ideas to collect ideas based on the student' current knowledge.
Hang up chart paper and have students write their thoughts on a topic. They may not talk to each other while jotting down their thoughts, but they can comment on each other’s ideas.
I SEE, I THINK, I WONDER…
After students watch a video they can have a conversation with their shoulder partner using these three prompts: I saw, I think, I wonder…..
Agreement Circles -- Used to explore opinions. As students stand in a circle, facing each other, the teacher makes a statement. Students who agree with the statement step into the circle.
Clustering/Webbing/Mapping - Students, in a large group, small groups, or individually, begin with a word circled in the center, then connect the word to related ideas, images, and feelings which are also circled.
GIST (during, after or review)
GIST – Summarizing procedure assists students in “getting the gist” from extended text
1. Students and teacher read a section of text printed on a transparency
2. After reading, assist students in underlining 10 or more words or concepts that are
deemed “most important”
3. List words on the board
4. Together, write a summary statement or two using as many words as possible.
5. Write a topic sentence to precede summary sentences.
GIVE ONE, GET ONE
Students walk around the classroom and randomly select partners with whom to share information and get new information about an assigned topic. Instructions: Before beginning, give students quiet time to consider what they know about a particular topic, and to record a number of possible responses (sketches, words, phrases, or sentences) on a sheet designed for that purpose.
1. Pose a question that is open-ended enough to generate a range of responses or provide a
worksheet with multiple questions to discuss and respond to.
2. Provide a set amount of time (about 6 -8 minutes) to get up and find a classmate with
whom to share ideas.
3. Partners ask for clarification about any detail not understood, comment on anything of
interest, then select one idea from the other’s list and add it to their own, with their partner’s name next to it.
4. When one exchange is completed, students move on to a new partner.
5. At the end of the exchange period, the teacher facilitates a class debriefing of ideas. A
volunteer is asked to share one new idea from a conversation partner, utilizing the language structure of reporting, such as:
• I learned from _ that _ .
• I found out from _ that _ .
• _ said (mentioned) that _ .
• My partner, _ told me (said that) _ .
6. The students whose idea has just been reported shares the next idea gleaned from another conversation partner, and the process continues.
Label a few index cards with headings and have the students group the rest of the cards under the right headings. Have students sort cards in specific categories.
Round Robin - Cooperative learning structure in which team members share ideas verbally on a topic. Group members share in order, without interruption, comment, discussion, or questions from other members so that everyone has an opportunity to share.
ROUND ROBIN WRITING
Round Robin Writing - This activity works well with open-ended higher order questions and in general, with questions that have more than one possible answer.
• Pair students.
• Each pair has one sheet of paper and one pencil.
• Pose a question with multiple answers (e.g., Why do people immigrate?)
• The students pass the sheet back and forth and record as many responses as possible.
They should not talk about the answers, but record them in writing.
• Ask students to share responses with larger groups or the whole class.
Snowball – Write a response on paper (either to a prompt or a question) then crumple into ball shape. Teach numbers students off by 1 and 2. Then calls for all 1s to stand in one line and all 2s to stand across from them. The 1s are to throw their “snowball” across to the 2s. The 2s are to pick one up, find the originator, read the paper back to them, then describe in his or her own words what he or she thinks the originator (#1) meant. #1 either agrees or clarifies. Then repeat the process where the 2s throw and the 1 catch, read, elaborate, and seek clarification.
Speedwriting – Describes how "speedwriting" requires that all learners become actively engaged in their own learning because, rather than generating ideas orally, students are instructed to write down all their ideas as quickly as they can. Considers how the social engagement of discussion and the sharing of ideas during the writing phase drew even the most reluctant students into the activity.
TAKE A STAND
Take a Stand (Agree/Disagree, True/False, Yes/No) – A kinesthetic way to quickly allow students to give their answers to questions. Teacher poses a question. Students stand up if they AGREE/it’s TRUE/ for YES and sit down if they DISAGREE/ it’s FALSE/ for NO.
Herrell, Adrienne l., Jordan, Michael (2008), 50 Strategies for Teaching English language learners (3rd edition), Columbus, OHIO: Upper Saddle River
Rogers, S. (2011). Teaching for excellence. Conifer, CO: PEAL Learning Systems.