Open Access Peer Reviewed Journal Website: https://digitalcommons.du.edu/theliminal/
Volume 1 Issue 2 CFP: “Higher Education’s Role in the Development of Smart Cities.” http://bit.ly/liminal2019
First Call for Submission: November 15, 2019.
Full Manuscript for Review: September 15, 2020.
Revisions Due: October 16, 2020.
Sherry Jones, Rocky Mountain College of Art and Design, Johns Hopkins University
Kae Novak, Front Range Community College, eLearning Consortium of Colorado
Heather Tobin, University of Denver
Chris Luchs, CCConline, Old Dominion University
Donna Hall, Front Range Community College
Chris Luchs, CCConline, Old Dominion University
Terri Balogh, Metropolitan State University of Denver
Dr. Farah Bennani, Mercer County Community College
Dr. Cynthia Calongne, Colorado Technical University
Spencer Ellis, Colorado Department of Higher Education
Dr. Thomas Keefe, Rocky Mountain College of Art and Design
Raul B. Moreno, Clark College
Dr. Barbara Truman, University of Central Florida
Tameca Coleman, Regis University
Ryan Lambert, Colorado School of Mines, Community College of Denver
Tina Morrell, Colorado Technical University
Kelly Zepp, Community College of Denver
Editor-in-Chief: Sherry Jones
Smart city is a multivalent term defined by the interests of those who wish to participate in progressive city development. The term commonly refers to technological urban development with interconnected devices, services, and infrastructure. Some advocates define smart city initiatives as data-driven smart urbanism, while others desire to re-label smart cities as sustainable cities to emphasize sustainability as a key design element. Even discussions about designing smart cities as pan cities, which collect data, connect and correlate domains of city services (converted into technological modules with sensors and IOTs), are central to governments' and industries' conversations about the future of urban development with connectivity.
In the field of game studies, game scholars are calling for replacing the term smart cities with playable cities to reconsider how technologically-enabled cities can be redesigned with play to promote progress, inclusivity, and equality.
In general, advocates intend for smart cities to exhibit the following characteristics:
Numerous international government driven smart city initiatives are underway to ensure that smart cities are not designed to support technocracies. Cities Coalition for Digital Rights, Barcelona Digital City, Detroit Digital Justice Coalition, Seattle Community Technology Advisory Board, Amsterdam Tada!, Smart London Board, and Smart Dubai AI Ethics Advisory Board (Kitchen, 2019) are major advocates for responsible technology-driven urban development.
Academia also has launched initiatives and ethics boards for creating policies to prevent smart cities from becoming AI-enabled surveillance capitalist states, such as “Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence and MIT/Harvard's Ethics and Governance of Artificial Intelligence Initiative), research bodies such as the Ada Lovelace Institute, companies (see Google's short-lived Advanced Technology External Advisory Council), governments (the EU High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence), and stakeholder coalitions (Data for Black Lives and Partnership on AI)” (Kitchen, 2019). The various initiatives reveal great concerns that smart cities may pose a threat to democracy and citizens’ rights to privacy and autonomy.
Smart city initiatives pose significant questions for higher education: What is higher education’s role in ensuring that smart city design and development will create just societies that can minimize the digital divide and differential access? How can higher education support e-governance, smart urban governance, or open governance? How will higher education’s role as the steward of scholarly and credible information change as AI, automation, IOTs, and urban big data become the main disseminators and managers of information? Can multidisciplinary educational initiatives collaborate with industries to drive the ethical redevelopment of smart cities?
Conversations regarding the implementation of smart cities are not without controversy; numerous ethical issues can arise due to smart city’s reliance on AI, algorithms, sensors, surveillance systems, and IOTs for its design. Technocracies, technological gentrification, surveillance capitalism, automated racism (such as China’s targeted surveillance program and facial recognition tracking of the Uighurs), digital divide, ethics-washing (such as Facebook’s ethics report), greenwashing, differential access, hacking, privacy, and data ownership are just some of the issues that can arise from technological urban development. The issues also are the focus of this issue of The Liminal journal’s call for papers (CFP).
We welcome both industry leaders and scholars from the disciplines of art, humanities, engineering, design, technology, education, and the sciences to contribute to the Liminal.
Sherry Jones, Editor-in-Chief
The Liminal: Interdisciplinary Journal of Technology in Education
Journal Website: https://digitalcommons.du.edu/theliminal/
Bass, T., Sutherland, E., & Symons, T. (2018, August 13). Eight smart cities that are restoring privacy and empowering citizens with data: A handful of local governments are taking bold steps to protect citizens from risks inherent in new data-intensive technologies. Retrieved from https://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/eight-smart-cities-are-restoring-privacy-and-empowering-citizens-data/
Begault, L., & Khazrik, J. (2019. June 28). Smart cities: dreams capable of becoming nightmares. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2019/06/smart-cities-dreams-capable-of-becoming-nightmares/
Bianchini, D., & Ávila, I. (2018, June 29). Smart Cities and Their Smart Decisions: Ethical Considerations. Retrieved from https://technologyandsociety.org/smart-cities-and-their-smart-decisions-ethical-considerations/
Bibri, S.E. (2019). The anatomy of the data-driven smart sustainable city: instrumentation, datafication, computerization and related applications. Journal of Big Data, 6(59). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-019-0221-4
Bousquet, C. (2017, June 5). Where Is Gentrification Happening In Your City? Using Mapping to Understand Gentrification and Prevent Displacement. Retrieved from https://datasmart.ash.harvard.edu/news/article/where-is-gentrification-happening-in-your-city-1055
Burke, A., & Reddy, P. (2018, March 16). Three scenarios show we have to think carefully about ethics in designing smart cities. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/three-scenarios-show-we-have-to-think-carefully-about-ethics-in-designing-smart-cities-91213
Cardullo, P., & Kitchin, R. (2017, May 15). Being a ‘citizen’ in the smart city: Up and down the scaffold of smart citizen participation. SocArXiv. doi: https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/v24jn
Choudhary, M. (2019, September 9). Pan City Solutions: Smart Solutions for Smart Cities. Retrieved from https://www.geospatialworld.net/blogs/pan-city-solutions-smart-solutions-for-smart-cities/
Corbett, J. (2019, June 6). Warning of 'Surveillance Capitalism' Nightmare, Big Tech Investor-Turned-Critic Pushes Toronto to Abandon 'Smart City' Waterfront Development: "It is a dystopian vision that has no place in a democratic society." Retrieved from https://www.commondreams.org/news/2019/06/06/warning-surveillance-capitalism-nightmare-big-tech-investor-turned-critic-pushes
Delmas, M. A., & Cuerel Burbano, V. (2011, November 30). The Drivers of Greenwashing. California Management Review. ssrn: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1966721
D'Ignazio, C., & Klein, L. (2018, November 6). Data Feminism. MIT Press Open. Retrieved from https://bookbook.pubpub.org/data-feminism
Elgazzar, R., & El-Gazzar, R. (2017). Smart Cities, Sustainable Cities, or Both? A Critical Review and Synthesis of Success and Failure Factors, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Smart Cities and Green ICT Systems (SMARTGREENS 2017), pp. 250-257. doi: 10.5220/0006307302500257
Ferguson, I. (2018, January 30). 9 Principles of Ethical Redevelopment to Consider in Order to Improve Communities, Not Gentrify Them. Retrieved from https://www.archdaily.com/888047/9-principles-of-ethical-redevelopment-to-consider-in-order-to-improve-communities-not-gentrify-them
Goodman, E. P. (2019, April 2). Smart City Ethics: The Challenge to Democratic Governance – [Draft Chapter for Oxford Handbook of the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence]. Rutgers Law School Research Paper. ssrn: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3391388 or doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3391388
Gupta, A. (2018, May 7). AI in Smart Cities: Privacy, Trust and Ethics. Retrieved from https://newcities.org/the-big-picture-ai-smart-cities-privacy-trust-ethics/
Hill, D. (2013, February 1). On the smart city. Or, a ‘manifesto’ for smart citizens instead. Retrieved from https://medium.com/butwhatwasthequestion/on-the-smart-city-or-a-manifesto-for-smart-citizens-instead-7e0c6425f909
Howard, A. (2018, November 21). Smart cities pose fresh ethical challenges for open governance. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@opendatacon/smart-cities-pose-fresh-ethical-challenges-for-open-governance-926fe4faefb3
Kitchen, R. (2016, December 28). The ethics of smart cities and urban science. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Volume 374(2083), 274. doi: http://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2016.0115
Kitchen, R. (2019, April 27). The ethics of smart cities: Using big data and AI to manage cities creates many ethical issues, but efforts to address these concerns can be just as contentious. Retrieved from https://www.rte.ie/brainstorm/2019/0425/1045602-the-ethics-of-smart-cities/
Kitchin, R., Coletta, C., Evans, L., Heaphy, L., & MacDonncha, D. (2017, March 8). Smart cities, urban technocrats, epistemic communities and advocacy coalitions. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/rxk4r
Leanza, C. A. (2013). Smart Cities & Big Data: Where’s the Ethical Framework? Retrieved from https://www.alearnedhand.com/smart-cities-big-data-where-is-ethical-framework/
Levick, R. (2019, September 9). "Surveillance Capitalism": Monetizing Our Thoughts. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/richardlevick/2019/09/09/surveillance-capitalism-monetizing-our-thoughts/#483e6c354138
Mauro, G. F. E. (2012). An Ethics of Care in Urban Interventions (H. F. Burga & M. G. Lamarca, Trans). Retrieved from https://www.smartcitiesdive.com/ex/sustainablecitiescollective/ethic-care-urban-interventions/43526/
Meijer, A., & Rodríguez Bolívar, M. P. (2015, April 29). Governing the smart city: a review of the literature on smart urban governance. International.Review of Administrative Sciences, 82(2), 392-408. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020852314564308
Mossberger, K., & Tolbert. C. (2015, December 15). Digital inclusion: Internet access and planning for ‘smart cities.’ Retrieved from https://ugecviewpoints.wordpress.com/2015/12/15/digital-inclusion-internet-access-and-planning-for-smart-cities/
Mozur, P. (2019, April 14). One Month, 500,000 Face Scans: How China Is Using A.I. to Profile a Minority. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/14/technology/china-surveillance-artificial-intelligence-racial-profiling.html
Niewenhuis, L. (2019, April 16). ‘Automated racism’ — facial recognition software targets Uyghurs. Retrieved from https://supchina.com/2019/04/16/automated-racism-facial-recognition-software-targets-uyghurs/
O’Keefe, K., & Brien, D. O.(2016, June). New Paradigm or Ethics Washing? An Analysis of Facebook’s Ethics Report. Castlebridge. Retrieved from https://castlebridge.ie/new-paradigm-or-ethics-washing-an-analysis-of-facebooks-ethics-report/
Raicu, I. (2019, September 19). Smart Lampposts: Illuminating Smart Cities. Retrieved from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/smart-lampposts-illuminating-smart-cities/
Ribera-Fumaz, R. (2019), "Moving from Smart Citizens to Technological Sovereignty?", Cardullo, P., Di Feliciantonio, C. and Kitchin, R. (Ed.) The Right to the Smart City, Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 177-191. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78769-139-120191013
Ryan, M., & Gregory, A. (2019, February 20). Ethics of Using Smart City AI and Big Data: The Case of Four Large European Cities. The Orbit Journal, Volume 2(2). doi: https://doi.org/10.29297/orbit.v2i2.110
Singh, J. K. S. (2019, November 7). Is There a Place for Ethics in Smart Cities? Retrieved from https://www.globalresearch.ca/place-ethics-smart-cities/5694230
Stefano Boeri Archtetti (2019). About Studio. Retrieved from https://www.stefanoboeriarchitetti.net/en/about/
Wagner, B. (2018). Ethics as an Escape from Regulation: From ethics-washing to ethics-shopping? Amsterdam University Press. Retrieved from https://www.privacylab.at/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Ben_Wagner_Ethics-as-an-Escape-from-Regulation_2018_BW9.pdf
Zorzin, N. (2015, September). Archaeology and Capitalism: Successful Relationship or Economic and Ethical Alienation? Springer, In Ethics and Archaeological Praxis (pp.115-139). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1646-7_9. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277008092_Archaeology_and_Capitalism_Successful_Relationship_or_Economic_and_Ethical_Alienation
The Liminal publishes peer-reviewed empirical research. Research may employ a variety of quantitative, qualitative and mixed method approaches. We welcome action research and design research articles. We welcome critical theory approaches in education to include critical pedagogy, critical discourse analysis among others. All innovative or provocative approaches to research or the way research is reported are encouraged.
The Liminal welcomes submissions from graduate students in the disciplines of education, instructional design, educational technology, computer science, online teaching, hybrid teaching, digital humanities, digital rhetoric, media studies, media arts, digital ethnography, game studies, and other disciplines that address issues occurring at the intersection of technology and education. We ask that these articles provide findings and implications for practitioners, scholars and administrators.
See the link below for a list of books to review:
Review articles present critical evaluations of articles that has been previously published. Review articles should include 1) issue being considered 2) relevance to readers of The Liminal 3) summary of previous literature 4) discussion of areas of agreement 5) inconsistencies gaps, and disagreements.
Op-Eds are short, narrowly focused articles on issues of contemporary interest, viewpoints on published research, or emerging issues relevant to eLearning professionals, educators and scholars. Please review Tips for Writing a Scholarly Op-Ed for guidelines on writing this type of article.
Please contact editor Kae Novak firstname.lastname@example.org if you would like to submit a game review.
Visit the journal website at https://digitalcommons.du.edu/theliminal/. Click on the "Submit Article" link and follow the submissions directions. Prior to submission, please remove all personal identifiable information from the paper(s) and format the entire paper in APA style.
We look forward to reading your thought provoking and/or innovative pieces.