Pre-Public Examinations 2 Subject Checklists Year 12.

PPEs 23rd March - 29th March.

Please use the checklists as a guide to support you when you are preparing for your PPEs.

BIOLOGY Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – Biology Paper 1 Length of Paper – 1 hour 30mins

BUSINESS Y12 PPE 2  (A Level)

 Name of Paper - AS Paper 1 Length of Paper - 1 hour 30 minutes

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Shares in PLCs and market capitalisation Marketing decisions & Market segmentation Marketing mix Operational Performance decisions Inventory control Supply chain HRM approaches & HR flow Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Management styles and theories Labour Productivity Variable and fixed costs Debt factoring Return on Investment (ROI, ROCE) Decision trees

CHEMISTRY Y12 PPE 2

 Areas of Focus/Review3.1.1 Atomic Structure Covered (Tick) Determine the number of fundamental particles in atoms and ions using mass number, atomic number and charge Explain the existence of isotopes Interpret simple mass spectra of elements Calculate the relative atomic mass from isotopic abundance, limited to mononuclear ions Define first ionisation energy Write equations for first and successive ionisation energies Explain how first and successive ionisation energies in period 3 (Na-Ar) and in group 2 (Be-Ba) give evidence for electron configuration in sub-shells and in shells

 Areas of Focus/Review3.1.2 Amount of Substance Covered (Tick) Define relative atomic mass (Ar) and relative molecular mass (Mr) Carry out calculations using the Avogadro constant Carry out calculations using mass of substance, Mr and amount in moles Carry out calculations using concentration, volume and amount of substance in a solution Use the ideal gas equation pV = nRT in calculations (variables in SI units) Calculate empirical formula from data giving composition by mass or percentage mass Calculate molecular formula from the empirical formula and relative molecular mass Write balanced equations (full and ionic) for reactions studied Balance equations for unfamiliar reactions when reactants and products are specified State the economic, ethical and environmental advantages for society amd for industry for developing chemical reatcions with high atom economy Use balanced equations to calculate: Masses, volumes of gases, percentage yield, atom economies; and concentrations & volumes for liquids REQUIRED PRACTICAL 1: make up a volumetric solution and carry out simple acid-base titration

 Areas of Focus/Review3.1.3 Bonding Covered (Tick) Ionic bonding involves electrostatic attraction between oppositely charges ions in a lattice Predict the charge on a simple ion using the position of the element in the periodic table Construct formulas for ionic compounds (e.g sulfate, hydroxide, nitrate, carbonate and ammonium) Single covalent bond contains a shared pair of electrons; multiple bonds contain multiple pairs of electrons; co-ordinate (dative covalent) bond shares a pair of electrons, both supplied by 1 atom Represent a covalent bond using a line; co-ordinate bond using an arrow Represent a covalent bond using a line; co-ordinate bond using an arrow Metallic bonding involves attraction between delocalised electrons and positive ions arranged in a lattice The structures of: diamond, graphite, ice, iodine, magnesium and sodium chloride as examples of one of these 4 crystal structures: ionic, metallic, macromolecular, molecular Relate the melting point and conductivity of materials to the type of structure and bonding present Explain the energy changes associated with changes of state Draw diagrams to represent these structures involving specified numbers of particles Explain the shapes of, and bond angles in, simple molecules and ions with up to six electron pairs (including lone pairs) surrounding the central atom Pairs of electrons as clouds that reel each other, arranging themselves as far apart as possible; with lone pair lone pair repulsion being greater than pair bond, pair bond repulsion Define electronegativity Use partial charges to show that a bond is polar Explain why some molecules with polar bonds do not have a permanent dipole Explain the existence of: permanent dipole-dipole forces; induced dipole-dipole (van der Waals, dispersion, London) forces; hydrogen bonding; between familiar and unfamilar molecules Explain how melting and boiling points are influenced by these intermolecular forces.

 Areas of Focus/Review3.1.4 Energetics Covered (Tick) Understand reactions can be exothermic or endothermic and that enthalpy change (ΔH) is the heat energy change measured under conditions of constant pressure Understand the term standard conditions. Define standard entahlpy change of combustion (ΔcHθ) and standard enthalpy change of formation (ΔfHθ) Use the equation q=mcΔT to calculate the molar enthalpy change for a reaction and in related calculations REQUIRED PRACTICAL 2: Measurement of an enthalpy change Use Hess's law to perform calculations, including calculation of enthalpy changes for reactions from enthalpies of combustion or from enthapies of formation Define the term mean bond enthalpy Use mean bond enthalpies to calculate an approximate value of ΔH for reactions in the gaseous state Explain why values from mean bond enthalpy calculations differ from those determined using Hess's law

 Areas of Focus/Review3.1.5 Kinetics and 3.1.7 Redox Covered (Tick) Define the term activation energy Explain why most collisions do not lead to a reaction Draw and explain Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curves for differnet temperatures Define the term: rate of reaction Use the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve to explain why a small increase in temperature can lead to a large increase in rate REQUIRED PRACTICAL 3: Investigation of how the rate of a reaction changes with temperature Explain how a change in concentration or a change in pressure influences the rate of a reaction (collision frequency) Define the term catalyst and explain how they work (activation energy; alternative pathway) Use a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution to help explain how a catalyst increases the rate of a reaction involving a gas Understand the terms oxidation and reduction in terms of electrons Work out the oxidation state of an element in a compound or ion from the formula Write half equations identifying the oxidation and reduction processes in redox reactions Combine half equations to give an overall redox equation

 Areas of Focus/Review3.1.6 Chemical equilibria, Le Chatalier’s Principle and Kc Covered (Tick) Explain what is happening in a reversible reaction at equilibrium Use Le Chatelier's principle to predict qualitatively the effect of changes in temperature, pressure and concentration on the position of equilibrium (Catalysts do not affect it) Explain why, for a reversible reaction used in an industrial process, a compromise temperature and pressure may be used Construct an expression for Kc for a homogeneous system in equilibrium (using [X] for a species X of mol dm-3 concentration) Calculate a value for Kc from the equilibrium concentrations for a homogeneous system at constant temperature Perform calculations involving Kc Predict the qualitative effects of changes of temperature on the value of Kc

 Areas of Focus/Review3.2.1 Periodicity Covered (Tick) Understand that an element is classified as s, p, d or f block and why Explain the trends in atomic radius and first ionisation energy (Na-Ar) Explain the melting points of the elements in terms of their structure and bonding (Na-Ar)

 Areas of Focus/Review3.3.1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Covered (Tick) Understand that organic compounds can be represented by: empirical formula, molecular formula, general formula, structural formula, displayed formula, skeletal formula Describe the characteristics of a homologous series Draw structural, displayed and skeletal formulas for given organic compounds Apply IUPAC rules for nomenlature to name organic compounds limited to chains and rings with up to six carbon atoms each Appy IUPAC rules for nomenclature to draw the structure of an organic compound from the IUPAC name limited to chains and rings with up to six carbons Write balanced equations for the steps in a free-radical mechanism (unpaired electrons represented by a dot) Outline mechanisms by drawing the structures of the species involved and curly arrows to represent the movement of electron pairs (ensuring curly arrows start/ stop at the bond) Define the term structural isomer Draw the structures of chain, position and functinal group isomers Define the term stereoisomer Draw the structural formulas of E and Z isomers Apply the CIP (Cahn-Ingold-Prelog) priority rules to E and Z isomers

 Areas of Focus/Review3.3.2 Alkanes Covered (Tick) State that alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons Describe how the alkanes in petroleum can be separated State that cracking involves breaking C-C bonds in alkanes Describe the processes of thermal cracking and catalytic cracking including the types of products formed Explain the economic reasons for cracking alkanes State alkanes are used as fuels and that combustion can be complete or incomplete Describe the pollutants produced by the internal combustion engine and how they can be removed using a catalytic convertor Describe the impact sulfur dioxide has on the atmosphere and explain why it can be removed from flue gases using calcium oxide or calcium carbonate Explain the reaction of methane with chlorine as a free-radical substitution mechanism involving initiation, propagation and termination steps

 Areas of Focus/Review3.3.3 Halogenoalkanes Covered (Tick) State that halogenoalkanes contain polar bonds Outline the nucleophilic substitution mechanisms of the reactions between halogenoalkanes with the nucleophiles OH-, CN- and NH3 Explain why the carbon-halogen bond enthalpy influences the rate of reaction Explain the role of the reagent as both nucleophile and base (concurrent substitution and elimination reactions of halogenoalkane e.g. 2-bromopropane with potassium hydroxide) Outline the mechanisms of these reactions Describe ozone as naturally forming in the atmosphere and being beneficial because it absorbs UV radiation Use equations to explain how chlorine atoms catalyse the decomposition of ozone Understand how results of research groups provided evidence for banning the use of CFCs as solvents and refridgerants; as well as the development of chlorine-free compounds

 Areas of Focus/Review3.3.4 Alkenes Covered (Tick) State that alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double covalent bond, a centre of high electron density Outline the mecahnisms for the electrophilic additions of alkenes with HBr, H2SO4 and Br2 Describe the use of bromine to test for saturation Explain the formation of major and minor products in addition reactions by reference to the relative stabilities of primary, seconday and tertiary carbocation intermediates State that addition polymers are formed from alkenes and substituted alkenes Draw the: repeating unit from a monomers structure; repeating unit from a section of the polymer chain and the structure of the monomer from a section of the polymer Explain why addition polymers are unreactive Explain the nature of intermolecular forces between molecules or polyalkenes

COMPUTER SCIENCE Y12 PPE 2

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Processor Components and performance Types of processor Input, output and storage devices Types of operating software and their functions Nature of applications Programming language translators System analysis methods Programming paradigms Compression and encryption Creating relational databases SQL Number systems and conversions Binary arithmetic. (fixed point included) HTML Javascript

CORE MATHS Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Paper 2B Length of Paper - 1hr 30 mins

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Analysing critically - communicating mathematical approaches Analysing critically - presenting a logical argument Activity Network  - critical paths - Gantt charts Venn diagrams Expectation/probability Cost benefit analysis

CORE MATHS Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Paper 1 Length of Paper - 1hr 30 mins

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Analysis of data - Stem and Leaf diagrams Percentages/VAT Exchange rates Fermi Estimation Collecting and sampling data Spreadsheets AER Analysis of data - frequency tables and histograms Income Tax and National Insurance Analysis of data - frequency and standard deviation Financial modelling

DRAMA & THEATRE Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Component 3 Length of Paper - 2 hours 30 minutes

 Theatre Makers in Practice Covered (Tick) Section A- Revise notes made in response to the live theatre performance Section A- Evaluate how the performance was relevant for a modern day audience Section A- Read a range of reviews on the live performance Section B- Revise lesson notes made on your exploration of Equus Section B- Evaluate the effectiveness of each design element with specific examples to Equus Section C-Revise lesson notes made on your exploration of Woyzeck Section C- Revise and refine your directorial concept for Woyzeck

ECONOMICS Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Year 12 Economics PPE2 Length of Paper - 1 Hour

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) -- Unit 2: The national economy in a global context (macroeconomics)- The measurement of macroeconomic performanceUnderstand the macroeconomic objectives and how they are measuredBe able to calculate and interpret index numbersLearn the injections and withdrawals from the circular flow of incomeBe able to explain the multiplier effect in terms of injections and withdrawalsBe able to define aggregate demand and draw an AD curveLearn the components of aggregate demand and how they are determinedUnderstand how the components of aggregate demand shift the AD curve to the left and rightBe able to define aggregate supply and draw an AS curveUnderstand the determinants of (short run) aggregate supplyUnderstand how determinants of aggregate supply shift the AS curve to the left and rightBe able to define long run aggregate supply and draw an LRAS curveUnderstand how shifts in AD, SRAS and LRAS can affect the macroeconomic objectives (equilibrium)-Economic performance (economic growth)Be able to define economic growth and draw and interpret an economic cycle diagramKnow the difference between short run and long run economic growth (show on diagrams)Be able to use AD/AS, PPF and economic cycle diagrams to illustrate economic growthBe able to define and characterise positive and negative output gapsBe able to explain the characteristics of the different stages of the economic cycleBe able to analyse and evaluate the costs and benefits of economic growth-Economic performance (Unemployment)Be able to define unemployment and explain how it is measuredBe able to analyse the different causes/types of unemploymentBe able to analyse and evaluate the macroeconomic effects of unemploymentBe able to suggest and analyse solutions to rising unemployment-Economic performance (inflation/deflation)Be able to define inflation and explain how it is measuredBe able to analyse the different causes of inflation and show them on an AD/AS diagramBe able to understand and interpret the quantity theory of moneyBe able to analyse the effects that inflation has on the macroeconomyBe able to define deflation and analyse its effects on the macroeconomy using an AD/AS diagramPPE LAYOUT15 multiple choice questions. One definition question (3 marks)One diagram question (4 marks)One calculation question (4 marks)One 10 mark questionOne 25 mark question TOTAL MARKS – 51 MARKS

ENGLISH LITERATURE Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Prose Length of Paper – 1 hour

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) I have a clear and confident understanding of both the prose texts ‘Frankenstein’ and ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’. I have re-read the texts independently and have detailed notes on the significant chapters/quotes in each text. I can summarise the plot of both ‘Frankenstein’ and ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ and describe the key characters and make links to the text’s central themes. I can make a mindmap of the key themes, with quotes from each text . I have independently researched key areas of context relating to the lives and times of both Mary Shelley and Margaret Atwood. I understand the literary context of dystopian and science fiction and how it relates to the texts and how it might  reflect different concerns. I understand the requirements of the question: Compare the ways in which the writers of your two chosen texts use the narrators in their works. You must relate your discussion to relevant contextual factors.                                                         (Total for Question 7 = 40 marks) I understand the assessment objectives for this unit and the mark scheme. I am confident that my written expression is highly articulate and that my spelling, punctuation and grammar are accurate. I use technical terminology well. I can successfully write paragraphs that aim to cover all the AOs. I can craft a clear line of argument in my essay, moving deftly between texts.

ENGLISH LITERATURE Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – Contemporary Poetry Length of Paper – I hour

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) I have a clear and confident understanding of all poems within the Poems of the Decade Anthology. I can select key quotations that link to the question and analyse them. AO2 I can evaluate how the poet uses different poetic techniques to demonstrate feelings or viewpoint of the narrator or poet. AO1/AO2 I can confidently write about structure, language, theme and tone of a poem. I can confidently compare a poem from my anthology to an unseen one. I am able to show the links between poems according to themes and ideas: love, relationships, politics, history, old age, art and change. I can successfully deconstruct the question and plan three or four comparative points to be touched upon in the essay. I can successfully make detailed connections between the poems in the comparative paragraphs. I can write a clear introduction and conclusion to my essay. I am confident that my written expression is articulate and my spelling, punctuation and grammar are accurate I have been independently practising and analysing unseen poetry. I confidently understand key poetic terms: stanza, metaphor, imagery, symbolism, rhyme, rhythm, caesura, diction, oxymoron, enjambment, stanza, metre and their functions in adding meaning and depth to a poem.

MEDIA STUDIES Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – Media Production, industries and Audiences Length of Paper – 2 hours

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Media Language Representation Media Industries Audiences Film Newspapers Music Videos Advertising and Marketing

FRENCH Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Listening, reading, translation Length of Paper - 2.5 hours

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Revise key vocabulary from unit 2: La “Cybersociété” Revise key vocabulary from unit 5 “La musique francophone contemporaine” Revise translation skills and notes: Eng-Fren Revise translation skills and notes: Fren-Eng Revise a range of key verbs in all tenses/moods Review listening and reading exam strategies discussed this year so far

FURTHER MATHS Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – Further Maths Core Length of Paper – 1hr 15 minutes

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Matrices and their transformationsBe able to add, subtract and multiply conformable matrices, and to multiply a matrix by a scalarUnderstand and use the zero and identity matrices, understand what is meant by equal matricesKnow that matrix multiplication is associative but not commutativeBe able to find the matrix associated with a linear transformation and vice versa.2-D transformations include the following.Reflection in the x and y axes and in y=±xRotation centre the origin through an angle θ (counter clockwise positive)Enlargement centre the originStretch parallel to x or y axesShear x or y axis fixed, shear factor3-D transformations will be confined to reflection in one of x=0, y=0, z=0 or rotation of multiples of 90º about x, y or z axisUnderstand successive transformations in 2-D and the connection with matrix multiplicationKnow the meaning of, and be able to find, invariant points and invariant lines for a linear transformation Introduction to complex numbersUnderstand the language of complex numbers (real part, imaginary part, complex conjugate, real axis, imaginary axis)Be able to solve any quadratic equation with real coefficientsKnow that the complex roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients occur in conjugate pairsBe able to add, subtract, multiply and divide complex numbers given in the form x+yi, x and y realUnderstand that a complex number is zero if and only if both the real and imaginary parts are zero.Be able to represent and interpret complex numbers and their conjugates on an Argand diagram.Be able to represent the sum and difference of two complex numbers on an Argand diagram. Roots of polynomialsUnderstand and use the relationships between the roots and coefficients of quadratic, cubic and quartic equationsBe able to form a new equation whose roots are related to the roots of a given quadratic cubic or quartic equation by a linear transformation.Know that the complex roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients occur in conjugate pairs. Be able to solve cubic or quartic equations with real coefficients. Sequences and seriesBe able to use standard formulae for r=1nr, r=1nr2, r=1nr3and the method of differences to sum seriesBe able to construct and present a proof using mathematical induction for given results for the formula for the nth term of a sequence, the sum of a series or the nth power of a matrix. Complex numbers and geometryUnderstand the language of complex numbers (modulus, argument)Be able to use radians in the context of complex numbersBe able to represent a complex number in modulus-argument form. Be able to convert between the forms z=x+yi and z=r(cosθ+isinθ) where r is the modulus and θ is the argument of the complex number.Be able to multiply and divide complex numbers in modulus-argument formBe able to represent the product and quotient of two complex numbers on an Argand diagram.Be able to represent and interpret sets of complex numbers as simple loci on an Argand diagram: Circles of the form |z−a|=r, Half lines of the form arg(z−a)=θ, Lines of the form |z−a|=|z−b|, Regions defined by inequalities based on the above e.g.  |z−a|

FURTHER MATHS Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – Numerical Methods Length of Paper – 90 minutes

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Be able to use a spreadsheet to implement numerical methods Be able to use a the iterative capability of a calculator Be able to calculate errors and to know the difference between absolute and relative errors Understand how errors in one area affect errors in other areas of calculations Understand the importance and consequences of rounding errors Understand how a sequence of answers can converge or diverge to reach an improved solution Methods: Bisection, False Position, Secant, Fixed Point Iteration and Newton-Raphson – be able to use, explain and converge these methods to solve problems Be able to relax a fixed point iteration method Numerical Differentiation: Forward and Central difference – be able to estimate derivatives and compare these two methods Numerical Integration: Midpoint, Trapezium and Simpson’s – be able to estimate integrals and link the methods Function Approximations: Newton’s Interpolating Polynomial and Lagrange – be able to construct polynomials

FURTHER MATHS Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Modelling with Algorithms Length of Paper - 1hr 15 mins

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Algorithms  Understand that an algorithm is a finite sequence of operations for carrying out a procedure or solving a problem. Understand that an algorithm can be the basis for a computer program.  Be able to interpret and apply algorithms presented in a variety of formats. Be able to repair, develop and adapt given algorithms.  Understand and be able to use the basic ideas of algorithmic complexity and be able to analyse the complexity of given algorithms. Know that complexity can be used, among other things, to compare algorithms. Understand that algorithms can sometimes be proved correct or incorrect. Understand and know the importance of heuristics. Know and be able to use the quick sort algorithm. Be able to apply other sorting algorithms which are specified. Be able to count the number of comparisons and/or swaps needed in particular applications of sorting algorithms, and relate this to complexity. Be able to reason about a given sorting algorithm. Know and be able to use first fit and first fit decreasing packing algorithms and full bin strategies.  Be able to count the number of comparisons needed in particular applications of packing algorithms, and relate this to complexity. Networks and graphsUnderstand and be able to use graphs and associated language.Be able to model problems by using graphs.Understand that a network is a graph with weighted arcs. Be able to model problems by using networks. Be able to solve minimum connector problems using Kruskal’s and Prim’s algorithms. Model shortest path problems and solve using Dijkstra’s algorithm.Know and use the fact that Kruskal’s, Prim’s and Dijkstra’s algorithms have quadratic complexity. Critical path analysisModel precedence problems with an activity-on-arc network. Use critical path analysis and be able to interpret outcomes, including implications for criticality. Be able to analyse float (total, independent and interfering), resourcing and scheduling.Be able to use a network to model a transmission system. Be able to specify a cut and calculate its capacity. Understand and use the maximum flow/ minimum cut theorem. Understand that network algorithms can be explored, understood and tested in cases in which the algorithm can be run by hand, but for practical problems the algorithm needs to be formulated in a way suitable for computing power to be applied. Formulations will be restricted to LPs. Questions may be set about the time taken by computer software to implement an algorithm when its complexity is known. LINEAR PROGRAMMING Formulating a problem Understand and use the language associated with linear programming. Be able to identify and define variables from a given problem. Be able to formulate a problem as a linear program.Be able to recognise when an LP is in standard form. Be able to use slack variables to convert an LP in standard form to augmented form.Recognise when an LP requires an integer solution.Be able to formulate a range of network problems as LPs. Be able to graph inequalities in 2-D and identify feasible regions. Be able to solve a 2-D LP graphically. Be able to consider the effect of modifying constraints or the objective function. Be able to solve simple 2-D integer LP problems graphically. Be able to use a visualisation of a 3-D LP to solve it. Be able to reduce a 3-D LP to a 2-D LP when one constraint is an equality. Simplex method Be able to use the simplex algorithm on an LP in augmented form. Understand the geometric basis for the simplex method. Interpret a tableau in terms of the vertex and value of the objective function.Recognise that if an LP includes \$ constraints then the two-stage simplex method may be used; understand how this method works and be able to set up the initial tableau in such cases. Be able to reformulate an equality constraint as a pair of inequality constraints.Understand that some LPs can be solved using graphical techniques or the simplex method, but for practical problems computing power needs to be applied. Know that a spreadsheet LP solver routine, or other software, can solve an LP given in standard form or, in some cases, in nonstandard form. Be able to interpret the output from a spreadsheet optimisation routine, or other software, for the simplex method or ILPs.

GEOGRAPHY Y12 PPE 2

Topic 2 / Dynamic Landscapes / Coastal Landscapes and Change

Length of Paper (with rebranding) – 1 hour 15 minutes

Student Syllabus & Self-Assessment. Please traffic light your understanding of each section

 Enquiry question 1: Why are coastal landscapes different and what processes cause these differences? The coast and wider littoral zone has distinctive features and landscapes. The littoral zone consists of backshore, nearshore and offshore zones, includes a wide variety of coastal types and is a dynamic zone of rapid change. Coasts can be classified by using longer term criteria such as geology and changes of sea level or shorter term processes such as inputs from rivers, waves and tides. Rocky coasts (high and low relief) result from resistant geology (to the erosive forces of sea, rain and wind), often in a high energy environment, whereas coastal plain landscapes (sandy and estuarine coasts) are found near areas of low relief and result from supply of sediment from different terrestrial and offshore sources, often in a low-energy environment. Geological structure influences the development of coastal landscapes at a variety of scales. Geological structure is responsible for the formation of concordant and discordant coasts. Geological structure influences coastal morphology: Dalmatian and Haff type concordant coasts and headlands and bays on discordant coasts. Geological structure (jointing, dip, faulting, folding) is an important influence on coastal morphology and erosion rates, and also on the formation of cliff profiles and the occurrence of micro-features, e.g. caves. (2) Rates of Coastal recession and stability depend on lithology and other factors. Bedrock lithology (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic) and unconsolidated material geology are important in understanding rates of coastal recession. Differential erosion of alternating strata in cliffs (permeable/impermeable, resistant/less resistant) produces complex cliff profiles and influences recession rates. (3) Vegetation is important in stabilising sandy coastlines through dune successional development on sandy coastlines and salt marsh successional development in estuarine areas.

 Enquiry question 2: How do characteristic coastal landforms contribute to coastal landscapes? Marine erosion creates distinctive coastal landforms and contributes to coastal landscapes. Different wave types (constructive/destructive) influence beach morphology and beach sediment profiles, which vary at a variety of temporal scales from short term (daily) through to longer periods (4) The importance of erosion processes (hydraulic action, corrosion, abrasion, attrition) and how they are influenced by wave type, size and lithology. Erosion creates distinctive coastal landforms (wave cut notches, wave cut platforms, cliffs, the cave-arch-stack stump sequence). Sediment transport and deposition create distinctive landforms and contribute to coastal landscapes. Sediment transportation is influenced by the angle of wave attack, tides and currents and the process of longshore drift.(5) Transportation and deposition processes produce distinctive coastal landforms (beaches, recurved and double spits, offshore bars, barrier beaches and bars, tombolos and cuspate forelands), which can be stabilised by plant succession. The Sediment Cell concept (sources, transfers and sinks) is important in understanding the coast as a system with both negative and positive feedback, it is an example of dynamic equilibrium. Subaerial processes of mass movement and weathering influence coastal landforms and contribute to coastal landscapes. Weathering (mechanical, chemical, and biological) is important in sediment production and influences rates of recession. Mass movement (blockfall, rotational slumping, and landslides) is important on some coasts with weak and/or complex geology. Mass movement creates distinctive landforms (rotational scars, talus scree slopes, and terraced cliff profiles).

 Enquiry question 3: How do coastal erosion and sea level change alter the physical characteristics of coastlines and increase risks? Sea level Change influences coasts on different timescales. Longer-term sea level changes result from a complex interplay of factors both eustatic (ice formation/melting, thermal changes) and isostatic (post glacial adjustment, subsidence, accretion) and tectonics. Sea level change has produced emergent coastlines (raised beaches with fossil cliffs) and submergent coastlines (rias, fjords and Dalmatian). (6) Contemporary sea level change from global warming or tectonic activity is a risk to some coastlines. Rapid coastal retreat causes threats to people at the coast. Rapid coastal recession is caused by physical factors (geological and marine) but can be influenced by human actions (dredging or coastal management the Nile Delta, Guinea and Californian coastlines). (A: actions of different players may alter natural systems) Subaerial processes (weather and mass movement) work together to influence rates of coastal recession. Rates of recession are not constant and are influenced by different factors both short- and longer term (wind direction/fetch, tides, seasons, weather systems and occurrence of storms). (7) Coastal flooding is a significant and increasing risk for some coastlines. Local factors increase flood risk on some low-lying and estuarine coasts (height, degree of subsidence, vegetation removal); global sea level rise further increases risk (Bangladesh, the Maldives). Storm surge events can cause severe coastal flooding with dramatic short-term impacts (depressions, tropical cyclones) can cause severe coastal flooding (the Philippines, Bangladesh). Climate change may increase coastal flood risk (frequency and magnitude of storms, sea level rise) but the pace and magnitude of this threat is uncertain. (F: this risk is creating an uncertain future and needs mitigation and adaptation)

 Enquiry question 4: How can coastlines be managed to meet the needs of all players? Increasing risks of coastal recession and coastal flooding have serious consequences for affected communities. Economic losses (housing, businesses, agricultural land, and infrastructure) and social losses (relocation, loss of livelihood, amenity value) from coastal recession can be significant, especially in areas of dense coastal developments (Holderness, north Norfolk). Coastal flooding and storm surge events can have serious economic and social consequences for coastal communities in both developing and developed countries (the Philippines, Bangladesh and Netherlands). Climate change may create environmental refugees in coastal areas (Tuvalu Islands). There are Different approaches to managing the risks associated with coastal recession and flooding. Hard engineering approaches (groynes, sea walls, rip rap, revetments, and offshore breakwaters) are economically costly and directly alter physical processes and systems. (8) (A: actions by different players may have unforeseen consequences) Soft engineering approaches (beach nourishment, cliff regrading and drainage, dune stabilisation) attempt to work with physical systems and processes to protect coasts (9) and manage changes in sea level. Sustainable management is designed to cope with future threats (increased storm events, rising sea levels) but its implementation can lead to local conflicts in many countries (Maldives, Namibia). (F: mitigation and adaptation will both be needed for future stability) Coastlines are now increasingly managed by holistic integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). Coastal management increasingly uses the concept of littoral cells to manage extended areas of coastline. Throughout the world, countries are developing schemes that are sustainable and use holistic ICZM strategies. Policy decisions (No Active Intervention, Strategic Realignment and Hold The Line Advance The Line) are based on complex judgements (engineering feasibility, environmental sensitivity, land value, political and social reasons) (7); Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) are used as part of the decision-making process. Policy decisions can lead to conflicts between different players (homeowners, local authorities, environmental pressure groups) with perceived winners and losers in countries at different levels of development (developed and developing or emerging countries) ( Hapisburgh and Chittagong). (A: attitudes of differing players may vary)

GEOGRAPHY YR12 PPE2

TOPIC 4: REGENERATING PLACES

Length of Paper (with coasts) – 1 hour 15 minutes

 KQ1: How and why do places vary? 4A.1 – Economies can be classified in different ways and vary from place to place Economic sectors can be defined by: Sector (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary) and employment (part/full-time, temporary/permanent, employed/self-employed)The effects of economic activity can have social effects through: health, life expectancy and levels of educationThe effects of unequal pay can have an effect on the quality of life through: deprivation, healthcare, education levels etc. 4A.2 – Places have faced their function and characteristics over time Areas change their function over time: administrative, commercial, retail and industrial. Areas can also change their demographic characteristics: gentrification, age structure and ethnic compositionThe changes in function and characteristics can be explained by: physical factors, accessibility, connectedness, historical development and the role of local or national planning. Change in areas can be measured by looking at: employment rates, demographic changes, land use changes, levels of deprivation (health deprivation, income deprivation, employment deprivation, crime, quality of the environment, abandoned and derelict land) 4A.3 – Past and present connections have shaped the economic and social characteristics of your chosen area Regional and national influences have shaped the characteristics of your chosen places. International and global influences that have shaped our chosen area.How have economic and social changes in our chosen area influenced people’s identity?

 KQ2: Why might regeneration be needed? 4A.4 – Economic and social inequalities changes people’s perceptions of an area Successful regions (Sydney) have high rates of employment, high levels of migration (internal and international), low levels of deprivation, but on the other hand, have high property prices and skills shortage.Unsuccessful regions (Rust Belt) due to economic change and spiral of decline leading to high levels of deprivation (education, health, crime and poor living environment)Priorities for regeneration vary due to differences in economic and social inequalities through the existence of: gated communities, sink estates, commuter villages and declining rural settlements 4A.5 – There are significant variations in lived experience of place and engagement with them There are wide variations in level of engagement in local communities including: local and national government and community groups)Lived experience, and attachment to, places varies according to age, ethnicity, gender, length of residence and levels of deprivation: these in turn impact on levels of engagement.Conflicts can occur among different groups in a community regarding the priorities for regeneration. This can occur due to: lack of political engagement and representation, ethnic tensions, inequality and lack of economic opportunity 4A.6 – There is a range of ways to evaluate the need for regeneration The use of statistical evidence to determine the need for regeneration in your chosen local place (Docklands)Different media can provide contrasting evidence and question the need for regeneration in your chosen local place (Docklands)How different representation of your chosen local place could influence the perceived need for regeneration in your chosen local place (Docklands)

 KQ3: How is regeneration managed? 4A.7 – UK government policy decisions play a key role in regeneration Infrastructure investment through; high speed rail and airport development, maintains and improves accessibility to help regenerate regions.Rate and type of development through; planning laws, house building target, housing affordability, permission for fracking, affects the economic regeneration of both urban and rural areasUK government decisions about international migration and deregulation of capital markets, enabling investment in prime London real estate, have impacts on potential for growth and both direct and indirect investment. 4A.8 – Local government policies aim to represent areas as being attractive for inward investment Local government compete to attract investment from businesses to the areaLocal interest groups such as Chamber of commerce, local preservation societies and trade unions, play a key role in decision-making about regeneration; there are often tensions between groups that wish to preserve urban environments and those that want to change it such as in London 2012.Urban and rural regeneration strategies include retail-led plans, tourism, leisure and sport (London 2012) and public/private rural diversifications (Powys regeneration partnership) 4A.9 – Rebranding attempts to represent areas as being more attractive by changing public perceptions of them Rebranding involves re-imaging places using a variety of media to improve the image of both urban and rural location and making them more attractive to potential investors.Urban regeneration – For UK deindustrialised cities, rebranding can stress the attraction of places, creating specific place identity building on their heritage; this can attract national and international tourists and visitors; e.g. Glasgow ‘Scotland with style’.Rural regeneration – There are a range of rural rebranding strategies open to rural areas in a post-production world. These include: heritage and literary tourism, farm diversification, specialised food products, outdoor pursuits and adventure in both accessible and remote areas; these are intended to make places more attractive e.g. Ludlow and Cornwall.

 KQ4: How successful is regeneration? 4A.10 – The success of regeneration uses a range of measures: economic, demographic, social and environmental The success of economic, regeneration can be assessed using measures of income, power and employment both within areas and comparison to other areas.Social progress can be measured by reductions in inequalities both between areas and within them; social progress can also be measured by improvement in social measures of deprivation and in demographic changes (improvements in life expectancy and reductions in health deprivation)Regeneration is successful if it leads to an improvement in the living in environment through: lack of pollution, reduction in abandoned and derelict land. 4A.11 – Different urban stakeholders have different criteria for judging the success of urban regeneration – OG 2012 A study of the strategies used in the regeneration of an urban place and the contested nature of this place; GlasgowChanges that have taken place as a consequence of national and local strategies can be judged using a range of economic, social, demographic and environmental variables in an urban area.Different stakeholders (local, national governments, local businesses and residents) will assess the success of projects using different criteria 4A.12 – Different rural stakeholders have different criteria for judging the success of rural regeneration – Cornwall A study of the strategies used in the restructuring of a rural place (Cornwall) and contested nature of these decisions within local communitiesThe changes that have taken place as a consequence of national and local strategies can be judged using a range of economic, social, demographic and environmental variables in a rural area.Different stakeholders (local, national governments, local businesses and residents) will assess the success of projects using different criteria

Case studies

 Words to look out for in the exam Case Studies and Examples to be used ‘Your local place’ Redbridge/Ilford (You place)Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) ‘functions’ Redbridge/Ilford (You place)Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) ‘Characteristics’ Redbridge/Ilford (You place)Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) ‘Demographic’ Redbridge/Ilford (You place)Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) ‘Connections’ Redbridge/Ilford (You place)Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) ‘Identity change’ Redbridge/Ilford (You place)Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) ‘Economic, successful regions’ Sydney (successful) ‘Economic, unsuccessful regions’ Rust-belt’ (unsuccessful) ‘Engagement’ Docklands ‘Lived experience; Docklands ‘Need for regeneration’ Docklands ‘National government’ Fracking, HS2 ‘Local government’ London 2012 (Urban), Powys (Rural) Urban Rebranding Glasgow (Urban) Rural Rebranding Cornwall (Rural) Urban Views, Stakeholders, Players Glasgow (Urban) Rural Views, Stakeholders, Players Cornwall (Rural)

GOVT & POLITICS Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – Unit 1 and 2 Length of Paper – One hour and thirty minutes

 Areas of Focus/Review Covered (Tick) Unit 1 Evaluate the functions and purpose of elections- explain factors such as representation, choosing the government, holding the government to account, participation and influence on party policies (Page 48-49) Evaluate the impacts of using a FPTP electoral system- explain debates such as speed and simplicity, strong and stable government, exclusion of extremists, links to constituencies, the winner bonus, Limited voter choice and disparities between vote share and seat count (Page 50-52) Evaluate the impacts of using an Additional Member System electoral system- explain debates such as proportionality, links to constituencies, wider levels of choice, two types of members, list systems, lack of representation (Page 53-54) Evaluate the impacts of using a Single Transferable Vote electoral system- explain debates such as proportionality, voter choice, large multi-member constituencies, power sharing (Page 54-55) Evaluate the impacts of using a Supplementary Voting system- explain debates such as broad support, simplicity, voter choice, lack of proportionality, majoritarianism (Page 55-56) Compare the First Past the Post and Single Transferable Vote electoral systems in terms of fairness of outcome, choice of candidates, Link between MP and Constituency, Accountability of the Government (Page 57) Evaluate why referendums are held in the UK- explain factors such as legitimacy, stabilisation, deals between political groups, public pressure (Page 59) Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of using referendums in the UK- explain debates such as checks on the government, direct participation, legitimacy, education, challenges to parliament, apathy (Pages 60-61) Evaluate why electoral systems have been adopted in different parts of the UK’s democratic system (Pages 62-63) Evaluate the role of different groups in the outcomes of elections- explain debates such as the importance of the government, opposition, pressure groups (Page 64-65) Evaluate the effects of electoral systems on the government- explain debates such as the increase in coalitions, impacts on party representations, impacts of voter choice (Page 65) Unit 2 Explain the exclusive powers of the House of Commons Explain the main powers of the House of Lords Explain how members are selected for the House of Commons Explain how members are selected for the House of Lords Evaluate the view that the House of Commons fulfil their functions effectively Evaluate the view that the House of Lords fulfil their functions effectively Evaluate how far the House of Lords are more efficient in terms of fulfilling functions compared to the House of Commons Evaluate the nature of interactions between the House of Lords and the House of Commons interact during the legislative process Evaluate the importance of the Salisbury Convention Evaluate the role of backbenchers in both Houses Explain the importance of parliamentary privilege Explain the work of select committees Evaluate the view that the work of select committees is significant Evaluate how far the opposition are important Evaluate to what extent ministerial question time reflects an effective check on the Executive Evaluate the relationship between government and Parliament Evaluate how far Parliament can effectively check on the power of government Evaluate how far Parliament can effectively check on the power of the executive

HISTORY Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – American Dream and South Africa Length of Paper – One hour and thirty minutes

 Areas of Focus/Review Covered (Tick) American Dream Assess the impact of the boom, bust and recovery of 1917– 41 on the changing standard of living Assess the impact of the Second World War on the changing standard of living Assess the impact of post-war affluence and growth on the changing standard of living, 1941–69 Assess the economic environment challenges of the 1970s on the changing standard of living Assess the fluctuations in the standard of living on the changing quality of life, 1917–41 Assess the impact of the Second World War on the changing quality of life Assess the impact of the growth of a consumer society on the changing quality of life, 1941–60 Assess the impact of anti- poverty policies and economic divisions on the changing quality of life, 1961–80 Explain the reasons for the development of increased leisure time, 1917-80 Assess the impact of increased leisure time on the changing quality of life, 1917-80 Explain the growth of spectator sports on the changing quality of life Explain the development of the USA becoming a car-owning culture on the changing quality of life Explain the influence of the USA becoming a car-owning culture on the changing quality of life Explain the development and impact of improved air travel on the changing quality of life South Africa Explain how and why there was an increase in resistance to Apartheid Explain how the resistance used peaceful protest methods Explain the events before, during and after the Sharpeville Massacre Explain the government reaction to Sharpeville including bans and the state of emergency Assess the significance of the Sharpeville Massacre Explain why the South African Republic was created Understand the importance of Macmillan’s ‘wind of change’ speech and leaving the Commonwealth Explain why South Africa left the Commonwealth Explain how and why African organisations moved to armed struggle Assess how far the MK (Umkhonto we Sizwe) and Poqo helped South Africans Explain the events of the Rivonia Trial and the significance of the verdict Assess the impact of exile and imprisonment on the ANC and PAC Explain how the government strengthened separate development Explain South Africa’s international relations and diplomatic ties in this decade (1960s) Explain how Vorster used police powers and defence forces

IT Y12 PPE 2

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Holders of information Types of storage Internet and WWW Quality of information and information management Categories of information Stages of data analysis Legislation and regulation and Green IT Information sources and data types Principles of data security Risks of breaches of security The different types of protection methods

MATHS Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Pure Length of Paper - 1hr 30 mins

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Algebra 1Use Direct Proof, Proof by exhaustion and counter examplesUse and manipulate index lawsManipulate surds and rationalise the denominatorSolve quadratic equations and sketch their curvesUnderstand and use coordinate geometryUnderstand and solve simultaneous equationsUnderstand and solve inequalities Polynomials and the binomial theoremManipulate, simplify and factorise polynomialsUnderstand and use the binomial theoremDivide polynomials by algebraic expressionsUnderstand and use the factor theoremAnalyse a function and sketch its graph TrigonometryCalculate the values of Sine, Cosine and tangent for any angleUse trigonometric identities Recognise the equation of a circleSketch and describe trigonometric functionsSolve trigonometric equationsUse the sine, and cosine rulesUse the area of a triangle formula Differentiation and IntegrationBe able to differentiate from first principlesDifferentiate terms in the form ax^nCalculate rates of changeWork out and interpret equations, including tangents, normals, turning points and second derivativesWork out the integral functionCalculate definite integralsCalculate the area under a curve VectorsBe able to identify vectors and scalar quantitiesSolve geometric problems in 2D using vectorsSolve problems using displacements, velocities and forcesFind the magnitude and direction of a vector and use these components Use position vectors to find displacements and distances

MATHS Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Applied (Stats and Mechanics) Length of Paper - 1hr

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Units and KinematicsUnderstand SI units and convert between themCalculate average speed and velocityDraw and interpret graphs of displacement and velocity against timeDerive and use the formulae for motion (SUVAT)Use calculus to solve problems involving variable acceleration Collection, representing and interpreting dataBe able to tell the difference between a population and a sample, and how this affects data resultsBe able to identify and name sampling methods and talk about what bias could ariseRead discrete data from a variety of diagramsRead continuous data from a variety of diagramsPlot and use scatter diagramsSummarize raw data (including, central tendency and spread) Probability and discrete random variablesUse correct vocabulary of probability theorySolve problems involving mutually exclusive and independent eventsUse a probability function to find a probability distribution for particular eventsBe able to recognise and solve problems related to the binomial distribution

MEDIA STUDIES Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – Media Production, industries and Audiences Length of Paper – 2 hours

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Media Language Representation Media Industries Audiences Film Newspapers Music Videos Advertising and Marketing

PHYSICS Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – AS Physics Length of Paper – 2 hours

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Electric Current DC circuits Matter and radiation Quarks and Leptons Quantum Phenomena Waves Optics Forces in Equilibrium On the Move (SUVAT, Motion graphs and projectile motion)

PSYCHOLOGY Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – Paper 1 Foundations in Psychology Length of Paper – 1 hour

 Areas of Focus/Review Covered (Tick) Social Psychology Assumptions Obedience: definition, theories, research Prejudice: definitions, theories, research Key question Key studies Methodology Practical Issues and debates Individual differences and developmental psychology Cognitive Psychology Assumptions Memory - definition, models of memory, individual differences within memory The impact of Alzheimer’s on older people and the effects on their memory Key Studies Key question Methodology Practical Quantitative data analysis (the maths part etc) Decision-making and interpretation of inferential statistics Issues and debates Biological Psychology The CNS and neurons The function of neurotransmitters, synaptic transmission The effect of recreational drugs on the transmission process Learning Theories Assumptions Classical conditioning Watson and Rayner 1920 ‘Little Albert’ Operant conditioning Social learning theory

You must know ALL the content for Social and Cognitive Psychology.

You must know the content listed above for Biological Psychology and Learning Theories.

The paper will have a mixture of data response, short mark questions and extended response (8 and 12 mark questions).

Please see MyPLC for full details of what you must

SOCIOLOGY Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper – Sociology PPE 2 – Y12 Length of Paper – 1 hr 30 mins

 Areas of Focus/Review Covered (Tick) Education (topics 1, 2, 3 and 5 on myPLC) Family (topics 1-5 on myPLC) Exam Skills – PERCAL structure Exam Skills – 10 mark outline and explain Exam Skills – 10 mark applying material from the item Exam Skills – 4 & 6 mark questions

SPANISH Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Reading, listening, translation Length of Paper - 2.5 hours

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Revise vocabulary from Unit 2: El ciberespacio Revise key grammar from Unit 2: El ciberespacio Revise vocabulary from Unit 5: La identidad regional en España Revise  key grammar from Unit 5: La identidad regional en España Revise translation skills and notes: Eng-Span Revise translation skills and notes: Span-Eng Revise a range of key verbs in all tenses/moods Review listening and reading exam strategies discussed this year so far

BTEC BUSINESS LEVEL 3 Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - BTEC Business Level 3 - Unit 3 Finance Length of Paper - 2 hours

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Covers Learning Aims ACDELAA - Functions of Money LAA - Role of MoneyLAA - Planning expenditure LAA - Different ways to pay, cash, credit card, cheque, electronic transfer, direct debit, standing order, charge card, store card, BACs LAA - Current accounts - standard, premium, basic, student, - be able to compare deals financial ombudsman service - LAA - Different types of borrowing - Overdraft, hire purchase, mortgage, credit card, payday loan- be able to compare deals LAA Savings and Investment - ISAs, Deposit and savings account, premium bonds, bonds and guilts, shares, pensions- be able to compare deals LAA - Insurance and assurance - car, home, life, travel, pet, health- be able to compare deals LAC - Purpose of accounting - record transactions, management, compliance, measuring performance, LAC - types of income, capital, revenue - basic calculationsLAC - Types of expenditure - capital, revenue- basic calculations including depreciation LAD - Sources of finance - Internal, external LAE - Cash flow forecasts - inflows / receipts, outflows expenditure, Credit balances, opening and closing cash / bank balances, LAE - Use of cash flow forecasts for planning, monitoring and control. LAE  - Break even analysis - drawing a break even chart, use of break even for planning, monitoring, control and target setting

BTEC BUSINESS DOUBLE Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - Unit 6 - Principles of management Length of Paper - 3 hours

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Management & Leadership Styles & definitions Functions of management and leadership, planning, communicating, organising etc. Business culture Leadership styles – democratic/autocratic/paternalistic/laissez-faire/transactional Setting objectives – management and leadership skills HR –Human Resources, explanations and what they do Forecasting labour demand Types of workers – full-time, part-time, zero contract, temporary staff, agency staff Absenteeism Motivation at work, F.W Taylor, E. Mayo et al Recruitment Training Appraisals Impact of change – stakeholders and their influence Quality management, standards, i.e investors in people, kite marks

BTEC BUSINESS SINGLE Y12 PPE 2

 Name of Paper - BTEC Business Level 3 - Unit 3 Finance Length of Paper - 2 hours

 Areas of Focus/Review - Please be as descriptive as possible. Covered (Tick) Covers Learning Aims ACDELAA - Functions of Money LAA - Role of MoneyLAA - Planning expenditure LAA - Different ways to pay, cash, credit card, cheque, electronic transfer, direct debit, standing order, charge card, store card, BACs LAA - Current accounts - standard, premium, basic, student, - be able to compare deals financial ombudsman service - LAA - Different types of borrowing - Overdraft, hire purchace, mortgage, credit card, payday loan- be able to compare deals LAA Savings and Investment - ISAs, Deposit and savings account, premium bonds, bonds and guilts, shares, pensions- be able to compare deals LAA - Insurance and assurance - car, home, life, travel, pet, health- be able to compare deals LAC - Purpose of accounting - record transactions, management, compliance, measuring performance, LAC - types of income, capital, revenue - basic calculationsLAC - Types of expenditure - capital, revenue- basic calculations including depreciation LAD - Sources of finance - Internal, external LAE - Cash flow forecasts - inflows / receipts, outflows expenditure, credit balances, opening and closing cash / bank balances, LAE - Use of cash flow forecasts for planning, monitoring and control. LAE  - Break even analysis - drawing a break even chart, use of break even for planning, monitoring, control and target setting