Capstone in Engineering - Gr. 12                                                                                        Page  of

Units:

Unit 1 - Independent Projects / Identifying Problem

Unit 2 - Design Brief / Final Project Design Proposal

Unit 3 - Criteria / Constraints

Unit 4 - Brainstorm, Generate Multiple Solutions

Unit 5 - Developmental Work

Unit 6 - Modeling & Prototyping

Unit 7 - Testing & Evaluating / Re-Design




Unit Title

Unit 1 - Independent Projects / Identifying Problem

Timeframe 

3 Weeks

Unit Summary

While students in this course have undertaken design challenges many times before using the design process, they have never spent an entire school year on a single activity. Furthermore, they have always been asked to solve the problems identified and assigned by the teacher, and are rarely responsible for doing so on their own.  As such, they must be introduced to the concept of an independent study.  Together, the teacher and the students will look at how college students typically engage in an independent study on a single design challenge, and how much more involved they are as compared to the projects they have done in the past.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

  • What great products can be achieved through an independent study?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • The teacher is a facilitator during an independent project and the student is accountable for his/her own progress and success.
  • Time management skills are crucial to an independent project.
  • An independent project will result in a well-planned and thoughtful final product that is never really totally finished given the nature of the design process.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know

  • Engineering Design Process - What is required at each step of the process for successful product development
  • Time Management Skills
  • Depict the evolutionary stages of independent projects – and their final resulting products.  
  • The class will engage in a two-day discussion to address expectations, concerns, fears and hopes for this course

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Students will have made individual presentations of their research to the rest of the class
  • Given a series of case studies about independent design projects undertaken by college students, the high school students will be able to match each stage in the design process with the corresponding events in the case study.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Case studies on previous capstone/independent engineering design projects

Summative/ Benchmark

Completing the Capstone “Master Document”

Alternative Assessments

Learning Activities

Defining each step of the Engineering Design Process.

Identifying a Problem in a specific area of technology that students will develop their design statement/brief from.

Create Project Website

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Engineering Design Process

Independent Design Project Case Studies

Previous Design Project Analysis & Documentation Examples

Design Project Examples of Prototype Solutions

Website Format Rubric

Equipment

Computers/Chromebooks, Internet Access

Supplemental Resources

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

Production and Distribution of Writing

(L.CCRAR.4)

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

(L.CCRAR.7)

Range of Writing

(L.CCRAR.10)

  • CRP1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.

By the end of 12th grade,

  • 9.2.12.C.1 Review career goals and determine steps necessary for attainment.
  • 9.2.12.C.3 Identify transferable career skills and design alternate career plans.
  • 9.2.12.C.6 Investigate entrepreneurship opportunities as options for career planning and identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources required for owning and managing a business.

8.1 - Technology Standards

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.12.A.1 Create a personal digital portfolio which reflects personal and academic interests, achievements, and career aspirations by using a variety of digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.12.C.1 Develop an innovative solution to a real world problem or issue in collaboration with peers and experts, and present ideas for feedback through social media or in an online community.

8.2 - Technology Education Standards

B. Technology and Society: Knowledge and understanding of human, cultural and societal values are fundamental when designing technological systems and products in the global society.

  • The effects of technology on the environment.

8.2.12.B.2 Evaluate ethical considerations regarding the sustainability of environmental resources that are used for the design, creation and maintenance of a chosen product.

C. Design: The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems

  • The role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation and experimentation in problem solving.

8.2.12.C.7 Use a design process to devise a technological product or system that addresses a global problem, provide research, identify trade-offs and constraints, and document the process through drawings that include data and materials.

D. Abilities for a Technological World: The designed world is the product of a design process that provides the means to convert resources into products and systems.

  • Apply the design process.

8.2.12.D.1 Design and create a prototype to solve a real world problem using a design process, identify constraints addressed during the creation of the prototype, identify trade-offs made, and present the solution for peer review

  • Use and maintain technological products and systems.

8.2.12.D.3 Determine and use the appropriate resources (e.g., CNC (Computer Numerical Control) equipment, 3D printers, CAD software) in the design, development and creation of a technological product or system.

                                                                                                      9.3 - CTE Standards

ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY CAREER PATHWAY (ST‐ET)

9.3.ST‐ET.1

Use STEM concepts and processes to solve problems involving design and/or production.

9.3.ST‐ET.2

Display and communicate STEM information.

9.3.ST‐ET.3

Apply processes and concepts for the use of technological tools in STEM.

9.3.ST‐ET.4

Apply the elements of the design process.

9.3.ST‐ET.5

Apply the knowledge learned in STEM to solve problems

9.3.ST‐ET.6

Apply the knowledge learned in the study of STEM to provide solutions to human and societal problems in an ethical and legal manner.

Modifications/Accommodations

IEPs

  • Use concrete examples to introduce concepts.
  • Make learning activities consistent.
  • Use repetition and drills spread over time.
  • Provide work folders for daily assignments.
  • Use behavior management techniques, such as behavior modification, in the area of adaptive behavior.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Encourage students to function independently.
  • Give students extra time to both ask and answer questions while giving hints to answers.
  • Give simple directions and read them over with students.
  • Shorten the number of items on exercises, tests, and quizzes.

504s

  • Assist students in getting organized.
  • Give short directions.
  • Use drill exercises.
  • Give prompt cues during student performance.
  • Let students with poor writing skills use a computer.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Give prompt feedback.
  • Use continuous assessment to mark students’ daily progress.
  • Prepare materials at varying levels of ability.

ELLs

  • Use a slow, but natural rate of speech; speak clearly; use shorter sentences; repeat concepts in several ways.
  • When possible, use pictures, photos, and charts.
  • Corrections should be limited and appropriate.  Do not correct grammar or usage errors in front of the class.
  • Give honest praise and positive feedback through your voice tones and visual articulation whenever possible.
  • Encourage students to use language to communicate, allowing them to use their native language to ask/answer questions when they are unable to do so in English.
  • Integrate students’ cultural background into class discussions.
  • Use cooperative learning where students have opportunities to practice expressing ideas without risking language errors in front of the entire class.

G/T

  • Provide ample opportunities for creative behavior.
  • Create assignments that call for original work, independent learning, critical thinking, problem solving, and experimentation.
  • Show appreciation for creative efforts
  • Respect unusual questions, ideas, and solutions.
  • Encourage students to test their ideas.
  • Provide opportunities and give credit for self-initiated learning.
  • Avoid overly detailed supervision and too much reliance on prescribed curricula.
  • Allow time for reflection.
  • Resist immediate and constant evaluation.
  • Avoid comparisons to other students.

Unit Title

Unit 2 - Design Brief / Final Project Design Proposal

Timeframe 

3 Weeks

Unit Summary

Once students have narrowed their focus to address a single problem with the potential for multiple solutions, they are ready to frame or develop a design brief so that they can think very precisely about the problem at hand, but also be open to open up a number of possible solutions that can be approached creatively. Students will learn about the definition, purpose and contents of a design brief; and, engage in lessons about technical writing before writing their first draft.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

  • What are the benefits of a well written design brief and how are they used in industry to guide the design process?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • The design brief thoroughly explains the problem and states: what the designer will do; and, what the successful design will do.  
  • Specifications dictate boundaries or limitations as well as criteria that any potential solution must contain in order to solve the problem.
  • Technical writing is objective, clear and concise; and is uses specific vocabulary and structure to describe physical characteristics, properties or sequential operations related to technical products and systems.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know

  • What a design brief and problem statement is
  • Technical writing uses specific vocabulary and structure

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Write their specific design problem statement and design brief for their given project

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Researching previous projects and analyzing how design statements and briefs are written in industry

Summative/ Benchmark

Students will present a complete design brief to the class and document it on their blog. Rubrics for technical writing and design brief will address:

  1. Technical Writing
  2. Questions relating to function, human factors, budget, materials, other resources, environmental impact, aesthetics, time and production.

Alternative Assessments

Learning Activities

Technical writing assignment on a specific area or problem in a given area of technology, in relationship to a technological product or system

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Engineering Design Process

Independent Design Project Case Studies

Previous Design Project Analysis & Documentation Examples

Design Project Examples of Prototype Solutions

Equipment

Computers/Chromebooks, Internet Access

Supplemental Resources

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

Production and Distribution of Writing

(L.CCRAR.4)

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

(L.CCRAR.7)

Range of Writing

(L.CCRAR.10)

  • CRP1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.

By the end of 12th grade,

  • 9.2.12.C.1 Review career goals and determine steps necessary for attainment.
  • 9.2.12.C.3 Identify transferable career skills and design alternate career plans.
  • 9.2.12.C.6 Investigate entrepreneurship opportunities as options for career planning and identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources required for owning and managing a business.

8.1 - Technology Standards

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

8.1.12.F.1 Evaluate the strengths and limitations of emerging technologies and their impact on educational, career, personal and or social needs.

8.2 - Technology Education Standards

B. Technology and Society: Knowledge and understanding of human, cultural and societal values are fundamental when designing technological systems and products in the global society.

  • The effects of technology on the environment.

8.2.12.B.2 Evaluate ethical considerations regarding the sustainability of environmental resources that are used for the design, creation and maintenance of a chosen product.

C. Design: The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems

  • The role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation and experimentation in problem solving.

8.2.12.C.7 Use a design process to devise a technological product or system that addresses a global problem, provide research, identify trade-offs and constraints, and document the process through drawings that include data and materials.

D. Abilities for a Technological World: The designed world is the product of a design process that provides the means to convert resources into products and systems.

  • Apply the design process.

8.2.12.D.1 Design and create a prototype to solve a real world problem using a design process, identify constraints addressed during the creation of the prototype, identify trade-offs made, and present the solution for peer review

  • Use and maintain technological products and systems.

8.2.12.D.3 Determine and use the appropriate resources (e.g., CNC (Computer Numerical Control) equipment, 3D printers, CAD software) in the design, development and creation of a technological product or system.

                                                                                                      9.3 - CTE Standards

ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY CAREER PATHWAY (ST‐ET)

9.3.ST‐ET.1

Use STEM concepts and processes to solve problems involving design and/or production.

9.3.ST‐ET.2

Display and communicate STEM information.

9.3.ST‐ET.3

Apply processes and concepts for the use of technological tools in STEM.

9.3.ST‐ET.4

Apply the elements of the design process.

9.3.ST‐ET.5

Apply the knowledge learned in STEM to solve problems

9.3.ST‐ET.6

Apply the knowledge learned in the study of STEM to provide solutions to human and societal problems in an ethical and legal manner.

IEPs

  • Use concrete examples to introduce concepts.
  • Make learning activities consistent.
  • Use repetition and drills spread over time.
  • Provide work folders for daily assignments.
  • Use behavior management techniques, such as behavior modification, in the area of adaptive behavior.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Encourage students to function independently.
  • Give students extra time to both ask and answer questions while giving hints to answers.
  • Give simple directions and read them over with students.
  • Shorten the number of items on exercises, tests, and quizzes.

504s

  • Assist students in getting organized.
  • Give short directions.
  • Use drill exercises.
  • Give prompt cues during student performance.
  • Let students with poor writing skills use a computer.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Give prompt feedback.
  • Use continuous assessment to mark students’ daily progress.
  • Prepare materials at varying levels of ability.

ELLs

  • Use a slow, but natural rate of speech; speak clearly; use shorter sentences; repeat concepts in several ways.
  • When possible, use pictures, photos, and charts.
  • Corrections should be limited and appropriate.  Do not correct grammar or usage errors in front of the class.
  • Give honest praise and positive feedback through your voice tones and visual articulation whenever possible.
  • Encourage students to use language to communicate, allowing them to use their native language to ask/answer questions when they are unable to do so in English.
  • Integrate students’ cultural background into class discussions.
  • Use cooperative learning where students have opportunities to practice expressing ideas without risking language errors in front of the entire class.

G/T

  • Provide ample opportunities for creative behavior.
  • Create assignments that call for original work, independent learning, critical thinking, problem solving, and experimentation.
  • Show appreciation for creative efforts
  • Respect unusual questions, ideas, and solutions.
  • Encourage students to test their ideas.
  • Provide opportunities and give credit for self-initiated learning.
  • Avoid overly detailed supervision and too much reliance on prescribed curricula.
  • Allow time for reflection.
  • Resist immediate and constant evaluation.
  • Avoid comparisons to other students.


Unit Title

Unit 3 - Criteria / Constraints

Timeframe 

3 Weeks

Unit Summary

Before students can narrow their inquiry down to a single problem statement they will be guided through the process of identifying good problems technological problems.  These could be problems with existing products or systems that would require a new innovation; or, they could be problems that have yet to be addressed by man, resulting in a new invention.  Given the six areas of the designed world (construction, communication/information, power/energy, medical/agricultural/biotechnology, manufacturing, construction and transportation), and contexts where  students could find related problems and issues (school, home, community, hobbies, special interests, etc.), they will compile a list of potential that could be addressed through a full-year design project.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

  • What constitutes a good technological problem?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Technological problems are all around us.  They are not malfunctions or answers to scientific questions, but they are those things that can be defined in such a way that we will have alternative courses of action.
  • Technological problems  and opportunities can uncovered by analyzing existing products or systems for their intended purpose with relation to human needs and wants; also taking into consideration Mazlow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs.
  • Invention is the development of something completely new, which is rare compared to the many improvements made in things already invented.  These changes and improvements are called innovations.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know

  • Difference between Human Needs & Wants
  • What is an Invention and Innovation
  • Technology products and systems impact every aspect of the world in which we live.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Identify Inventions and look at their changes or innovations throughout their lifecycle
  • Analyze existing products to identify the technological problems it has tried to solve
  • Gathering and evaluating knowledge and information from a variety of sources, including global perspectives

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students will explore multiple areas of the designed world and contexts for identifying problems defined using specific technological terms.

Summative/ Benchmark

Using a matrix rubric for guidance, students will maintain a daily blog to document their exploration, thought processes, and list of potential problems in these terms:

  1. Motivation and Interests
  2. Areas of the designed world
  3. Contextual relevance
  4. Human Needs
  5. Problems and Opportunities
  6. Preliminary thoughts about feasibility

Alternative Assessments

Learning Activities

Google Product Patent Research

Copyright & Trademark Process for technological products

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Engineering Design Process

Independent Design Project Case Studies

Previous Design Project Analysis & Documentation Examples

Design Project Examples of Prototype Solutions

Equipment

Computers/Chromebooks, Internet Access

Supplemental Resources

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

Production and Distribution of Writing

(L.CCRAR.4)

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

(L.CCRAR.7)

Range of Writing

(L.CCRAR.10)

  • CRP1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.

By the end of 12th grade,

  • 9.2.12.C.1 Review career goals and determine steps necessary for attainment.
  • 9.2.12.C.3 Identify transferable career skills and design alternate career plans.
  • 9.2.12.C.6 Investigate entrepreneurship opportunities as options for career planning and identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources required for owning and managing a business.

                                                                                                     8.2 Technology Education Standards

B. Technology and Society: Knowledge and understanding of human, cultural and societal values are fundamental when designing technological systems and products in the global society.

  • The effects of technology on the environment.

8.2.12.B.2 Evaluate ethical considerations regarding the sustainability of environmental resources that are used for the design, creation and maintenance of a chosen product.

C. Design: The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems

  • The role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation and experimentation in problem solving.

8.2.12.C.7 Use a design process to devise a technological product or system that addresses a global problem, provide research, identify trade-offs and constraints, and document the process through drawings that include data and materials.

  • The attributes of design.

8.2.12.C.2 Analyze a product and how it has changed or might change over time to meet human needs and wants.

  • The application of engineering design

8.2.12.C.3 Analyze a product or system for factors such as safety, reliability, economic considerations, quality control, environmental concerns, manufacturability, maintenance and repair, and human factors engineering (ergonomics).

D. Abilities for a Technological World: The designed world is the product of a design process that provides the means to convert resources into products and systems.

  • Apply the design process.

8.2.12.D.1 Design and create a prototype to solve a real world problem using a design process, identify constraints addressed during the creation of the prototype, identify trade-offs made, and present the solution for peer review

  • Use and maintain technological products and systems.

8.2.12.D.3 Determine and use the appropriate resources (e.g., CNC (Computer Numerical Control) equipment, 3D printers, CAD software) in the design, development and creation of a technological product or system.

                                                                                                      9.3 - CTE Standards

ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY CAREER PATHWAY (ST‐ET)

9.3.ST‐ET.1

Use STEM concepts and processes to solve problems involving design and/or production.

9.3.ST‐ET.2

Display and communicate STEM information.

9.3.ST‐ET.3

Apply processes and concepts for the use of technological tools in STEM.

9.3.ST‐ET.4

Apply the elements of the design process.

9.3.ST‐ET.5

Apply the knowledge learned in STEM to solve problems

9.3.ST‐ET.6

Apply the knowledge learned in the study of STEM to provide solutions to human and societal problems in an ethical and legal manner.

IEPs

  • Use concrete examples to introduce concepts.
  • Make learning activities consistent.
  • Use repetition and drills spread over time.
  • Provide work folders for daily assignments.
  • Use behavior management techniques, such as behavior modification, in the area of adaptive behavior.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Encourage students to function independently.
  • Give students extra time to both ask and answer questions while giving hints to answers.
  • Give simple directions and read them over with students.
  • Shorten the number of items on exercises, tests, and quizzes.

504s

  • Assist students in getting organized.
  • Give short directions.
  • Use drill exercises.
  • Give prompt cues during student performance.
  • Let students with poor writing skills use a computer.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Give prompt feedback.
  • Use continuous assessment to mark students’ daily progress.
  • Prepare materials at varying levels of ability.

ELLs

  • Use a slow, but natural rate of speech; speak clearly; use shorter sentences; repeat concepts in several ways.
  • When possible, use pictures, photos, and charts.
  • Corrections should be limited and appropriate.  Do not correct grammar or usage errors in front of the class.
  • Give honest praise and positive feedback through your voice tones and visual articulation whenever possible.
  • Encourage students to use language to communicate, allowing them to use their native language to ask/answer questions when they are unable to do so in English.
  • Integrate students’ cultural background into class discussions.
  • Use cooperative learning where students have opportunities to practice expressing ideas without risking language errors in front of the entire class.

G/T

  • Provide ample opportunities for creative behavior.
  • Create assignments that call for original work, independent learning, critical thinking, problem solving, and experimentation.
  • Show appreciation for creative efforts
  • Respect unusual questions, ideas, and solutions.
  • Encourage students to test their ideas.
  • Provide opportunities and give credit for self-initiated learning.
  • Avoid overly detailed supervision and too much reliance on prescribed curricula.
  • Allow time for reflection.
  • Resist immediate and constant evaluation.
  • Avoid comparisons to other students.

Unit Title

Unit 4 - Brainstorm, Generate Multiple Solutions

Timeframe 

4 Weeks

Unit Summary

Once students have conducted research about their problem, they must brainstorm ideas for possibly solving the problem without letting design constraints influence their creativity.  Once students have teased out as many ideas as possible, even down to the subsystems and interdependent parts that may exist in a product or system, they are read to generate multiple ideas or concepts that could potentially solve the problem.  After comparing and contrasting each possible solutions in many different terms (required resources, constraints, usability, manufacturing, impact on layers of society, product life-cycle, ethics, etc.) The student picks a single solution and writes a rationale explaining why it is the best solution to the problem.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

  • How do designers and engineers around the world generate and defend solutions to technological problems?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Brainstorming requires an open mind and may ignore many of the constraints in a design brief.  Brainstorming may break a possible solution into individual parts or subsystems and does not have to address the entire product or system as a whole.
  • Every potential solutions will have desire, undesirable, intended and unintended outcomes or consequences.  It is important to generate multiple solutions and assess (in as many terms as possible) which design is the best for solving the problem given the original constraints and specifications in the design brief.  
  • A rationale explains why a solution is the best choice based on many considerations including: usability, manufacturing, required resources, potential outcomes/consequences, costs, trade- offs, benefits, impacts on layers of society, product life cycle, and ethics.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know

  • Brainstorming Techniques
  • Technological Products and Systems Have 4 Main outcomes or consequences
  • How to generate multiple solutions to a given problem

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Create a Brainstorming Matrix
  • Design and develop thumbnail sketches.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Develop Preliminary CAD Drawings of one solution.

Develop Scaled Engineering Drawings on Graph Paper.

Summative/ Benchmark

Students will document and present their:

  1. Morphologic Chart of Brainstorming Process with six variations for six project attributes.
  2. Drawings of at least three different solutions to the same problem.
  3. Select a single solution and provide a rationale statement defending why their choice is the best design to solve the problem expressed in terms of the four outputs or outcomes of technology as they relate to society (user, environment, economy, government, ethics, etc.)

Alternative Assessments

Learning Activities

Create a Morphological Chart representing possible attributes and design options for their design project

Develop preliminary thumbnail sketches of possible design solutions.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Rubric for Morph Chart

Rubric for Multiple Solutions

Rubric for Selecting and identifying a single solution and writing a rationale defending the decision.

Equipment

Computers/Chromebooks, Internet Access

Supplemental Resources

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

 Students consider the impact of related technological solutions throughout history.

Students calculate costs of resources to develop and see a solution through its life cycle

  • CRP1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.

By the end of 12th grade,

  • 9.2.12.C.1 Review career goals and determine steps necessary for attainment.
  • 9.2.12.C.3 Identify transferable career skills and design alternate career plans.
  • 9.2.12.C.6 Investigate entrepreneurship opportunities as options for career planning and identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources required for owning and managing a business.

8.2 - Technology Education Standards

B. Technology and Society: Knowledge and understanding of human, cultural and societal values are fundamental when designing technological systems and products in the global society.

  • The effects of technology on the environment.

8.2.12.B.2 Evaluate ethical considerations regarding the sustainability of environmental resources that are used for the design, creation and maintenance of a chosen product.

C. Design: The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems

  • The application of engineering design.

8.2.12.C.5 Create scaled engineering drawings of products both manually and digitally with materials and measurements labeled.

  • The role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation and experimentation in problem solving.

8.2.12.C.7 Use a design process to devise a technological product or system that addresses a global problem, provide research, identify trade-offs and constraints, and document the process through drawings that include data and materials.

D. Abilities for a Technological World: The designed world is the product of a design process that provides the means to convert resources into products and systems.

  • Apply the design process.

8.2.12.D.1 Design and create a prototype to solve a real world problem using a design process, identify constraints addressed during the creation of the prototype, identify trade-offs made, and present the solution for peer review

  • Use and maintain technological products and systems.

8.2.12.D.3 Determine and use the appropriate resources (e.g., CNC (Computer Numerical Control) equipment, 3D printers, CAD software) in the design, development and creation of a technological product or system.

                                                                                                      9.3 - CTE Standards

ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY CAREER PATHWAY (ST‐ET)

9.3.ST‐ET.1

Use STEM concepts and processes to solve problems involving design and/or production.

9.3.ST‐ET.2

Display and communicate STEM information.

9.3.ST‐ET.3

Apply processes and concepts for the use of technological tools in STEM.

9.3.ST‐ET.4

Apply the elements of the design process.

9.3.ST‐ET.5

Apply the knowledge learned in STEM to solve problems

9.3.ST‐ET.6

Apply the knowledge learned in the study of STEM to provide solutions to human and societal problems in an ethical and legal manner.

IEPs

  • Use concrete examples to introduce concepts.
  • Make learning activities consistent.
  • Use repetition and drills spread over time.
  • Provide work folders for daily assignments.
  • Use behavior management techniques, such as behavior modification, in the area of adaptive behavior.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Encourage students to function independently.
  • Give students extra time to both ask and answer questions while giving hints to answers.
  • Give simple directions and read them over with students.
  • Shorten the number of items on exercises, tests, and quizzes.

504s

  • Assist students in getting organized.
  • Give short directions.
  • Use drill exercises.
  • Give prompt cues during student performance.
  • Let students with poor writing skills use a computer.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Give prompt feedback.
  • Use continuous assessment to mark students’ daily progress.
  • Prepare materials at varying levels of ability.

ELLs

  • Use a slow, but natural rate of speech; speak clearly; use shorter sentences; repeat concepts in several ways.
  • When possible, use pictures, photos, and charts.
  • Corrections should be limited and appropriate.  Do not correct grammar or usage errors in front of the class.
  • Give honest praise and positive feedback through your voice tones and visual articulation whenever possible.
  • Encourage students to use language to communicate, allowing them to use their native language to ask/answer questions when they are unable to do so in English.
  • Integrate students’ cultural background into class discussions.
  • Use cooperative learning where students have opportunities to practice expressing ideas without risking language errors in front of the entire class.

G/T

  • Provide ample opportunities for creative behavior.
  • Create assignments that call for original work, independent learning, critical thinking, problem solving, and experimentation.
  • Show appreciation for creative efforts
  • Respect unusual questions, ideas, and solutions.
  • Encourage students to test their ideas.
  • Provide opportunities and give credit for self-initiated learning.
  • Avoid overly detailed supervision and too much reliance on prescribed curricula.
  • Allow time for reflection.
  • Resist immediate and constant evaluation.
  • Avoid comparisons to other students.

Unit Title

Unit 5 - Developmental Work

Timeframe 

3 Weeks

Unit Summary

Once students have selected the general direction they would like to take for creating a single solution to solve the problem, they must develop specific plans that clarify and communicate every last detail about the creation of the project.  These plans would include, but are not limited to:  color drawings, sketches, CAD drawings, orthographic projections and isometric renderings; video simulations; 2D models that demonstrate or confirm mechanical action or movement; and, 3D models that help work out size, shape, appearance or other important factors in the design.

Upon completion of developmental work, students can present their progress in any number of formats, (in the form of a DVD, video, blog or printed portfolio) to local businesses and international corporations for the purpose of securing donations and other resources.  When companies donate to a non-profit, such as a school, it is good for their Public Relations plan and qualifies them for tax write-offs to a non-profit organization.  Students could also publicize the assistance they receive from a company by writing about it on their blog and any publications they release to the press or professional journals.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

  • Why is it important for industry to adhere to standards for 2D and 3D Design, and animation?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • When developing designs in 2D, students should produce the following by hand and on computer/Internet software:  Orthographic Sketches, Orthographic Projections, Thumbnails, Storyboards, and Charts/Diagrams explaining inputs/processes/outputs/feedback for a Systems Model.
  • When developing designs in 3D, students should produce the following by hand and on computer/Internet software:  One and Two Point Perspective Drawings; Isometric Views and Renderings; and, Physical models depicting mechanisms and form.
  • When developing plans for a solution, animations and simulations can be produced in CAD software that will show how a product or system will function and interact with its intended users or environment.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know

  • What a Systems Model is
  • CAD Software and 3D Model Generation
  • Standards for CAD 3D Modeling and Engineering Drawings

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Create 3D CAD Drawings to Scale
  • Develop Engineering drawings

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Develop CAD Drawings of Multiple solutions

Develop Scaled Engineering Drawings on Graph Paper and in CAD software

Summative/ Benchmark

Students will document and present their:

  1. Hand drawn thumbnail sketches, orthographic projections and perspective/isometric drawings of solutions
  2. CAD files of orthographic projections, isometric views, renderings, animations and simulations

Alternative Assessments

Learning Activities

Hand 3D Isometric Drawings of Design Solution

Engineering Drawings of Design Solution

CAD Drawings & CAD Engineering Drawings of Final Solution

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Rubric for developmental work and CAD / Engineering Drawings

Equipment

Computers/Chromebooks, Internet Access, CAD Software

Supplemental Resources

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

Be able to apply basic geometric and measurement concepts to drawings, sketches and models. ((NJCCCS-4.2.12)

Apply science principles to solving sub-problems within the context of the overarching problem.(NJCCCS-5)

  • CRP1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.

By the end of 12th grade,

  • 9.2.12.C.1 Review career goals and determine steps necessary for attainment.
  • 9.2.12.C.3 Identify transferable career skills and design alternate career plans.
  • 9.2.12.C.6 Investigate entrepreneurship opportunities as options for career planning and identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources required for owning and managing a business.

8.2 - Technology Education Standards

B. Technology and Society: Knowledge and understanding of human, cultural and societal values are fundamental when designing technological systems and products in the global society.

  • The effects of technology on the environment.

8.2.12.B.2 Evaluate ethical considerations regarding the sustainability of environmental resources that are used for the design, creation and maintenance of a chosen product.

C. Design: The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems

  • The application of engineering design.

8.2.12.C.5 Create scaled engineering drawings of products both manually and digitally with materials and measurements labeled

  • The role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation and experimentation in problem solving.

8.2.12.C.7 Use a design process to devise a technological product or system that addresses a global problem, provide research, identify trade-offs and constraints, and document the process through drawings that include data and materials.

D. Abilities for a Technological World: The designed world is the product of a design process that provides the means to convert resources into products and systems.

  • Apply the design process.

8.2.12.D.1 Design and create a prototype to solve a real world problem using a design process, identify constraints addressed during the creation of the prototype, identify trade-offs made, and present the solution for peer review

  • Use and maintain technological products and systems.

8.2.12.D.3 Determine and use the appropriate resources (e.g., CNC (Computer Numerical Control) equipment, 3D printers, CAD software) in the design, development and creation of a technological product or system.

                                                                                                      9.3 - CTE Standards

ARCHITECTURE & CONSTRUCTION (AC)

        9.3.12.AC.1

Use vocabulary, symbols and formulas common to architecture and construction.

       9.3.12.AC.6

Read, interpret and use technical drawings, documents and specifications to plan a project.

DESIGN/PRE‐CONSTRUCTION (AC‐DES)

9.3.12.AC‐DES.6

Apply the techniques and skills of modern drafting, design, engineering and construction to projects.

ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY CAREER PATHWAY (ST‐ET)

9.3.ST‐ET.1

Use STEM concepts and processes to solve problems involving design and/or production.

9.3.ST‐ET.2

Display and communicate STEM information.

9.3.ST‐ET.3

Apply processes and concepts for the use of technological tools in STEM.

9.3.ST‐ET.4

Apply the elements of the design process.

9.3.ST‐ET.5

Apply the knowledge learned in STEM to solve problems

9.3.ST‐ET.6

Apply the knowledge learned in the study of STEM to provide solutions to human and societal problems in an ethical and legal manner.

IEPs

  • Use concrete examples to introduce concepts.
  • Make learning activities consistent.
  • Use repetition and drills spread over time.
  • Provide work folders for daily assignments.
  • Use behavior management techniques, such as behavior modification, in the area of adaptive behavior.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Encourage students to function independently.
  • Give students extra time to both ask and answer questions while giving hints to answers.
  • Give simple directions and read them over with students.
  • Shorten the number of items on exercises, tests, and quizzes.

504s

  • Assist students in getting organized.
  • Give short directions.
  • Use drill exercises.
  • Give prompt cues during student performance.
  • Let students with poor writing skills use a computer.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Give prompt feedback.
  • Use continuous assessment to mark students’ daily progress.
  • Prepare materials at varying levels of ability.

ELLs

  • Use a slow, but natural rate of speech; speak clearly; use shorter sentences; repeat concepts in several ways.
  • When possible, use pictures, photos, and charts.
  • Corrections should be limited and appropriate.  Do not correct grammar or usage errors in front of the class.
  • Give honest praise and positive feedback through your voice tones and visual articulation whenever possible.
  • Encourage students to use language to communicate, allowing them to use their native language to ask/answer questions when they are unable to do so in English.
  • Integrate students’ cultural background into class discussions.
  • Use cooperative learning where students have opportunities to practice expressing ideas without risking language errors in front of the entire class.

G/T

  • Provide ample opportunities for creative behavior.
  • Create assignments that call for original work, independent learning, critical thinking, problem solving, and experimentation.
  • Show appreciation for creative efforts
  • Respect unusual questions, ideas, and solutions.
  • Encourage students to test their ideas.
  • Provide opportunities and give credit for self-initiated learning.
  • Avoid overly detailed supervision and too much reliance on prescribed curricula.
  • Allow time for reflection.
  • Resist immediate and constant evaluation.
  • Avoid comparisons to other students.


Unit Title

Unit 6 - Modeling & Prototyping

Timeframe 

16 Weeks

Unit Summary

Once students have developed detailed plans during the developmental work stage of the design process, they will move forward and produce models and prototypes. This is the longest unit and requires the most hands-on work.  An important part of this unit is the selection of which types of models and prototypes to produce.  During this stage, students will be back and forth between the design lab and the fabrication lab, using a variety of tools, machines, software applications, processes and Internet applications.  Storage is particularly important, also, as student begin accumulating models, materials and prototypes.  Once finished, the students will have completed prototypes that can be used by target stakeholders or users during the testing phase of the design process.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How do models and prototypes inform the design of the final product or system?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Models can take the form of 2D, 3D, Computer and  Mathematical.  Appearance models do not function but are intended to show what a product will look like when it is produced.  Functional models may not look like the end product, but they are operational (e.g., mechanical or electrical systems).  
  • Prototypes are models that function and look like the finished product, but are usually hand built – unless rapid prototypes are created using CAM (computer assisted manufacturing) equipment such as a 3D plastic printer or CNC Router, Laser Engraver

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know

  • Difference between Visual, Semi-Functional and & Functional Prototypes
  • CAM Equipment Processes and Manufacturers
  • Common Rapid Prototyping processes found in industry

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Create Visual & Functional Prototypes
  • Run and Troubleshoot CAM equipment for processing materials and parts for prototype design

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Develop Final CAD Drawings of design solution

Develop Final Engineering Drawings on Graph Paper and in CAD software for prototype development

Create Mock-Up prototypes of designs

Summative/ Benchmark

Functional and Aesthetic Models, built and finished by hand and by rapid prototyping CAM equipment.  

Functional and Aesthetic Prototypes, built and finished hand and by rapid prototyping CAM equipment.

Alternative Assessments

Learning Activities

Mock-Up Prototyping of Designs

Engineering Drawings of Design Solution

CAD Drawings & CAD Engineering Drawings of Final Solution

Final Prototype Development and Completion

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Rubric for developmental work and CAD / Engineering Drawings

Rubrics for Prototype Designs

Equipment

Computers/Chromebooks, Internet Access, CAD Software, Student Project Websites and Daily Blogs

Supplemental Resources

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

Be able to apply basic geometric and measurement concepts to drawings, sketches and models. ((NJCCCS-4.2.12)

Apply science principles to solving sub-problems within the context of the overarching problem.(NJCCCS-5)

  • CRP1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.

By the end of 12th grade,

  • 9.2.12.C.1 Review career goals and determine steps necessary for attainment.
  • 9.2.12.C.3 Identify transferable career skills and design alternate career plans.
  • 9.2.12.C.6 Investigate entrepreneurship opportunities as options for career planning and identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources required for owning and managing a business.

8.2 - Technology Education Standards

B. Technology and Society: Knowledge and understanding of human, cultural and societal values are fundamental when designing technological systems and products in the global society.

  • The effects of technology on the environment.

8.2.12.B.2 Evaluate ethical considerations regarding the sustainability of environmental resources that are used for the design, creation and maintenance of a chosen product.

C. Design: The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems

  • The application of engineering design.

8.2.12.C.5 Create scaled engineering drawings of products both manually and digitally with materials and measurements labeled.

  • The role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation and experimentation in problem solving.

8.2.12.C.7 Use a design process to devise a technological product or system that addresses a global problem, provide research, identify trade-offs and constraints, and document the process through drawings that include data and materials.

D. Abilities for a Technological World: The designed world is the product of a design process that provides the means to convert resources into products and systems.

  • Apply the design process.

8.2.12.D.1 Design and create a prototype to solve a real world problem using a design process, identify constraints addressed during the creation of the prototype, identify trade-offs made, and present the solution for peer review

  • Use and maintain technological products and systems.

8.2.12.D.3 Determine and use the appropriate resources (e.g., CNC (Computer Numerical Control) equipment, 3D printers, CAD software) in the design, development and creation of a technological product or system.

                                                                                                      9.3 - CTE Standards

ARCHITECTURE & CONSTRUCTION (AC)

        9.3.12.AC.1

Use vocabulary, symbols and formulas common to architecture and construction.

       9.3.12.AC.6

Read, interpret and use technical drawings, documents and specifications to plan a project.

DESIGN/PRE‐CONSTRUCTION (AC‐DES)

9.3.12.AC‐DES.6

Apply the techniques and skills of modern drafting, design, engineering and construction to projects.

ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY CAREER PATHWAY (ST‐ET)

9.3.ST‐ET.1

Use STEM concepts and processes to solve problems involving design and/or production.

9.3.ST‐ET.2

Display and communicate STEM information.

9.3.ST‐ET.3

Apply processes and concepts for the use of technological tools in STEM.

9.3.ST‐ET.4

Apply the elements of the design process.

9.3.ST‐ET.5

Apply the knowledge learned in STEM to solve problems

9.3.ST‐ET.6

Apply the knowledge learned in the study of STEM to provide solutions to human and societal problems in an ethical and legal manner.

IEPs

  • Use concrete examples to introduce concepts.
  • Make learning activities consistent.
  • Use repetition and drills spread over time.
  • Provide work folders for daily assignments.
  • Use behavior management techniques, such as behavior modification, in the area of adaptive behavior.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Encourage students to function independently.
  • Give students extra time to both ask and answer questions while giving hints to answers.
  • Give simple directions and read them over with students.
  • Shorten the number of items on exercises, tests, and quizzes.

504s

  • Assist students in getting organized.
  • Give short directions.
  • Use drill exercises.
  • Give prompt cues during student performance.
  • Let students with poor writing skills use a computer.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Give prompt feedback.
  • Use continuous assessment to mark students’ daily progress.
  • Prepare materials at varying levels of ability.

ELLs

  • Use a slow, but natural rate of speech; speak clearly; use shorter sentences; repeat concepts in several ways.
  • When possible, use pictures, photos, and charts.
  • Corrections should be limited and appropriate.  Do not correct grammar or usage errors in front of the class.
  • Give honest praise and positive feedback through your voice tones and visual articulation whenever possible.
  • Encourage students to use language to communicate, allowing them to use their native language to ask/answer questions when they are unable to do so in English.
  • Integrate students’ cultural background into class discussions.
  • Use cooperative learning where students have opportunities to practice expressing ideas without risking language errors in front of the entire class.

G/T

  • Provide ample opportunities for creative behavior.
  • Create assignments that call for original work, independent learning, critical thinking, problem solving, and experimentation.
  • Show appreciation for creative efforts
  • Respect unusual questions, ideas, and solutions.
  • Encourage students to test their ideas.
  • Provide opportunities and give credit for self-initiated learning.
  • Avoid overly detailed supervision and too much reliance on prescribed curricula.
  • Allow time for reflection.
  • Resist immediate and constant evaluation.
  • Avoid comparisons to other students.

Unit Title

Unit 7 - Testing & Evaluating / Re-Design

Timeframe 

4 Weeks

Unit Summary

Once students have finalized their prototypes, they are ready to be tested to see how well they solve the initial problem.  This can be as simple as applying the specifications laid out in the design brief to the end product to see if it does all the things that it is supposed to do.  But more often it is performance testing, as in the case of a practical device.  In the case of an aid for a disabled person, testing may involve giving the device to an appropriate individual to use for a time.  An interview at the conclusion of the test would provide invaluable feedback on the performance of the device in the real world and could lead to possible improvements or modifications.  This phase is important to the design process because it tells you how well you have accomplished your goal and whether more development work is needed.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

  • How can tests be designed to measure the success of a technological product or system?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Tests will vary depending on the type of product or system produced, but will typically involve an application of the design specifications.
  • Data is qualitative and quantitative and can take the form of interviews, checklists, numbers, descriptions, testimonials.
  • During evaluation, both the product/system and the process of design(design and management decisions made by the student designer throughout the process) can be evaluated in the following terms:  Aesthetics, Ergonomics, Performance, Durability, Cost, and Impacts.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know

  • Different types of Quality control testing for product design
  • Testing Data can be developed and derived in numerous ways

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Apply design specifications to the testing stage of the design process in order to collect and evaluate data about the success of the product/system and the student designer’s ability to engage in the total process.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Develop specific testing procedures to measure success of final designs

Summative/ Benchmark

Final Testing of Functional and Aesthetic Prototypes, data collection for use in redesign rational.

  1. Tests designed to evaluate the efficacy of the product or system.
  2. Qualitative and Quantitative data to be collected, measured and interpreted.
  3. Evaluation of data as it relates to the final solution as well as the decisions made by the student managing the overall design process.  This can also be considered a written piece of critical self reflection.

Alternative Assessments

Learning Activities

Individual Project Testing Procedures Development

Data analysis of Project/Product performance

Rational Statement of testing results and suggestions for re-design ideas

Preliminary CAD/engineering drawings/sketches of re-design changes and/or improvements

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Rubrics for Prototype Designs

Equipment

Computers/Chromebooks, Internet Access, CAD Software, Student Project Websites and Daily Blogs, Excel,

Supplemental Resources

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4)

MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4)

RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3)

RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3)

  • CRP1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.

By the end of 12th grade,

  • 9.2.12.C.1 Review career goals and determine steps necessary for attainment.
  • 9.2.12.C.3 Identify transferable career skills and design alternate career plans.
  • 9.2.12.C.6 Investigate entrepreneurship opportunities as options for career planning and identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources required for owning and managing a business.

8.1 - Technology Standards

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.12.A.2 Produce and edit a multi-page digital document for a commercial or professional audience and present it to peers and/or professionals in that related area for review.

8.1.12.A.4 Construct a spreadsheet workbook with multiple worksheets, rename tabs to reflect the data on the worksheet, and use mathematical or logical functions, charts and data from all worksheets to convey the results.

8.2 - Technology Education Standards

B. Technology and Society: Knowledge and understanding of human, cultural and societal values are fundamental when designing technological systems and products in the global society.

  • The effects of technology on the environment.

8.2.12.B.2 Evaluate ethical considerations regarding the sustainability of environmental resources that are used for the design, creation and maintenance of a chosen product.

C. Design: The design process is a systematic approach to solving problems

  • The application of engineering design.

8.2.12.C.5 Create scaled engineering drawings of products both manually and digitally with materials and measurements labeled.

  • The role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation and experimentation in problem solving.

8.2.12.C.7 Use a design process to devise a technological product or system that addresses a global problem, provide research, identify trade-offs and constraints, and document the process through drawings that include data and materials.

D. Abilities for a Technological World: The designed world is the product of a design process that provides the means to convert resources into products and systems.

  • Apply the design process.

8.2.12.D.1 Design and create a prototype to solve a real world problem using a design process, identify constraints addressed during the creation of the prototype, identify trade-offs made, and present the solution for peer review

  • Use and maintain technological products and systems.

8.2.12.D.3 Determine and use the appropriate resources (e.g., CNC (Computer Numerical Control) equipment, 3D printers, CAD software) in the design, development and creation of a technological product or system.

                                                                                                      9.3 - CTE Standards

ARCHITECTURE & CONSTRUCTION (AC)

        9.3.12.AC.1

Use vocabulary, symbols and formulas common to architecture and construction.

       9.3.12.AC.6

Read, interpret and use technical drawings, documents and specifications to plan a project.

DESIGN/PRE‐CONSTRUCTION (AC‐DES)

9.3.12.AC‐DES.6

Apply the techniques and skills of modern drafting, design, engineering and construction to projects.

ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY CAREER PATHWAY (ST‐ET)

9.3.ST‐ET.1

Use STEM concepts and processes to solve problems involving design and/or production.

9.3.ST‐ET.2

Display and communicate STEM information.

9.3.ST‐ET.3

Apply processes and concepts for the use of technological tools in STEM.

9.3.ST‐ET.4

Apply the elements of the design process.

9.3.ST‐ET.5

Apply the knowledge learned in STEM to solve problems

9.3.ST‐ET.6

Apply the knowledge learned in the study of STEM to provide solutions to human and societal problems in an ethical and legal manner.

SCIENCE & MATHEMATICS CAREER PATHWAY (ST‐SM)

9.3.ST‐SM.4

Apply critical thinking skills to review information, explain statistical analysis, and to translate, interpret and summarize research and statistical data.

IEPs

  • Use concrete examples to introduce concepts.
  • Make learning activities consistent.
  • Use repetition and drills spread over time.
  • Provide work folders for daily assignments.
  • Use behavior management techniques, such as behavior modification, in the area of adaptive behavior.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Encourage students to function independently.
  • Give students extra time to both ask and answer questions while giving hints to answers.
  • Give simple directions and read them over with students.
  • Shorten the number of items on exercises, tests, and quizzes.

504s

  • Assist students in getting organized.
  • Give short directions.
  • Use drill exercises.
  • Give prompt cues during student performance.
  • Let students with poor writing skills use a computer.
  • Break assignments into small segments and assign only one segment at a time.
  • Demonstrate skills and have students model them.
  • Give prompt feedback.
  • Use continuous assessment to mark students’ daily progress.
  • Prepare materials at varying levels of ability.

ELLs

  • Use a slow, but natural rate of speech; speak clearly; use shorter sentences; repeat concepts in several ways.
  • When possible, use pictures, photos, and charts.
  • Corrections should be limited and appropriate.  Do not correct grammar or usage errors in front of the class.
  • Give honest praise and positive feedback through your voice tones and visual articulation whenever possible.
  • Encourage students to use language to communicate, allowing them to use their native language to ask/answer questions when they are unable to do so in English.
  • Integrate students’ cultural background into class discussions.
  • Use cooperative learning where students have opportunities to practice expressing ideas without risking language errors in front of the entire class.

G/T

  • Provide ample opportunities for creative behavior.
  • Create assignments that call for original work, independent learning, critical thinking, problem solving, and experimentation.
  • Show appreciation for creative efforts
  • Respect unusual questions, ideas, and solutions.
  • Encourage students to test their ideas.
  • Provide opportunities and give credit for self-initiated learning.
  • Avoid overly detailed supervision and too much reliance on prescribed curricula.
  • Allow time for reflection.
  • Resist immediate and constant evaluation.
  • Avoid comparisons to other students.