Elementa Submission Guidelines

Article Types & Format

Elementa publishes the following types of articles:

Elementa actively welcomes proposals for Special Features, a set of related articles addressing themes or projects of broad interest, typically including an Introduction article or explanatory Commentary. Special Features may fall within a single knowledge domain, with the domain Editor-in-Chief responsible for the entire Special Feature, or be cross-listed under two or more domains, with the relevant Editors-in-Chief working closely together to oversee the articles. For more details, see our Special Features informational page.

Requirements for Submission

Submissions to Elementa must meet the following requirements to be considered for publication:

Writing and Editing Services

If you feel that your manuscript would benefit from dedicated English language editing either prior to submission or as part of the revision process, you may wish to work with an outside service that specializes in providing such services.  The University of California Press does not directly provide English language editing services, and while we do not have a dedicated arrangement with an outside service provider, we have compiled a short list of vendors providing these services.  They include:

Please note that the use of such services is not required in order to submit your paper to Elementa, or to have it accepted. Likewise, the use of such services does not guarantee that a manuscript will be selected for peer review or publication in Elementa or any other journal published by the University of California Press. In addition, the University of California Press does not formally endorse or take responsibility for these service providers or their work.  

 

Submission Components

Submissions to Elementa consist of the following components:

Cover Letter

Please write an approximately one-page cover  letter that:

Authors are also encouraged to provide the names and contact information for 3–5 external reviewers, though Associate Editors are not obligated to use these suggestions. Authors may also indicate researchers whom they feel should not review the submission.

Please do not include requests to waive publication fees in your cover letter. You will have an opportunity to request a waiver in a separate submission step. Editorial decisions are made independently from the ability to pay the APC.

Manuscript

Set line numbering to a  continuous line numbers option in your Word document.

We do not have arbitrary restrictions on manuscript length. We do, however, encourage you to employ a clear and concise writing style. Please note that a request to be more concise is legitimate feedback during the review process, despite no arbitrary restrictions being in place. If you believe your manuscript would benefit from professional editing, please refer to the Writing and Editing Services section for additional information.

All submissions should begin with the following sections:

All submissions should end with the following sections:

We have no explicit requirements for section organization between these beginning and ending sections. Articles may be organized in different ways and with different section titles, according to the authors’ preference and type of article. For research articles, sections typically include:

Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and defined upon first use in the text. Non-standard abbreviations should not be used unless they appear at least three times in the text.

 

Title

The title must be 150 characters or fewer and set in sentence case (only the first word and proper nouns capitalized). It should be specific, descriptive, concise, and comprehensible to readers outside the subject field. Avoid abbreviations if possible.

Example:

Proactive ecology in the Anthropocene: A shift to a leadership role in defining problems and possibilities

 

Authors

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed (see Editorial Policies). Each author must have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Those who contributed to the work but do not qualify for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgments.

When a large group or center has conducted the work, the author list should include the individuals whose contributions meet the criteria defined above, as well as the group name.

One author should be designated (with an asterisk) as the corresponding author, and that author’s email address should be included on the manuscript cover page. This information will be published with the article, if accepted.

All author names should be listed in the following order:

Affiliations

Each author should list an associated department, university, or organizational affiliation and its location, including city, state/province (if applicable), and country. If the article has been submitted on behalf of a consortium, all author names and affiliations should be listed.

Example:

AnneMarie Luijendijk, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

– or –

AnneMarie Luijendijk1

1Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

Abstract

The abstract should provide a clear description of the main objective(s) of the submission, explain how the study was done (as applicable), and summarize the article’s most important conclusions and their significance to a potentially wider audience. Abstracts should not exceed 300 words, and should not include sub-headings.

Please do not include citations in your abstract and avoid the use of abbreviations, if possible.

References

Published works, works accepted for publication, and citable datasets should appear in the reference list. Mentions of unpublished work should be cited parenthetically within the main text of the article as personal communications.

Elementa employs the name-year (or “Harvard”) system of in-text references, in which the author’s surname and year of publication are cited in the text of your work, enclosed in parentheses. The reference list (appearing at the end of the article) should be in alphabetical order by author. List full journals’ names.

EndNote users can download the Elementa Endnote template here.

Detailed information on formatting references can be found below in our Reference Style Guide. We use Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers as our primary style guide and highly recommend that authors consult it.

Contributions

Please indicate author contributions as clearly as possible, according to the following criteria:

Example:

Note that an author not listed under the last two criteria does not meet the requirements for authorship.

Acknowledgments

People who contributed to the work but do not fit our author criteria should be listed in the acknowledgments, along with their contributions. You must ensure that anyone named in the acknowledgments agrees to being so named.

Funding sources should not be included in the acknowledgments.

Funding information

Please provide a list of the sources of funding, as well as the relevant grant numbers, where possible. List the authors associated with specific funding sources. You will also enter this information in a form during the submission process, but it must be repeated here.

Competing interests

In order to provide readers of articles with information about interests and relationships that might influence, or might be perceived to influence, the interpretation of articles published in Elementa, all individuals involved with a submission (authors, editors, external reviewers) are required to declare all competing interests. Corresponding authors must provide a statement of competing interests on behalf of all authors and, if no competing interests exist, state this specifically.

Authors who are also editors at Elementa play no role during the review process of their specific paper, and this is ensured by the publisher. However, authors who are also editors should still declare this (and corresponding authors should be aware of this on behalf of other authors who are also editors).

Erring on the side of full disclosure is best. For guidance, we encourage authors and editors to consult the NSF’s Conflict of Interest Policies and the thoughtful guidelines provided by PLoS One.

Data accessibility statement

We require that authors include a “data accessibility statement” (DAS) with their submission. This statement should list the database(s) and the respective accession numbers and DOIs for all data from the manuscript, showing that they have been made publicly available.

Example:

The following datasets were generated:

Figure Legends

Figure titles and legends (captions) for all figures should be included in the main article file, not as part of the figure files themselves. Each figure caption should be inserted immediately after the embedded figure in the article file, and should include the following information:

Example:

Figure 2. Ordination of fish assemblages with depth at each of three New Zealand locations.

Non-metric MDS plot on the basis of Jaccard resemblances between fish assemblages consisting of averages from n = 6 baited remote underwater stereo-video system deployments within each combination of depth (50, 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 or 1200 m) and location (White Island, Great Barrier Island or the Three Kings Islands).

Tables

Tables should be cited in ascending numeric order upon first appearance. Each table should be inserted immediately after the first paragraph in which it is cited in the article file. All tables should have a concise title. Table footnotes can be used to explain abbreviations. Citations should be indicated using the same style as outlined above. Tables occupying more than one printed page should be avoided, if possible. Larger tables can be published as supplementary material.

Supplemental material

Information integral to a full understanding of the article but are in formats that (a) cannot be rendered in two dimensions or (b) are too large to be clearly represented in current viewing systems (Web browsers, e-readers, PDF) should be submitted as supplemental material. Examples of this category of supplemental material include very large tables, audios, videos, three-dimensional visualizations, interactive graphics, and so on.

Although we do not limit the number or type of supplemental material items authors may include, we do require that they provide a relevant and useful expansion of the article, and that they be as well described as are figures and tables included within the body of the article. We encourage authors to always consider clarity and ease of use for readers when presenting supplemental material: consider whether some supplementary files work best in a composite file (e.g. text, table, and figure in one downloadable document) or whether they are most useful downloaded separately as individual files. Please note, Editors are free to request changes in how supplemental files are presented to ensure clarity for readers. Good metadata of this material are key to discoverability and usefulness. All supplemental material should include the following:

Example:

Video S1. Selection of video footage showing typical examples of observed fish species attracted to baited remote underwater video systems in New Zealand waters. Representative footage from three locations (Three Kings Islands, Great Barrier Island and White Island) and seven depth strata are presented (50, 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 and 1200 m). (MP4)

Multimedia files (.avi or .swf files) must be uploaded as supplementary material and not main figures.

Figure Preparation

Copyright & License

All figures and images appearing in Elementa will be published under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (CC-BY), which allows others to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt them provided proper attribution is given. Authors, not Elementa, retain copyright to their images.

Please take care not to submit manuscripts containing previously published figures or images unless you have obtained express, written permission from the copyright holder to republish under a CC-BY License.

Figure Categories & Submission

Elementa publishes two broad categories of figures:

  1. Main figures, critical to the conclusions of the paper and integrated into the body of the article, and
  2. Supplemental figures (including video and other rich media) referenced within the text, but not integrated into the PDF version of the article. Supplemental material provides readers with additional information that enhances the main text but is not critical to its assertions. (For detailed information, please see Supplemental Material & Data.)

We impose no limit on the number of figures submitted, but we do require that all figures—main or supplemental—be well described. Good metadata are key to discoverability and usefulness.

Provide a separate file for every figure in your manuscript, including supplemental figures. For example, if your manuscript has 10 figures, you will need to upload 10 individual figure files.

Note: Multi-panel figures (those with parts A, B, C, etc.) should be submitted as a single file containing all parts of the figure. Please take care to ensure that panel labels correspond to callouts in the text.

Titles & Legends

Figure titles and legends (captions) for all figures (both main and supplemental) should be included in the main article file, not as part of the figure files themselves. Do not include author names or the article title within the figure files. Instead, list the following information for each figure at the end of the manuscript, after the references, but before any tables:

Annotated example:

Figures-required-elements

Format, Sizing, & Resolution

Please provide the highest quality files you can in a reasonably common file format (EPS, JPEG, GIF, TIFF, etc.); we will take it from there. More resolution is better than less. As a guide, please note the following optimal resolutions for different file types:

ElementaFigurePrep7a Grayscale image (submit at 300 ppi)

ElementaFigurePrep8a Color image (submit at 300 ppi)

ElementaFigurePrep9 Combination image (submit at 600 ppi)

ElementaFigurePrep6 Line art (submit at 600 ppi)

Accessibility

Please consult http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/ for best practices in using color in your figures, including how you can ensure readability by color-blind readers.

Image Manipulation

Image files should not be manipulated or adjusted in any way that could lead to misinterpretation of the information present in the original image. Inappropriate manipulation includes but is not limited to:

Digital images in manuscripts nearing acceptance for publication may be scrutinized for any indication of improper manipulation. If evidence is found of inappropriate manipulation we reserve the right to ask for original data and, if that is not satisfactory, we may decide not to accept the manuscript.

Table Preparation Guidelines

General Considerations

Elementa publishes two broad categories of tables:

  1. Main tables critical to the conclusions of the paper and integrated into the body of the article, and
  2. Supplemental tables referenced within the text, but not integrated into the PDF version of the article. Supplemental material provides readers with additional information that enhances the main text but is not critical to its assertions.

We impose no limit on the number of tables submitted, but we do require that all tables—main or supplemental—be well described. Good metadata are key to discoverability and usefulness.

Each table should be inserted immediately after the first paragraph in which it is cited in the article file in Word (.doc/.docx), Rich Text (.rtf), or LaTeX (.tex) format. Supplementary material tables should be submitted as separate files in any of the following formats (although authors should aim to ensure that the file type is most appropriate to the information displayed): Word (.doc/.docx), Excel (.xls), PDF, PPT, JPG, EPS, or TIFF.

Components

Tables appearing in Elementa have six components, four of which are required:

Table n. Table title (short title with no closing punctuation)a

 

Spanner head 1b

Spanner head 2

Column heading for stub

Column heading

Column heading

Column headingc

Column heading

Column heading

Column heading

Stub heading

 

 

 

 

 

 

Row heading

x.x

x.x

x.x

x.x

x.x

x.x

Row heading

xxx

xxx

xxx

xxx

xxx

xxx

Row heading

x.x

x.x

x.x

x.xd

x.x

x.x

Stub heading

xxx

 

 

 

 

 

Row heading

x.x

x.x

x.x

x.x

x.x

x.x

Row heading

xxx

xxx

xxx

xxx

xxx

xxx

Row heading

x.x

x.x

x.x

x.x

x.x

x.x

a Footnote crediting source of information if reproduced, adapted, or based on another published table.

b Footnote explaining spanner head 1.

c Footnote explaining the column heading.

d Footnote explaining a data cell nuance.

 

Number and Title

Titles should be labeled with the word “Table” and numbered in sequence, using Arabic numerals: Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, etc. for main figures; and Table S1, Table S2, Table S3, etc. for supplementary tables. Titles should consist of a single phrase, set in bold type, using sentence case with no closing punctuation. For example:

Table 1. Statistical analyses of fly size variation at the start vs the end of positive size selection

Note: Table numbers and titles should not be included in the table itself, but should be typed in the document above the table cells.

Column Headings

Column headings identify the information in the cells beneath them, and often are used to present a dependent variable. Every column of a table must have a column heading, including the stub (the left-most column).

Stub

The stub is the left-most column of the table, containing the row headings. The stub should have a column heading describing the rows appearing beneath it.

Data Fields

Data fields contain information presented in the form of numbers, text, or symbols. Please take care that values have the same degree of precision as values in related cells, as well as values reiterated in the text of the article.

Data fields may contain empty cells if no information exists to present. In these cases, dashes (–) or an appropriate abbreviation (e.g., ND, for “no data”) should be entered into the cell.

Spanner Headings

Spanner headings are used to associate the common elements of two or more columns appearing beneath them. If units appear in the spanner, they must apply to every column below the spanner.

Note: Spanner headings must be created by horizontally merging cells in the table. Visual indications of the span (rules and/or shading) will be lost during reformatting (see Common Problems below).

Footnotes

Footnotes are used to credit information sources, disambiguate headings, or explain the nuances of data fields. Footnotes should be indicated by using superscripted, lowercase letters within the table, and appear in alphabetic sequence below the table.

Note: Footnotes should not be included in the table itself, but should be typed in the document below the table cells (see Common Problems, below).

Specifications

Tables that do not conform to the following requirements may give unintended results when published. Problems may include the movement of data (rows or columns), loss of spacing, or disorganization of headings.

Note: Multi-part tables with varying numbers of columns or multiple footnote sections should be divided and renumbered as separate tables.

In the published versions of your article, we will format tables in Elementa style, with shaded spanner and column heading, content left-aligned in all cells, title above the table, and footnotes below the table.

Tables must:

Tables must not:

If your submitted table contains any of these elements, they will be returned for adjustments.

Common Problems

Using Visual Elements to Specify Layout

Rules, shading, and empty columns should not be used to indicate layout. In the example following, spanner headings were indicated by the addition of shading and an empty column between the two spans, resulting in an improperly formatted table.

Incorrectly formatted table

 

Ignimbrite

 

 

 

Yellow Tuff

 

Strategraphic Height

Basal Fallout

Lower Flow

 

Upper Flow

Lower Member

Upper Member

Fe0

2.87

2.48

 

3.52

4.46

3.87

Mn0

0.23

0.26

 

0.11

.012

0.16

Mg0

0.45

0.32

 

0.82

1.17

0.93

Ca0

1.95

1.58

 

2.58

3.84

3.29

 

Incorrect result

Note that the spanner headings do not bridge the span

 

Ignimbrite

 

 

 

Yellow Tuff

 

Strategraphic Height

Basal Fallout

Lower Flow

 

Upper Flow

Lower Member

Upper Member

Fe0

2.87

2.48

 

3.52

4.46

3.87

Mn0

0.23

0.26

 

0.11

.012

0.16

Mg0

0.45

0.32

 

0.82

1.17

0.93

Ca0

1.95

1.58

 

2.58

3.84

3.29

 

Correctly formatted table

 

Ignimbrite

Yellow Tuff

Strategraphic Height

Basal Fallout

Lower Flow

Upper Flow

Lower Member

Upper Member

Fe0

2.87

2.48

3.52

4.46

3.87

Mn0

0.23

0.26

0.11

.012

0.16

Mg0

0.45

0.32

0.82

1.17

0.93

Ca0

1.95

1.58

2.58

3.84

3.29

 

Correct result

 

Ignimbrite

Yellow Tuff

Strategraphic Height

Basal Fallout

Lower Flow

Upper Flow

Lower Member

Upper Member

Fe0

2.87

2.48

3.52

4.46

3.87

Mn0

0.23

0.26

0.11

.012

0.16

Mg0

0.45

0.32

0.82

1.17

0.93

Ca0

1.95

1.58

2.58

3.84

3.29

 

Using Returns to Create Rows

Carriage returns should not be used to create rows within cells, as it will result in the creation of a new row.

Incorrectly formatted table

Fish Group

Age¶(Months)

Number¶(Male:Female)

I

11

27(18:9)

II

9

25(14:11)

III

9

21(21:0)

 

Incorrect result

Fish Group

Age

Number

 

(Month)

(Male:Female)

I

11

27

 

 

(18:9)

II

9

25

 

 

(14:11)

III

9

21

 

 

(21:0)

 

Correctly formatted table

Fish Group

Age (Month)

Number (Male:Female)

I

11

27 (18:9)

II

9

25 (14:11)

III

9

21 (21:0)

 

Correct result

Fish Group

Age (Month)

Number (Male:Female)

I

11

27 (18:9)

II

9

25 (14:11)

III

9

21 (21:0)

 

Including Footnotes in Table Cells

In the following example, the footnote is included in a table cell, resulting in an improperly formatted table. In addition, the spanner headings (“Forest types” and “Soil Types” were not merged horizontally, as they should be.

Incorrectly formatted table

Forest/Soil Type

Area km2

Total forest area

428

Forest types

 

Deciduous broadleaf forests

210

Evergreen needleleaf forests

201

Deciduous needleleaf forests

17

Soil types

 

Brown forest soils

203

Black Soils

70

Rock and debris

5

NIa

4

a Soils whose classification could not be identified

 

 

Incorrect result

Forest/Soil Type

Area km2

Total forest area

428

Forest types

 

Deciduous broadleaf forests

210

Evergreen needleleaf forests

201

Deciduous needleleaf forests

17

Soil types

 

Brown forest soils

203

Black Soils

70

Rock and debris

5

NIa

4

a Soils whose classification could not be identified

 

 

Correctly formatted table

Forest/Soil Type

Area km2

Total forest area

428

Forest types

Deciduous broadleaf forests

210

Evergreen needleleaf forests

201

Deciduous needleleaf forests

17

Soil types

Brown forest soils

203

Black Soils

70

Rock and debris

5

NIa

4

a Soils whose classification could not be identified

 

 

Correct result

Forest/Soil Type

Area km2

Total forest area

428

Forest types

Deciduous broadleaf forests

210

Evergreen needleleaf forests

201

Deciduous needleleaf forests

17

Soil types

Brown forest soils

203

Black Soils

70

Rock and debris

5

NIa

4

a Soils whose classification could not be identified

 

File Types

You may submit your manuscript files in Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx), OpenOffice, LaTeX (as .pdf), or RTF format. Only RTF and .doc/.dox files can be used during the production process.

LaTeX submissions. Articles prepared in LaTeX must be submitted in PDF format for use during the review process. The PDF file is both necessary and sufficient for the review process. After acceptance, however, .tex files and formatting information will be required as a zipped file.

Submissions with Equations

Microsoft Word Submissions with Equations. Editable versions of equations are required for production. If using a version older than Word 2010, please format equations using MathType. Do not insert your equations as Graphic Objects and do not use of Symbol font.

Authoring Templates

EndNote

Users of EndNote can download the Elementa template here.

Microsoft Word

For authors submitting manuscripts in Microsoft Word, we have created a Word style template that includes preferred styles. We strongly encourage authors to review this template for submission components and ordering, and then install the template, as follows:

1. Download the template file and save it to your computer

2. Open your manuscript file in Word

3. Delete any embedded styles from your Word document:

4. Attach the Elementa template to your document:

The Elementa paragraph styles should now appear in the Styles list of the Format toolbar, as follows:

LaTex template can be found here.

Elementa Style Sheet can be found here.

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. Any third-party-owned materials used have been identified with appropriate credit lines, and permission obtained from the copyright holder for all formats of the journal.
  3. All authors have given permission to be listed on the submitted paper and satisfy the authorship guidelines.
  4. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  5. All DOIs for the references have been provided, when available.
  6. Tables and figures are all cited in the text. Tables and figures are included within the text document, whilst figure files are ALSO uploaded as separate files.
  7. Figures/images are provided as the highest quality files available in a reasonably common file format (JPEG prefered). See Figure Preparation for the full instructions.
  8. The text adheres to all stylistic, bibliographic, and other requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  9. The submission is scientifically and methodologically sound, and claims or conclusions are transparently supported by the data.
  10. The study meets all applicable standards for ethics and research integrity.
  11. The authors have complied with all applicable reporting standards and guidelines for data publication.

Reference Style Guide

Elementa follows Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers as our primary style guide and highly recommend that authors consult it. The following guidelines, based on the CSE Manual, are intended to assist you in formatting references accurately and consistently.

Users of EndNote can download the Elementa template here. LaTeX users can download Elementa's template here, which includes a BibTeX file to ensure correct reference formatting.

Basic Reference Formatting

Name-Year (“Harvard”) System

Elementa employs the name-year (or “Harvard”) system of in-text references, in which the author’s surname and year of publication are cited in the text of your work, enclosed in parentheses. The reference list (appearing at the end of the article) should be in alphabetical order by author. Published works, works accepted for publication, and citable datasets should appear in the reference list. Mentions of unpublished work should be cited parenthetically within the main text of the article as personal communications (see Unpublished Material below).

In-Text References

In-text references should appear in parentheses, with the first author’s name followed by a comma, and date of publication. For works with 3 or more authors, the first author’s name should be followed by “et al.” Semicolons should be used to separate multiple references within one parenthetical element.

Example (single author):

… to minimize environmental degradation (Pew, 2013).

Example (two authors):

… ice-free Northwest Passage (Smith and Stephenson, 2013), a northern gateway ….

Example (more than three authors):

… production sites in Alberta, Canada (Zavala-Araiza et al., 2018)

Examples (multiple references within one parenthetical element):

… increasingly deeper waters (Davies et al., 2007; Waller et al., 2007; Nixon et al., 2009).

As Kirch (2000; 2007a) pointed out ….

Reference List Components

Author(s)

Authors should appear in the reference list in the following format: Surname, Initial(s) without space or punctuation. Multiple authors should be separated by commas, with the last in the list followed by a period (and not preceded by “and”). Please list all author names and avoid using "et al.", including for publications with a large number of authors. Organizations (governmental departments, academic societies, research institutes) may also serve as authors.

Examples:

Billings, SA, Hirmas, D, Sullivan, PL, Lehmeier, CA, Bagchi, S, Min Kyungjin, Brecheisen, Z, Hauser, E, Stair, R, Flournoy, R, Richter, D.

Tien, I.

National Research Council.

Title & Subtitle

Journal articles include both a title for the article and the journal in which it appears. Books and monographs have a title for the entire work, and may have chapter or section titles. In Elementa‘s citation-sequence system, journal article titles and book titles should follow the date of publication. Journal article titles should appear in sentence case, with only the first word of the title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, and acronyms capitalized. Book titles should appear in sentence case and set in italics.

Example (journal):

Biological invasions: Prospects for slowing a major global change.

Example (book):

The sea can wash away all evils: modern marine pollution and the ancient cathartic ocean.

Edition

Many works appear in multiple editions. In these cases, indicate the edition after the title in Arabic ordinal numbers after the title and abbreviate “edition.”

Example:

Karihaloo, JL, Kumar, PA. 2009. Bt cotton in India – a status report. 2nd ed.

Content-Type & Medium Designators

These are used to provide information on the type of content (e.g., editorial, dissertation, conference abstract, etc.) and the form of content, particularly for electronic content (dataset, Internet, Podcast, DVD, etc.).

Note: Medium designators are required when applicable; content-type designators are optional.

Both types of designator should be placed within square brackets within the period that closes the title. Except for proper nouns (e.g., Internet) and initialisms (e.g., CD-ROM) designators should not be capitalized.

Examples

Beollstorff, T. 2012. Why the AAA needs gold open access [editorial].

Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) [Internet].

Publisher & Place of Publication

Journal articles do not require inclusion of the name or location of the publisher; books require both. These elements should appear following the title, with sufficient geographical information to provide clarity. Publisher names can be abbreviated, following standard conventions.

Examples:

UNEP-WCMC Ia. 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ Press.

Karihaloo, JL, Kumar, PA. 2009. Bt cotton in India– a status report. 2nd ed. New Delhi, India: Asia-Pacific Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology.

Publication Date

All references must have a date of publication. For multiple years of publication, separate the first and last years by an en dash. In all cases, the publication date should appear after the author(s) and be closed by a period.

Examples:

Seo, SN, Mendelsohn, R. 2007.

IPCC. 1990–2007.

Volume and Issue

Volume and issue numbers are required for both journals and books, if available. For journals, the volume number should be set in bold type and the issue number in parentheses. For books, the volume number is preceded by “Vol.”, following the series title.

Example (journal)

Nakagawa, T, Tarasov, PE, Nishida, K, Gotanda, K, Yasuda, Y. 2002. Quantitative pollen-based climate reconstruction in central Japan: application to surface and Late Quaternary spectra. Quaternary Science Review 21(18–19): 2099–2113.

Example (book)

Rayner, S, Malone, EL eds. 1998. Resources and technology. Devon, UK: Battelle. (Human choice and climate change series; vol. 2).

Page Numbers & Location within a Work

Inclusive page numbers must be given for all journal articles and book chapters. For journal articles, page numbers appear after the volume and issue. For book chapters, the chapter number and inclusive page numbers should be provided whether the author(s) of the book or author(s) of the chapter appear first.

Example (journal):

Smith, KL, Ruhl, HA, Bett, BJ, Billett, DSM, Lampitt, RS, Kaufmann, RS. 2009. Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 19211–19218.

Example (book):

Warrick, RA, Le Provost, C, Meier, MF, Oerlemans, J, Woodworth, PL eds. 1996. Chapter 7, Changes in sea level, in Climate change 1995: the science of climate change. Cambridge UK: Cambridge Univ Press: 359–406.

Electronic Accessibility Notes

Electronic accessibility notes provide information necessary for accessing electronic documents and sources of information. An item’s Digital Object Identifier (DOI) should be included in references wherever possible. For other Internet resources, the Uniform Resource Locater (URL) and date the information was accessed must be included.

Examples:

Lal, R. 2008. Sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in global carbon pools. Energy and Environmental Science 1: (86–100).

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [Internet]. 2011. Vegetation Health Indices. Available at http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/emb/vci/VH/vh_ftp.php. Accessed June 8, 2011.

Journals

General Format

Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal Title volume(issue): pages. DOI.

Multiple Authors

Steffen, W, Crutzen, PJ, McNeill, JR. 2007. The Anthropocene: Are humans now overwhelming the great forces of Nature. Ambio 36(8): 614-621.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[614:TAAHNO]2.0.CO;2.

Books

General Format

Author(s). Date. Title of the book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher: Extent. (Series). Notes.

Person as Author

Clarke, KR, Warwick, RM. 2001. Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. 2nd ed. Plymouth, UK: Plymouth Marine Laboratory.

Organization as Author

Center for Strategic and International Studies. 2007. The age of consequences: the foreign policy and national security implications of global climate change. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Chapter within a Book

Braun, C. 2012. The surface mass balance of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf and the Ward Hunt Ice Rise, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, in Copland, L, Mueller, DR eds., Arctic ice shelves and ice islands. The Netherlands: Springer.

Book in a Series

Mohamed Salih, MA. 2013. Local climate change and society. Oxford, UK: Routledge. (Routledge advances in climate change research).

Dissertations and Theses

General Format

Author(s). Date. Title of dissertation or thesis [content designator]. Place of publication: Publisher: Extent. Notes.

Dissertation

Veijalainen, N. 2012. Estimation of climate change Impacts on hydrology and floods in Finland [dissertation]. Helsinki, Finland: Aalto University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Available at http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2012/isbn9789526046143/isbn9789526046143.pdf. Accessed August 19, 2012.

Thesis

Wilson, L. 2012. Attitudes towards ecosystem services in urban riparian parks [M.S. thesis]. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University, School of Sustainability. Available at http://repository.asu.edu/items/15134. Accessed February 10, 2013.

Technical Reports

General Format

Author(s). Date. Title of report. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher: Extent. Report No.: Notes.

World Bank. 2008. Development and climate change: A strategic framework for the World Bank Group. New York: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / World Bank. Available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTCC/Resources/407863-1219339233881/DCCSFTechnicalReport.pdf.

Rosegrant, MW. 2012. International model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade (IMPACT). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. Available at http://www.ifpri.org/publication/international-model-policy-analysis-agricultural-commodities-and-trade-impact-1.

Bibliographies

General Format

Author(s), compilers. Date. Title of bibliography [content designator]. Place of Publication: Publisher: Extent. Notes.

Gecy, R, Michael Furniss, M, compilers. 2009. Climate Change Resource Center bibliography. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. 1,800 citations on climate change and its effects. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/bibliography/.

Electronic Material

Datasets

Climate Research Unit. 2011. Climate Change Knowledge Portal: Historical Data [dataset]. Washington, DC: World Bank. Microsoft Excel workbook (369.5 KB). Historical temperature and precipitation data aggregated from 2-degree gridded data to the country and basin levels. Available at http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/cckp_historical_data.

eBooks

King, JC, Turner, J. 2007. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology [eBook]. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK.

Video

Steffen, W. 2010. The Anthropocene. TEDxCanberra. Available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ABZjlfhN0EQ.

Podcasts

Morgan, G. 2012. Wrapping our heads around geoengineering. Stanford, CA, Generation Anthropocene. Available at http://www.stanford.edu/group/anthropocene/cgi-bin/wordpress/?paged=2.

Unpublished Material

Manuscript in Press

For manuscripts that have been accepted for publication but which have not yet appeared, the publication date should be given as “n.d.”, and a suitable indication of the manuscripts status should be made (e.g., “in press”). As a general rule, manuscripts that have been submitted but not yet accepted for publication should be referenced as personal communications (see below).

Vitousek PM, Chadwick OA, Hotchkiss SC, Ladefoged TN, Stevenson C. n.d. Farming the rock: A biogeochemical perspective on intensive agriculture in Polynesia. Journal of Polynesian Archaeology, in press.

Paper Presented at a Meeting

Werner, B. 2012 Dec 5. Is Earth f**ked? Dynamical futility of global environmental management and possibilities for sustainability via direct action activism. American Geophyiscal Union 45th Annual Fall Meeting; San Francisco, CA.

Personal Communications

References to personal communications should be placed within the running text of the article (not in the reference list) as a parenthetical reference, giving the nature and source of the information. Be sure to obtain permission from the person or organization cited.