Mutations Video_______________________________Name________________Period______

Choose four topics from the guided notes. Do a little research for more information. Draw.

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Guided Notes

Proteus Growths

Joseph Merrick had a change in his ________________, the recipe book of life. This change altered or damaged the gene that ______________________________________________.

Conjoined Twins

Golden Girls, the ____________________ headed snake, has a rare mutation that would not allow her to survive in nature because ______________________________________________________. Conjoined twins are ____________________ in nature. Scientists haven’t yet discovered if conjoined twins are genetic or just occur when the fertilized egg doesn’t quite___________________ correctly. Mutations occur all the time with no ______________________. The cells are copying ______________ . Any mutations are usually fixed by proofreading ___________________ (a form of protein).  When a mutation occurs in an egg or sperm cell, it is passed on to the __________________________.

Olney Squirrels

The squirrels of Olney, Illinois are albino. They have _________________ hair and __________ eyes. Due to a mutation on the melanin gene, or gene for pigment ________________, no color is produced. These squirrels are easy _________________ due to their white coloring and poor eyesight. They could not survive in nature without the help of ______________________.

Positive Mutations (or mutations that give an edge)

In England, a village had a number of people who had a gene that made them _______________ to the plague. After quarantine, it was found that ____________ of the villagers survived. The mutated gene, called ________________ provided immunity to the plague. Today, this gene is being studied by scientists to fight the _______________ virus.

Not all positive mutations are a matter of life and death. In most places of the world humans become _________________ intolerant when they become adults because the gene that makes them able to digest lactose is _____________________. They can no longer drink ___________ milk without becoming ill. In many Europeans, the gene does not turn off, making them able to drink milk after childhood, so the ________________________ business became normal. In most of _______________ and _______________ the gene turns off, so these peoples do not consume cow milk.

Island Evolution

Mutations enable species to ________________. According to natural selection, if the mutation is __________________ the organism or species will die out. If it is ________________, the organism or species will spread. Natural selection is the ________________ of evolution. An ______________ means the organism had an inability to adapt. Scientists study organisms on islands because natural selection is more ______________________ in smaller populations. On the Galapagos Islands, for example, natural selection is _____________________. There are now 13 types of finches, all with different habitats, that evolved from _______ original type.  In the case of the Galapagos Tortoise, its island of origin can be identified by its type of _____________________.

The monitor lizard adapted to different based on the ___________________ of each island. Komodo Island had no large ____________________ so the lizard evolved into the Komodo _____________.

Domestication

Domestication of animals is a way in which man controls _____________ transfer of genes to offspring. The _____________ is the first domesticated animal, descending from wolves that early humans thought to be a little more ______________. They began ______________ dogs with specific abilities, like _____________________, ________________________, and protection. The arrangement is also beneficial to the dogs, who are provided with safety and ________________. The downside to breeding is that many breeds could not survive alone in _______________ because they are too small or weak so they need ________________ to provide for them.

Cancer

In each cell, DNA carries the __________________ for making new cells. The _______________ causes cells to lose the ability to switch off, resulting in uncontrolled _______________ of cells. Mutations can also damage _______________ in other ways. For example, fat droppings from meat on the grill burn and become ___________________, which are carried by the smoke. They cause no damage when smelled, but when eaten they can:

Radiation causes __________________ in offspring. Fruit flies are studied because they _________ __________________________________________________________. Mutations created by scientists in fruit flies are ____________________ and the ideas can be transferred to ___________.

Chaperone Protein

The chaperone protein ______________ or papers over mutations on the DNA genes. These mutations are always there, but never see _______________________________. If the chaperone proteins stop doing their jobs, the _____________________ appears. Organisms carry their own degree of ______________________ that appears during times of stress, like ________________ change. During times with difficult challenges, the mutation gene is chosen by _______________ __________________________, and the organism has a better chance at survival. To learn more about human __________________ diseases scientists turned from studying fruit flies to experimenting with mice.

Conclusion

Variation provides variation need to ______________________ in an ever changing world. Mutation is ____________________, some for the better, some for the ____________________. But change will always be with us so long as life ____________________.