NZGIS4EM Symbology for Emergency Management

                             NZGIS4EM_Large

Version No.

1.0

Date

December 2018

Prepared by NZGIS4EM Symbology working group (Fire Emergency NZ, Bay of Plenty Regional Council, Land Information NZ, Northland Regional Council, MCDEM, Eagle Technology) on behalf of NZGIS4EM

Document Approval

Name

Title

Signature

Date

Derek Phyn

Waikato REgional Council / NZGIS4EM Chairperson

Nov 2018

Craig MacAlpine

FENZ/NZGIS4EM symbology working group

Nov 2018

Contents

Revision history        3

Intended Audience        3

Document Approval        2

Acronyms and Glossary        3

NZGIS4EM        4

NZGIS4EM Symbology Working Group        4

Purpose        4

Scope        5

Approach        5

Existing Emergency Management Symbology        6

Design of the NZGIS4EM Symbology for Emergency Management        7

Use of NZGIS4EM Symbology for Emergency Management        7

Revision history

Author

Version

Dates

Comments

Craig MacAlpine

0.1

August 2018

Review and draft symbols in consultation with Symbology Working Group.

NZGIS4EM Symbology Working Group

0.1

August 2018

Version 0.1 drafted for consultation with the NZGIS4EM community at the SIG.

Craig MacAlpine

0.2

October 2018

Ongoing review and draft symbols in consultation with Symbology Working Group.

NZGIS4EM Symbology Working Group

0.2

October 2018

Version 0.2 draft for consultation with NZGIS4EM committee and technical advisors

NZGIS4EM Symbology Working Group

1.0

December 2018

Version 1.0 is released to the NZGIS4EM community and available for public use

NZGIS4EM Symbology Working Group

Review

6 monthly

A review of the document will be done 6 monthly by the NZGIS4EM symbology working group

Intended Audience

In December 2018, this document is intended to be released to the NZGIS4EM community for use/review and consultation. The symbols and documentation are in an early draft stage. All suggestions for changes or new symbols to be added are greatly welcomed.  Please provide your feedback by emailing NZGIS4EM@gmail.com.

Acronyms and Glossary

CDEM                 Civil Defence Emergency Management

EMSINA AHSS        Emergency Management Spatial Information Network Australia All Hazards Symbology Set 

ESRI                Environmental Systems Research Institute

FENZ                 Fire and Emergency New Zealand 

GIS                Geographic Information Systems

HSWG                Homeland Security Working Group

Infographic        Graphics used to visually summarise information, data or knowledge

MCDEM                Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management

NAPSG                National Alliance for Public Safety GIS Foundation

NZGIS4EM        New Zealand Geographic Information Systems for Emergency Management

SIG         Special Interest Group: Gathering of individuals to discuss a topic of common interest. Usually held in parallel with major conferences.

UNOCHA        United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

NZGIS4EM

During 2016 and 2017, a series of major emergencies occurred in New Zealand. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) proved critical to generating and sharing intelligence, but lacked coordination across the country. In 2017, Eagle Technology facilitated a series of New Zealand Geographic Information Systems for Emergency Management (NZGIS4EM) workshops in Wellington, Auckland, Christchurch and Palmerston North. The workshops were led by Paul Doherty, formerly Eagle Technology, now with National Alliance for Public Safety GIS Foundation (NAPSG). A community of practice rapidly formed alongside the workshops, adopting the name NZGIS4EM. An Interim Committee was established, chaired by Derek Phyn from the Waikato Regional Council supported by Kate Waterhouse from the Bay of Plenty Regional Council as Secretary.

The Interim/Elected Committee was intended as a shared and coordinated voice for the use of GIS in Emergency Management across New Zealand. The core roles of the Committee were to advocate, educate, advise and to support, guide, and recommend best practice for GIS and Emergency Management practitioners while ensuring alignment to the principles and purpose of the Coordinated Incident Management System (CIMS). The Committee was not mandated to make decisions on behalf of the NZGIS4EM community or with regards to any products or services. However, the Committee could vote to make recommendations for decisions by a national governance group that was yet to be formalised.  

At present the NZGIS4EM community has over 300 members from public, private, academic and charitable sectors. If you are interested in joining, contact Derek Phyn at nzgis4em@gmail.com.

NZGIS4EM Symbology Working Group

A subgroup of interim committee members led by Craig MacAlpine, Fire and Emergency New Zealand (FENZ), volunteered to form a Working Group to identify or draft a symbol set as the basis for a recommendation of a National Symbology Standard for Emergency Management. This document represents the first step towards developing the symbol set.

Purpose

The purpose is to draft a set of symbols to form a basis for discussion with the NZGIS4EM community. Version 0.1 was released at the annual NZGIS4EM Special Interest Group (SIG) held on the 20 August, 2018 at the NZ ESRI User Conference (NZEUC) hosted by Eagle technology in Auckland. Feedback from the SIG participants was incorporated into Version 0.2. This version was then reviewed and approved by the NZGIS4EM Committee in November 2018.  The symbols are intended for use in information products including maps, reports, dashboards, infographics, and websites.

 All suggestions for changes or new symbols to be added are greatly welcomed.  

Please provide your feedback by emailing NZGIS4EM@gmail.com.

Use of consistent symbols enhances information exchange, increases shared situational awareness, reduces production time and increases familiarity with standardised information products across the emergency management sector. Standardising the design of information products such as maps is a core requirement to ensuring that information is readily able to be interpreted by all viewers.

Consistent symbols can also indicate that the information presented uses common data and schemas, or a single source of truth. Furthermore, standards support interoperability and integration of data to enable shared information across organisations and operating systems in emergencies.

Scope

It is intended that this work on symbology for emergency management may one day form the basis of a recommendation for a National Technical Symbology Standard for Emergency Management, in the first instance sponsored by the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management (MCDEM) under the CDEM Act 2002. The standard should be regularly reviewed to evolve over time in the context of national and international best practices.  

Approach

The majority of symbols considered by the NZGIS4EM Symbology Working Group were sourced or adapted from the ANSI INCITS 415-2006 – Homeland Security Mapping Standard – Point Symbology for Emergency Management which is based on the Homeland Security Working Group (HSWG) Version 2.20, released September, 2005. This is in recognition of the current use of these symbols in incident management systems by Fire and Emergency New Zealand (FENZ).

From 2003 onwards, FENZ formerly the New Zealand Fire Service (NZFS), in conjunction with National Rural Fire Authority (NRFA) and Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management (MCDEM) worked on a symbol set based on HSWG and symbols sourced from NZFS and NZRA. The resulting symbol set was never formally adopted by these agencies, however, internal use highlighted the value of consistent symbology. Some NZFS and NZRA symbols were adopted into the HSWG symbol set.  

The HSWG symbol set has gaps in some symbol categories (NAPSG, 2013). These gaps were seen as an opportunity to start with a relatively open established baseline and place no bounds on possibilities by asking ‘which symbols would emergency management agencies in New Zealand additionally want to include’ alongside identifying ‘which symbols would emergency management agencies in New Zealand want customised to be more recognisable for our national context’?  Where an international symbol standard did not meet the requirement, a symbol was customised by Craig MacAlpine, FENZ.

The group acknowledges there are several other symbologies for emergency management currently available or in development in the public domain. The working group have sourced or adapted some symbols from these sets, particularly from National Alliance for Public Safety GIS (NAPSG). Further symbols will be added and customised following consultation with stakeholders, the NZGIS4EM community, and updates to existing symbologies. For example, later in 2018 a major update is expected of the Emergency Management Spatial Information Network Australia (EMSINA) Australian All Hazards Symbology.

Existing Emergency Management Symbology

Emergency Management Spatial Information Network Australia (EMSINA) All Hazards Symbology Set

The Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) and the Australia New Zealand Land Information Council (ANZLIC), supported by EMSINA developed the All Hazards Symbology (AHSS) for adoption by emergency management agencies across Australia and New Zealand.

EMSINA have a process for accepting symbology changes and are interested in considering whether there are opportunities for alignment between NZGIS4EM and EMSINA, particularly once EMSINA publish their latest symbology set version. NZGIS4EM are in discussions with EMSINA and plan to review the new EMSINA symbols for adoption when released.

Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) Emergency Management Symbol Sets

Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) has designed emergency management symbols for ArcGIS. There are no restrictions on use. Some public domain symbols are attributed to the Noun Project, which are icons created by the global community.

Homeland Security Mapping Standard (HSWG)

The Symbology Working Group has considered ANSI INCITS 415-2006 – Homeland Security Mapping Standard – Point Symbology for Emergency Management. The group has not yet considered the current standard ANSI INCITS 415-2006 (R2017) Information Technology - Homeland Security Mapping Standard.

National Alliance for Public Safety GIS (NAPSG) Foundation

National Alliance for Public Safety GIS (NAPSG) Foundation is a not-for-profit organization that specialises in decision-support technology for public safety and emergency management. The NAPSG symbol set is reviewed and updated frequently. For more detailed information, see NAPSG Overview Document: Incident Symbology – Phase 3. NZGIS4EM are in discussions with NAPSG and plan to review any new NAPSG symbols for adoption when released.

United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)

United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) designed all hazards symbols for use across multiple audiences, including the general public, during disaster and humanitarian relief. The symbols are available for use in the public domain and suggest crediting OCHA whenever possible. They can be downloaded from the Noun Project in any colour required.

Symbols selected by NZGIS4EM

Of 155 draft symbols selected by the NZGIS4EM Symbology Working Group, 51 symbols were customised by FENZ. The remainder were sourced from HSWG (70), NAPSG/UNOCHA (7), NRFA (22) and NZFS (7). Table 1 summarises a selection of existing symbol sets for emergency management.

Table 1. Symbology Sets for Emergency Management

Organisation

Purpose

Formal Standard

License

Shapes

Border

Symbols adopted

Accept suggestions for new symbols

EMSINA AAHS

Emergency Management

No

Public Domain

No

Yes

0

Yes

ESRI EM

Emergency Management

No

Public Domain

Yes

No

0

Yes

HSWG/ ANSI INCITS 415

Emergency services

Yes

Public Domain

Yes

Yes

70

Unsure

NAPSG

Emergency responders

No

Public Domain

Yes

Yes

<5

Yes

UNOCHA

Humanitarian and disaster relief

No

Public Domain

No

No

<5

Humanitarian symbols only

Design of the NZGIS4EM Symbology for Emergency Management

Symbol set        The symbol set includes point symbols. Future work will cover lines, polygons and attributes or levels e.g. indicating status.

Shape        The shape of the symbol represents categories of symbols

Border        ANSI INCITS 415-2006 allows for border colours to change to indicate the extent of damage or level of operation.

Colour        All symbols are on a white background to be visible irrespective of the basemap or imagery used. The symbols are designed to be distinctive when printed in either colour or black and white. Where colour elements were added, they did not affect any black and white representation.

Naming        Each symbol is named according to its representation and the size of the symbol e.g. Flood_256.png

Format        The symbol set is published in Portable Network Graphics (PNG) format at 256 x 256 pixels suitable for printing large A0 to A3 maps for planning and briefing purposes. If a small symbol is required (below 12 point), the category shape can be used as the symbol. For instance, use a diamond to represent an incident.

NOTE -         NZGIS4EM symbology working group will consider providing further formats and sizes requested (this will include .svg) after the 6 month review period.

Use of NZGIS4EM Symbology for Emergency Management

The Emergency Management Symbology for New Zealand is available for download from the NZGIS4EM website, see nzgis4em.wordpress.com.

There will be no restrictions on the use of the symbol set unless restrictions are implied through adoption of an international standard. Refer to page 12 for sources.

The symbol sets for emergency management listed in table 1 are all published in the public domain. This appears preferable to licensing under Creative Commons as all types require attribution in products.

An option for consideration would be offering the symbols created by NZGIS4EM for download from the Noun Project, with a suggestion to attribute NZGIS4EM where possible and notify use and/or feedback via email.

References

ESRI Emergency Management Symbol Style (2018):  esri-styles.maps.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=41f01365fe4f4aee89af5fd817fc97b2

Homelands Security Working Group (2005) Incidents Symbology Reference, Version 2.20, Released September 14: www.fgdc.gov/HSWG/ref_pages/Incidents_ref.htm

O’Rouke, P. (2015) Overview Document: Incident Symbology – Phase 3, National Alliance for Public Safety GIS Foundation in partnership with Ardent Management Consulting: www.nisconsortium.org/portal/resources/bin/Overview_Document:_I_1424817090.pdf

NAPSG Foundation (2018) Symbology: https://napsg-web.s3.amazonaws.com/symbology/index.html#/

The Noun Project (2018) thenounproject.com

NZFS (2005) New Zealand Fire Service Standard Incident & All Hazards Symbology Used by Emergency Services in New Zealand  

NZGIS4EM Training Story Map Series (2018): http://arcg.is/2ixzcqV

UNOCHA Humanitarian Icons (2012) reliefweb.int/report/world/world-humanitarian-and-country-icons-2012

Natural Hazards

HAZARD_NATHAZ_Hazard--Flood_256x256

NE_Tropical_Cyclone_256

NE_Tornado_256

NE_Storm_Surge_256

NE_Tree_Down_256

NE_Snow_256

NE_Avalanche_256

Flood2

Wind4

Tropical Cyclone2

Tornado2,6

Storm Surge4

Tree Down4

Snow & Ice2,6

Avalanche2,6

NE_Earth_Quake_Epicenter_256

NE_Tsunami_256

IN_Subsidance_A_256

NE_Landslide_256

IN_Volcanic_Threat_256

Earthquake4

Tsunami4

Subsidence2

Landslide2

Landslide Dam4

Volcanic Threat4

Volcanic Eruption4

Incidents

Warning_256

PowerOutage_256

Vehicle_Incident_256

Air_Incident_256

Marine_Incident_256

IN_Curize_Ship_Incident_256

Warning Generic4

Unknown4

Power Outage4

Vehicle1

Air1

Rail1

Marine1

Cruise Ship4

Medical_Incident_256

Quarantine_256

Poisoning_256

Hazardous_256

IN_Cell_Tower_256

Medical5

Quarantine4

Poisoning1

Hazardous Material1

Toxic substance4,5

Toxic Gas1

Radioactive Material1

Cell Tower4

IN_Bomb_Threat_256

IN_Bomb_Explosion_256

Unexploded_Ordnance_256

Shooting_256

Civil_Rioting_256

Bomb Threat1

Bomb Explosion1

Unexploded Ordnance1

Shooting1

Rioting1

Displacement1

Pandemic4

Coastal Erosion4

Ground Contamination4

Fire - Incidents

Fire_Incident_256

Fire_Hotspot_256

IN_Fire_Origin_256

VegetationFire_256

Sprinkler_256

IN_Private_Fire_Alarm_A_256

IN_False_Alarm_256

Fire4,5

Hot Spot1,5

Origin1,5

Residential Fire1,4

Vegetation Fire4,5 

Sprinkler4

Private Fire Alarm4

False Alarm4

Natural Disaster4,5

Hazardous Material - Incident     International standard not possible to modify this category

HAZARD_HAZMAT_-Class-4-Dangerous-When-Wet_256x256

HAZARD_HAZMAT_-Class-1-Explosives_256x256

HAZARD_HAZMAT-Class-2-Flammable-Gas_256x256

HAZARD_HAZMAT_-Class-2-Flammable-Gas-21_256x256

HAZARD_HAZMAT_-Class-2-Flammable-Solid_256x256

HAZARD_HAZMAT_-Class-2-Non-Flammable-Gas-22_256x256

HAZARD_HAZMAT_-Class-5-Organic-Peroxides-52_256x256

HAZARD_HAZMAT_-Class-5-Organic-Peroxides-51_256x256

Hazardous When Wet1

Explosive1

Flammable Gas1

Flammable Liquid1

Flammable Solid1

Non-Flammable Gas1

Organic Peroxides1

Oxidizers1

Infectious1

Operations

Temporary Emergency Medical Operation1

Temporary Hospital4

Temporary Ambulance Station4

Temporary Fire Station4

Temporary Police4

Temporary Pharmacy4

Temporary Triage4

Temporary Fire Hydrant1,4

Ambulance4

Medical Evacuation Helicopter Station4

Emergency Water Distribution Point4

Emergency Food Distribution Point4

Check Point1

Road Block4

Fire Appliance Urban (AVL status)4

Customs Service1

Civil Defence Centre4

Community Led Centre4

Assembly

Area4

Staging Area4

Casualty Clearing Point4

Cooling Centre4

Warming Centre4

Incident Control Point4,3

Coordination Centre4

Communications3,5

Logistics3

Ground Support Unit3

Safe Forward Point5

Situation Unit3

Safe Zone3

Water Tanker3,5

Water Point3

Fuel Point4

Boat Ramp / Water Access3

Helicopter pad improvised4

Airstrip improvised4

Marine4

Cruise Ship4

Radio Repeater Portable4

Weather Station Portable

Bu

lldozer4

Protected Site4

Protected Structure4

Infrastructure

Infrust_Fire_Station_A_256

Infrust_Police_Station_A_256

Infrust_RestArea_256

Infrust_Toilets_256

Fire Station4

Police Station4

Ambulance Station4

Hospital4

Medical Centre4

Pharmacy4

Recreational Area4

Toilet6

Infrust_Food_Retail_256

Infrust_ATM_256

Infrust_Bank_256

Infrust_Education_256

Infrust_Tertiary_Facility_256

Infrust_Special_Needs_256

Food Retail4

ATMs6

Banks4

Post Office4

Educational Facility1

Tertiary Facility1

Aged Care Facility4

Special Needs Infrastructure4

Infrust_Structure_Building_256

Infrust_Farm_256

Infrust_Telecom_256

Infrust_Marae_256

Building4

Farms1

Grain Store4

Embassy4

Prison4

Telecommunications Infrastructure4

Water Supply Infrastructure3,4

Marae4

Infrust_Petroleum_Facilities_256

Infrust_Energy_Infrustructure_256

Infrust_Generation_Stations_256

Infrust_Natural_Gas_256

Infrust_Industrail_256

Infrust_Pharmaceutical_Manufacture_256

Infrust_Tunnel_256

Fuel Facilities4

Energy Facilities Infrastructure4

Generation Stations4

Natural Gas Facilities4

Commercial Infrastructure4

Industrial Site4

Pharmaceutical Manufacturer4

Tunnel1,2

Infrust_Hazardous_Material_Production_256

Infrust_Dam_256

Infrust_Land_Fill_256

Hazardous Material Production1

Dam1,4

Landfill1

Recycling Centre4

Water Depth4

Weather Station Fixed4

Camera/ CCTV4

Tsunami Siren4

Infrust_Bus_256

Infrust_Boat_Ramp_256

Infrust_Port_256

Infrust_Railway_Station_256

Infrust_Airport_256

Infrust_Airstrip_256

Infrust_Helicoper_Landing_Site_256

Infrust_Maintenance_Business_256

Bus Station1

Boat Ramp4

Port1

Rail Station1,2

Airport5

Airstrip5

Helicopter Landing Site4

Maintenance Facility1

       Bridge4

Roads

Road Closed 4

Partial Open Road / 4WD4

Road Open4

Unaffected by Incident 4

Symbols sourced or adapted from:

1 Homeland Security Working Group (HSWG) Version 2.20, released September, 2005: www.fgdc.gov/HSWG/ref_pages/Incidents_ref.htm 

2 NAPSG Foundation (2018) Symbology: napsg-web.s3.amazonaws.com/symbology/index.html# 

3 National Rural Fire Authority (NRFA), currently Fire and Emergency New Zealand

4 New Zealand Geographic Information Systems for Emergency Management (NZGIS4EM)

5 New Zealand Fire Service (NZFS), currently Fire and Emergency New Zealand

6 United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA): reliefweb.int/report/world/world-humanitarian-and-country-icons-2012 and thenounproject.com/ochaavmu/collection/ocha-humanitarian-icons

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