List of Linguistic Components Used For The Detection Of Contract Cheating

Commercial Writing Components

1. Domain Specific Terminology (Lex3; 26.73% variance)



Word length


Contextual Distinctiveness


Lexical Density (tokens)


Word Familiarity


Semantic ambiguity


Lexical Diversity (Adjectives)


Commercial essays are more likely to use the terminology and jargon of the discipline and less likely to use familiar or general words. Essay extracts in this component were densely packed with longer than average words as well as subject-specific words that are unfamiliar outside the discipline context.

Sample A

Luo (1996) noted that strategic alliances can be thought of as an organising framework where partnership and relationships facilitate the knowledge and capabilities required to sustain an international growth strategy. Perceptions of strategic alliances from a Chinese perspective have also been explored with Dong and Glaister (2007) exploring the cultural differences from a Chinese perspective.

Sample B

Technological advances during the last decade were insufficient to deliver a substantial improvement in commercial and industrial productivity (Foda 2016). Arguably, there is potential for sustainable improvements in productivity with technological disruptions; however, many of these innovations have not yet materialised (UN 2013). Therefore, recent productivity gains are less likely to be sustainable for the UK and the US.

2. Underspecified reference (Coh3; 12.65% variance)



Unattended demonstratives


Pronoun/noun ratio


Lexical subordinators


Verb synonym overlap (sentence)


Commercial essays were more likely to use vague and ambiguous referential language

Essay extracts in this component frequently used ‘dummy it’, ‘they’ instead of passive voice, and ‘this’ + reporting verbs. These weak cohesive links are typically used to fulfill the communicative function of interpretation but can be considered lazy in academic writing style guides.

Sample C

It would be up to the Canadian All Reds to show that they did have goodwill in the goods and the logo; they would also have to prove that there had been some form of false representation, whether it was intentional or not, to the public, by virtue of the goods being offered by John. For this to be the case, it will be necessary for them to show that there is a likelihood that the public would be deceived, but it has been established that the standard is not that of a 'moron in a hurry', but rather the public at large . The court will determine whether or not there is a similarity in terms of the goods . This may result in a difference of opinion in terms of whether or not the scarves without the words 'All Reds' on them would be deemed passing off, in comparison to the ones without the words on the scarves.

Sample D

This demonstrates that in order to achieve this end, close cooperation was necessary with the community health-care providers, and a multidisciplinary consultant team was needed to coordinate the care provision. This research demonstrated that intervention patients spent a smaller proportion of the last month of life in nursing homes than was possible for the control sample (Jordhøy et al. 2010). This illustrated that to increase the proportion of patients who were able to die at home, a significant investment of resources would be needed. This manifested itself in the need for greater levels of training in palliative care for community care staff, thus increasing the costs associated with the provision of care (Jordhøy et al. 2010).

3. Adverb padding (Reg 7; 2.6% variance)





Split auxiliaries


Commercial essays were more likely to contain more adverbs particularly degree and conjunctive types. These were often used in sentence initial position to explicitly signal transitions or with adjectives to add emphasis. The adverbs used do not add much information; their redundancy indicates a strategy of text inflation.

Sample E

Furthermore, Canadian labour law also offers an interesting comparison with the US since the policy debate is very different, even though the labour policy issues are very similar to the ones on the United States. labour law reform in Canada, for the most part, is not accompanied by litigious considerations regarding the need to secure the sanctity of the "secret ballot", but only a recognition that, even with Canada with its rapid elections and strict adherence to deadlines, limitations on employer electioneering, and tougher punishments for unfair management practices, majority signing up makes organizing easier for workers, whereas contested representation elections make organizing much more difficult.

Sample F

Moreover, it has been stated that Brexit has high probabilities of affecting not only the United Kingdom but also the rest of the EU economy through various transmission channels, for instance, uncertainty, trade, investment, as well as migration. In addition, it is evident that in the near term, the major effect of Brexit is heightened uncertainty, both political and economic. Accordingly, these issues are likely to slow investment growth and private consumption, as well as affect foreign trade, primarily in the United Kingdom; even though other EU Member States also are likely to be adversely affected by Brexit. Also, Brexit has caused unexpected exchange rate fluctuations, as well as financial market instability.

4. Summarising nouns (Coh9; 3.5% variance )



Attended demonstratives




Essay extracts in this component used demonstrative ‘this’ and definite article ‘the’ in combination with general nouns (sometimes known as ‘shell’ nouns) and abstract nouns that are used to summarise and repackage information previously presented. This is a common cohesion strategy recommended for graduate and professional writing but tends to be overused by commercial academic essay writers.

Sample G

This introductory chapter outlines the central research context and introduces key concepts. In order to understand the nature and importance of knowledge transfers, this chapter defines the meaning of knowledge drawing on both its tacit and explicit forms. In addition it introduces the reader to the growing importance of international strategic alliances, with a central focus on the Chinese market. Recognising that there is a strong link between strategic alliances and competitive success in the literature, this research focuses upon the Chinese market in particular in order to understand what such alliances look like, the nature of knowledge transfers and the specific challenges that exist within this growing and important market.

Sample H

This piece has shown how essential it is that the approach to care is adapted to the individuals' need to reduce distress and enhance their quality of care. Implementation of the butterfly scheme was helpful to a degree in this particular scenario but I also recognise that not all staff adapted their practice because of this. This piece has demonstrated the complexity of delivering care for a person with a communication difficulty and highlights that provision of care is largely influenced by personal attitudes and beliefs towards care delivery. This piece has illustrated the importance of not using medical jargon when communicating with patients, particularly those with Dementia as this could exacerbate confusion and cause distress.

5. Information Sparsity (Lex3; 11.48% variance)



Function Word Diversity


Lexical Density (types)


Commercial essays were more likely to have a low information content. Essay extracts in this component contained a high frequency and diversity of grammar words and verbs, with few noun phrases. This gives the impression of being long-winded, with many words being used to make few points. It is also indicative of draft writing that has not been compressed to maximise word count.

Low Lexical Sparsity Sample I                       High Lexical Sparsity Sample J

Research has therefore suggested that another significant benefit of breastfeeding may be that it acts as a protective factor against obesity in childhood. Kramer was the first to report that breastfeeding may result in a "significantly reduced" risk of obesity in children (1981, p. 4). In the next two decades, a number of similar studies also suggested an association between breastfeeding and a reduction in the risk of childhood obesity. In the mid-2000s this research was collated into three seminal meta-analyses which concluded that, overall, breastfeeding for the first six months did reduce the risk of childhood obesity.

Difficulties in gaining admission to inpatient beds (i.e. inefficient bed management or insufficient bed capacity) The congestion in the emergency department. Incorrect retention of patient beds. Need for improving different administrative processes associated with patient flow arises for efficient and effective management of hospital beds and other resources. The effective management of hospital beds is essential if the growing demand of inpatient beds is to be met. With the limited supply of the medical resources and excess of demand, the hospital beds are in short supply.

6. Repetition (Coh1; 16.73% variance)



Content word overlap


Noun overlap


Noun synonym overlap (sentence)


Essay extracts in this component frequently deployed the repetition of words across adjacent sentences as a primary cohesion strategy; frequent use of synonyms is indicative of the “thesaurus thinking” writing strategy promoted in UK primary schools.

Sample K

Once the product has arrived at the regional distribution centre, the consideration is that full pallets of a product are still too large to handle for the kind of stores operating within the Spar chain. As such, full pallets of washing powder are broken down and mixed with other products onto a range of devices such as cages which can then be used to distribute a large variety of products to a store in small quantities, thus facilitating a wide range of product availability in store, without incurring large levels of wastage due to the over stocking of products. Considering the distribution channel of the microwave meal in the same chain of stores the overall distributional channel is quite a different one, this is largely the function of the nature of the product in its self. Here the primary concern is that the amount of time which the product spends in the distribution channel must be much lower than that of a non-perishable item such as a washing powder

Sample L

Half of the studies (n=3, 50.0%) concluded that active acupuncture is more effective than sham acupuncture for reducing blood pressure in people with hypertension. For example: in the trial conducted by Flachskampf et al. (2007), there was a mean reduction in participants' blood pressure of 6.4mmHg (systolic) and 3.7mmHg (diastolic), while there was no reduction in the sham acupuncture group (p<0.001). In Yin et al.'s (2007) trial, the mean blood pressure for the group receiving acupuncture decreased from 136.8/83.7mmHg to 122.1/76.8mmHg, while again there was no change in the mean blood pressure for the control group (p<0.01). Similarly, in Zheng et al.'s (2018) trial, acupuncture resulted in an average decrease in participants'

Student Writing Components

1. Informality (Reg6; 3.1% variance)



Pro-verb do




Student writing is more likely to use spoken language conventions. Essay extracts in this component used contractions for negatives and auxiliary verbs, and ‘dummy do’ as a substitute for a repeated main verb. While these linguistic features were the most common signs of informality, they were typically accompanied by other indications that the writer is unaware of academic writing conventions (such as phrasal verbs and colloquialisms).

Sample M

​​Well, the main reason that most people don't like sales is because of having to deal with rejection. No one likes to be rejected but if you're in a sale, that's all part of the game. The more rejections you get, the closer to a sale you will be. Now just because you expect your sales people or yourself to go out there and make those sales calls like a machine, it doesn't mean motivation should be neglected. If you are a sales person, take the time to read and listen to motivation material. By doing this, you will constantly be feeding your mind with positive and encouraging thoughts that will help you get through those days where everyone prospect seems to be in a bad mood.

Sample N

Having a law degree offers a world of opportunities. You don't have to be solely a solicitor. One area you can choose to look at is become a barrister. If you're not too fond of working with the public and just want to specialize and work mostly in the court room, then being a barrister would be a good choice. Barristers are usually hired by solicitors to help them in creating legal arguments that will convince the juries to side with case of the solicitor. The way barristers summarize the reasons why the court should rule in favor of their client can also be a big help in supporting the case of the solicitor they are assisting. Another thing that barristers do is to cross-examine witnesses. Great barristers can sway or influence the court's decision towards their perspective.

2. Additive relations (Coh2; 13.2% variance)



Additive connectives


Basic connectives (FANBOYS)


Student writing is more likely to link information by  making lists of points or enumerating steps. Essay extracts in this component featured the use of basic and additive connectives (such as ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘also’, ‘or’ and ‘so’). The preference for additive relations rather than contrast, comparison or causation - indicates that student writing tends to lack a more critical or analytical focus.

Planning is the first managerial function and it is the process that is established to determine future position and decide how to get the goals. The second function is organising, the process of designing jobs and determining the tasks as well. Leading, the third function is the process of motivating employees, group dynamics or resolving conflicts in organisation. Controlling, the fourth function, is the process of comparing, monitoring and correcting performance with goals of the organisation (Griffin & Moorhead, 2010). The successful managers should perform effective functions and different roles in organisation. The interpersonal roles that are the main tasks of managers and are relative to employees, the interpersonal roles are including the figurehead, the leader and the liaison.

First, the United States should recognize the flaws and failures of its laws to fully protect women and eradicate sexual harassment in all spheres. They should take necessary measures to ratify CEDAW and enact legislative provisions that ensure the safety of women in and out of workplaces. There should also be proper punishment measures set forth for the perpetrators, such as termination of employment and prison sentences where necessary. Too many harassers get away with their crimes and they must be stopped. I believe that the US should also allocate funds to organizations, foundations, and movements like Time's Up and #MeToo that properly identify harassers and provide defense for the victims of sexual assault. Next, countries in the European Union that have ratified CEDAW should regulate and measure the extent of implementations within their respective governments and institutions.

3. Positive Evaluation (Sent3; 8.6% variance)



Positive Adjectives


Positive Sentiment


Student writing is more likely to describe and evaluate using positive language. Essay extracts in this component displayed frequent use of positive adjectives and other words associated with positive emotions. This indicates that students are more likely to talk about advantages than limitations - another sign of lack of analytical focus.

In practice, if a leader does not have good communication skill, he or she cannot encourage the team to fulfil the goal. The skill holds staffs together and their communication with each other become free flow in both directions. For effective communication a leader should be honest, approachable, open and good at listening. It indicates that, during practice a leader has to be honest to staffs and also be ready to listen their problems, not just at briefings and assessments of care, but also at handovers and any other time. It is also necessary for a good leader to be open in decision so the staffs can accept the decisions (Morgan, 2010).

Baccalaureate prepared nurses also are more beneficial to their patients and workplaces by providing patients with safer care, and also with the ability to advance their career quicker than the associate prepared nurse. These nurses differ from ADN prepared nurses because they possess greater knowledge regarding health promotion, disease prevention, and reduction of risk. Knowledge in leadership and management, community nursing, and overall wellness also make the ADN nurse and BSN nurse dissimilar. Both educated nurses' work to achieve the best possible level of wellness for their patients.

4. Lexical Concreteness (Lex4; 9.9% variance)







Student writing is more likely to use a colloquial register. Essay extracts in this component use everyday vocabulary that is familiar but not necessarily informal. Attempts are made to conform to academic standards of grammar, although knowledge of discipline-specific terminology is low.

Basic steps in the money laundering process are showing below, Placement: In this step large amount of black money placed into the financial system, used to buy high dollar goods or smuggled out of the country. This idea is to transform the cash as quickly as possible into other types of assets and thus avoid detection. Cash deposited into bank (often with complicity of staff or mixed with proceeds of legitimate business. In placement process cash are physically transported out of the country. Cash is used to buy high value goods, properties or business assets.

Pepsi. Co is a big company, which is well known in over the world. If go to the main website of Pepsi family, you can easy to find out that Pepsi is attending in nearly 200 countries in globe. With the mission that to become the world's premier consumer products company concentrated on convenient foods and beverages,(Our vision and Vision ) , there are hundreds of product lines in four divisions majoring to lead global in food, snack and barrage company. In the Pepsi. Co's "Built to grow" report 2001; Pepsi was classified in the third (3 grate) of "World's leading foods and beverage companies."