SCIENCE/GRADE 2                                                                                                                                      Page  of

Unit Title

Unit 1:  Relationships in Habitats

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 15

Unit Summary

Why do we see different living things in different habitats? 

In this unit of study, students develop an understanding of what plants need to grow and how plants depend on animals for seed dispersal and pollination. Students also compare the diversity of life in different habitats. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect and structure and function are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. Students demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in planning and carrying out investigations and developing and using models. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on 2-LS4-1, 2-LS2-1, 2-LS2-2, and K-2-ETS1-1.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How does the diversity of plants and animals compare among different habitats?

What do plants need to live and grow?

Why do some plants rely on animals for reproduction?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • People look for patterns and order when making observations about the world.
  • There are many different kinds of living things in any area, and they exist in different places on land and in water.
  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • Plants depend on water and light to grow.
  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function.
  • Plants depend on animals for pollination or to move their seeds around.
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • People look for patterns and order when making observations about the world.
  • There are many different kinds of living things in any area, and they exist in different places on land and in water
  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • Plants depend on water and light to grow.
  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function.
  • Plants depend on animals for pollination or to move their seeds around.
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Explore and compare the diversity of life in different habitats.
  • Learn cause and effect relationships
  • Develop and use models to understand structure/function relationships.
  • Look for patterns and order in the natural world
  • Notice the patterns in the structures that enable organisms to support their existence in specific habitats.
  • Learn cause and effect relationships and how an organism’s structures are related to the plants depend on animals for seed dispersal and pollination
  • Develop and use models to understand structure/function relationships.
  • Look for patterns and order in the natural world
  • Notice the patterns in the structures that enable organisms to support their existence in specific habitats.
  • Explore and compare the diversity of life in different habitats.
  • Learn cause and effect relationships and how an organism’s structures are related to the plants depend on animals for seed dispersal and pollination
  • Develop and use models to understand structure/function relationships.
  • Look for patterns and order in the natural world
  • Notice the patterns in the structures that enable organisms to support their existence in specific habitats.
  • Learn that the shape and stability of the structures of organisms are related to their function.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts can:

  • Look for patterns and order when making observations about the world.

  • Make observations (firsthand or from media) to collect data that can be used to make comparisons.

  • Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats. (Note: The emphasis is on the

     diversity of living things in each of a variety of different habitats; assessment does not include specific animal and plant names in

     specific habitats.)

  • Observe patterns in events generated by cause-and-effect relationships.

  • Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data to serve as a basis for evidence to answer a question.

  • Plan and conduct an investigation to determine whether plants need sunlight and water to grow. (Note: Assessment is limited to

     one variable at a time.)

  • Describe how the shape and stability of structures are related to their function.

  • Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a proposed object or tool.

  • Develop a simple model that mimics the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants.

  • Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve

     a given problem.

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Observe a variety of plants and animals from a variety of habitats in order to compare the diversity of life.
  • Explore and collect data about different habitats that exist in the world and how plants and animals have structures that help them survive in their habitats.
  • Observe many different kinds of living things, whether they live on land, in water, or both.
  • Look for patterns and order in the natural world.

In this unit of study, students explore and compare the diversity of life in different habitats. They develop an understanding of what plants need to grow and how plants depend on animals for seed dispersal and pollination. Students learn about cause-and-effect relationships and how an organism’s structures are related to the function that each structure performs. Developing and using models plays an important role in students’ understanding of structure/function relationships. To begin this unit’s progression of learning, students observe a variety of plants and animals from a variety of habitats in order to compare the diversity of life. Using firsthand observations and media resources, students explore and collect data about different habitats that exist in the world and how plants and animals have structures that help them survive in their habitats. Students need many opportunities to observe many different kinds of living things, whether they live on land, in water, or both. As students learn about the diversity of life, they begin to look for patterns and order in the natural world. As scientists, students will begin to notice patterns in the structures that enable organisms to support their existence in specific habitats. For example, webbed feet enable survival in wetlands; gills enable survival in rivers, lakes, and oceans; and blubber enables survival in polar regions. The learning progresses as students’ focus changes from diversity to commonalities among plants—what plants need in order to grow. Students need opportunities to observe that plants depend on water and light to grow. As they begin to understand that changes in the amount of water and light can affect the growth of plants, they begin to understand that all cause-and-effect relationships generate observable patterns. For example, some plants require very little water to survive, most plants will not grow without sunlight, and most plants need an adequate amount of water to thrive. Students might also observe patterns such as the effects of too much or too little water on a plant and too much or too little light on a plant. In order for students to develop these understandings, they should plan and conduct investigations and collect data, which should be used as evidence to support the idea that all events have causes that generate observable patterns. Finally, students investigate the roles that animals play in plant reproduction. Students learn that many types of plants depend on animals for pollination and/or for the dispersal of seeds. As students begin to explore the interdependent relationships among plants and animals, they learn that the shape and stability of the structures of organisms are related to their function. For example,

  • As bees collect nectar, portions of their body are designed to collect and then carry pollen from plant to plant.
  • Some seeds are designed to stick to animal fur so that animals can carry them from place to place.  
  • Animals eat fruits containing seeds, which are then dispersed through animals’ body waste.

Second graders will need multiple opportunities to develop an understanding of the important relationship between structure and function, because they are expected to use engineering design to plan and develop simple models that mimic the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants. Students can use sketches, drawings or physical models to illustrate how the shape of the model helps it function as needed, and they should use evidence to support their design choices. Some common examples of models could include the following:

  • Using Velcro “seeds” and furry material to model how seeds with hooks adhere to animal fur.  
  • Using pipe cleaners to gather and distribute “pollen” in a way similar to bees pollinate flowers.

In this unit of study, students learn that designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models, and that these representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. As described in the narrative above, students develop simple sketches, drawings, or models that mimic the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants in order to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

Do Plants Need Sunlight?

Students will explore the importance sunlight for a plant's survival by conducting an investigation. Each group of students will cover parts of plants' leaves with black construction paper and make observations of the plant’s leaves over several days. This lesson serves to model the process of investigation. The investigation will take 7 days to complete. Then students can remove the black paper, place the plants back in the sunlight, and view the leaves in a second investigation. (Note: Chlorophyll is not a necessary concept/vocabulary term to address in this lesson.)

Who Needs What?

Students identify the physical needs of animals. Through classroom discussion, students speculate on the needs of plants. With teacher guidance, students then design an experiment that can take place in the classroom to test whether or not plants need light and water in order to grow. Students conduct the associated activity in which sunflower seeds are planted in plastic cups, and once germinated, are exposed to different conditions. In the classroom setting, students test for the effects of light versus darkness, and watered versus non-watered conditions. During exposure of the plants to these different conditions, students measure growth of the seedlings every few days using non-standard measurement. After a few weeks, students compare the growth of plants exposed to the different conditions, and make pictorial bar graphs that demonstrate these comparisons.

I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Vanilla Ice Cream!

In this lesson students design a vanilla plant pollinator. This is an end-of-the-unit task, taking about 3 days to complete. The students will view an amazing video that tells about the problems with pollinating vanilla by hand. The students pretend to be employees of Ben and Jerry's ice cream company and help to plan and design a pollinator for the vanilla plant so that the great vanilla flavored ice cream can continue to be produced. (This is the first of several lessons created by Jeri Faber on plant pollination at: betterlessons.com/ )

Building and Testing Our Vanilla Plant Pollinator:

In previous lessons designed by Jeri Faber, students have learned about how animals help pollinate flowers. The students have also planned and designed their own vanilla plant pollinator. In this lesson, students use the engineering design process to build and test the plant pollinator they planned the day before in class.

Two Scoops Are Better Than One:

This lesson is the second day of an end of the unit task to address the Performance Expectation: Develop a simple model that mimics the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants. This end of unit task is expected to take 3-4 days to complete. In the previous lesson (http://betterlesson.com/lesson/628130/i-scream-you-scream-we-all-scream-for-vanilla-ice-cream), the students were challenged to brainstorm their version of a vanilla flower pollinator. For this lesson, students work with a partner to choose and develop their engineering plans by drawing a diagram for a vanilla plant pollinator. They also create a list of materials needed for the task.

Improving Our Vanilla Bean Pollinators:

This lesson is part of a series of lessons created by Jeri Faber on using the engineering design process to solve a problem. In the Ice Scream, You Scream We All Scream for Vanilla Ice Cream, the students were challenged to design a vanilla flower plant pollinator. For day 2, Two Scoops Are Better Than One, students worked with a partner to determine which design to build for their vanilla plant pollinator. For day 3, Building and Testing Our Vanilla Pollinators, the students constructed and tested the effectiveness of their pollinators based on the design plans. In this lesson, students improve their plant pollinator models and retest the pollinator's effectiveness.

The Bug Chicks-Mission: Pollination (Episode 5)

The Bug Chicks' five minute video provides a fun, animated way of learning about the fascinating world of pollination and insects. In this video, the students observe interesting museums and habitats to look at lesser known insect pollinators. The student challenge at the end leads students into their environment to look for other pollinators and encourages them to bring their observations back to the classroom to discuss.

Standards

Content Statement

Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the diversity of living things in each of a variety of different habitats.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific animal and plant names in specific habitats.] (2-LS4-1)

 Plan and conduct an investigation to determine if plants need sunlight and water to grow. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to testing one variable at a time.] (2-LS2-1)

Develop a simple model that mimics the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants.* (2-LS2-2)

 Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP9.Model integrity, ethical leadership and effective management.
  • CRP10. Plan education and career paths aligned to personal goals.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.
  • CRP12.Work productively in teams while using cultural global competence.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.2 Identify various life roles and civic and work‐related activities in the school, home, and community.
  • 9.2.4.A.3 Investigate both traditional and nontraditional careers and relate information to personal likes and dislikes.
  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.3 Compare the common uses of at least two different digital applications and identify the advantages and disadvantages of using each.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

8.1.2.A.5 Enter information into a spreadsheet and sort the information.

8.1.2.A.6 Identify the structure and components of a database.

8.1.2.A.7 Enter information into a database or spreadsheet and filter the information.

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

8.1.2.F.1 Use geographic mapping tools to plan and solve problems.

Future Learning

Grade 3 Unit 6: Organisms and the Environment

     • For any particular environment, some kinds of organisms survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.

Grade 3 Unit 7: Using Evidence t Understand Change in the Environment

     • Populations live in a variety of habitats, and change in those habitats affects the organisms living there.

Grade 5 Unit 3: Energy and Matter in Ecosystems 

     • Plants acquire their material for growth chiefly from air and water.

     • The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and

        other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Some organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms (both plants or plants parts and

        animals) and therefore operate as “decomposers.” Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil. Organisms can survive

        only in environments in which their particular needs are met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet

        their needs in a relatively stable web of life. Newly introduced species can damage the balance of an ecosystem.

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

      •   Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.

      •   Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures,

           illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).

      •   Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the

           community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).

      •   Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple

           representation and multimodal experiences).

      •   Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate

           their understandings. • Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.

      •   Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue. • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.

      •   Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities. • Restructure lesson using UDL principals

           (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the diversity of living things in each of a variety of different habitats.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific animal and plant names in specific habitats.] (2-LS4-1)

Plan and conduct an investigation to determine if plants need sunlight and water to grow. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to testing one variable at a time.] (2-LS2-1)

Develop a simple model that mimics the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants.* (2-LS2-2)

 Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

   Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

      • Plan and conduct investigations collaboratively

         to produce evidence to answer a question.

        (1- PS4-1),(2-LS2-1)

   Planning and Carrying Out Investigations 

     • Make observations (firsthand or from media) to

        collect data that can be used to make

       comparisons. (2-LS4-1)

   Developing and Using Models 

     • Develop a simple model based on evidence to

        represent a proposed object or tool. (2-LS2-2)

   Asking Questions and Defining Problems 

     • Ask questions based on observations to find

        more information about the natural and/or

        designed world(s). (K-2-ETS1-1)

     • Define a simple problem that can be solved

        through the development of a new or improved

        object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

  LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans 

     • There are many different kinds of living things  

         in any area, and they exist in different places on

         land and in water. (2-LS4-1)

   LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in

  Ecosystems

     • Plants depend on water and light to grow.

        (2- LS2-1)

     • Plants depend on animals for pollination or to

        move their seeds around. (2-LS2-2)

 ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions 

     • Designs can be conveyed through sketches,

        drawings, or physical models. These

       representations are useful in communicating

       ideas for a problem’s solutions to other

       people.(secondary to 2-LS2-2)

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems 

     • A situation that people want to change or

        create can be approached as a problem to be

        solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1)

     • Asking questions, making observations, and

        gathering information are helpful in thinking

        about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

     • Before beginning to design a solution, it is

        important to clearly understand the problem.

       (K- 2-ETS1-1)

Cause and Effect 

     • Events have causes that generate observable

        patterns. (2-LS2-1)

Structure and Function 

     • The shape and stability of structures of

        Natural and designed objects are related to

        their function(s). (2-LS2-2), (K-2-ETS1-2)

 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Connections to Nature of Science Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence 

     • Scientists look for patterns and order when

        making observations about the world.

       (2-LS4-1)

Unit Title

  Unit 2:  Properties of Matter

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 20

Unit Summary

                                                 How do the properties of materials determine their use?

In this unit of study, students demonstrate an understanding of observable properties of materials through analysis and classification of different materials. The crosscutting concepts of patterns, cause and effect, and the influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. Students demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in planning and carrying out investigations and analyzing and interpreting data. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How can we sort objects into groups that have similar patterns?

Can some materials be a solid or a liquid?

What should the three little pigs have used to build their houses?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Patterns in the natural and human-designed world can be observed.
  • Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature.
  • Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties.
  • Every human-made product is designed by applying some knowledge of the natural world and is built using materials derived from the natural world.
  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • Different properties are suited to different purposes.
  • Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Patterns in the natural and human-designed world can be observed.
  • Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature.  
  • Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties.
  • Every human-made product is designed by applying some knowledge of the natural world and is built using materials derived from the natural world.
  •  Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  •  Different properties are suited to different purposes.
  •  Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Look for patterns
  • Collect and analyze data
  • Classify materials
  • Plan and carry out investigations
  • Collect and analyze data
  • Classify materials
  • Plan and carry out investigations

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts can:

  • Observe patterns in the natural and human-designed world.
  • Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer a question.
  • Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of material by their observable properties
  1. Observations could include color, texture, hardness, and flexibility.
  2. Patterns could include the similar properties that different materials share.
  • Design simple tests to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended.
  • Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose. (Assessment of quantitative measurements is limited to length.) Examples of properties could include:
  1. Strength
  2. Flexibility
  3. Hardness
  4. Texture
  5.  Absorbency
  • Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of each.

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Describe different kinds of materials using properties
  • Classify the materials based on the properties
  • Explore viscosity through various liquids
  • Explore how heating and cooling changes a variety of materials

In this unit of study, students look for patterns and cause-and-effect relationships as they describe and classify materials using physical properties. In addition, students collaboratively plan and carry out investigations and analyze and interpret data in order to determine which materials are best suited for an intended purpose.

In the natural world, different types of matter exist, and all matter can be described and classified according to physical properties. To begin this unit’s progression of learning, students plan and conduct investigations to describe different kinds of material using observable properties. They will collect data during these investigations; analyze the data to find patterns, such as similar properties that different materials share; and use the data to classify materials. Materials can be classified by color, texture, hardness, flexibility, or state of matter. For example, students can explore hardness of rocks by shaking them in containers to see how easily they break apart. They can explore viscosity by pouring a set amount of various liquids, such as glue, oil, and water from one container to another to observe the relative speed that each flows. Students can also heat or cool a variety of materials, such as butter, chocolate, or pieces of crayon, in order to determine whether or not these materials can be either solid or liquid depending on temperature.

Because every human-made product is designed by applying some knowledge of the natural world and is built using materials derived from the natural world, it is important that students understand that different properties are suited to different purposes. After investigating and classifying a variety of materials based on their physical properties, students will engage in the engineering design process. Students can work collaboratively, with adult guidance, to test different materials to determine which have properties that are best suited for an intended purpose. For example, this project could be launched using the children’s story, The Three Little Pigs. After reading the story, students would:  

  • Investigate the physical properties of straw, sticks, and bricks in order to determine what properties make bricks the material best suited for building a house.  
  • Work together to brainstorm a list of possible structures that could be built with different materials. For example, students could build bridges or simple roller coasters for marbles.  
  • Select one structure from the list and determine the intended purpose of that structure.  
  • Select two or three different materials that could be used to build the structure.  
  • Investigate the physical properties of the materials, including shape, strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, or absorbency.  
  • Collect and analyze data to determine whether or not the given materials have properties that are suited for the intended purpose of the selected structure.  
  • In groups, use one of the materials to build the structure. (Teachers should have different groups use different materials.)  
  • Test and compare how each structure performs. Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare the strengths and weaknesses of each structure and each material used.

Integration of engineering 

In this unit, students investigate the physical properties of a variety of materials, and then build a structure with materials that are best suited for the structure’s intended purpose. This process is outlined in greater detail in the previous section.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

Exploring Reversible Changes of State and Exploring Irreversible Changes of State

These two lessons work together to explore reversible and irreversible changes of state through guided investigations. The PDF is a set of activities focusing on materials followed by some optional post-activity lessons.

Discovering Science: classifying and categorizing (matter, grades 2-3)

This resource is a day, or longer, lab activity aimed for second and third grade students. The lesson starts with a guided discussion and an activity identifying and classifying materials, then it guides students through a series of observations of mixing and changing different materials of different states and observing the resulting effects. Overall, the lesson targets the states of matter, and forces and motion. Some of the ideas (i.e., gas and energy) are aimed at the third grader and beyond. Please note that the link above goes to a larger set of activities and you need to click on the link

 

Materials and Their Properties, lessons Comparing the Properties of Different Materials (pp. 22); and Exploring Thermal Insulators and Conductors (pp. 23)Exploring Thermal Insulators and Conductors (pp. 23): Students participate in an open-ended sort using various materials. Based on their self-selected categories, students explain their reasoning. Next, through a fair test trial, students use new information to decide, using evidence, which material is best suited for maintaining cold the longest.

The Properties of Materials and their Everyday Uses

This wonderful set of lessons engage students in testing materials to understand their properties and discuss appropriate uses for the materials based on those properties. For example, one activity has the students examining the materials that a number of balls are made out of (plastic, rubber, aluminum, etc.) and describing the properties of the materials (light, stretchy, rigid). Next, the students test balls made of those materials for bouncing height and record their data. The students discuss which materials are best for bouncing and why. The teacher could choose to do all of the activities and have a robust alignment with the three dimensions of the NGSS PS1-2, an engineering physical science Performance Expectation.

Matter song a music video by untamed Science

This is an engaging music video that defines and gives examples of matter. The video is fun, colorful and explores many different kinds of matter as part of the music video sequence. Young students will love the song and the interactive dance sequences.

Science Games For Kids: Properties of Materials

This resource is an interactive simulation designed to have students test various materials for different properties including flexibility, strength, waterproof, and transparency. The simulation includes a workshop where students can select different materials to see if the selected property matches the intended use.

Standards

Content Statement

Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties. [Clarification Statement: Observations could include color, texture, hardness, and flexibility. Patterns could include the similar properties that different materials share.] ( 2-PS1-1)

Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose. [Clarification Statement: Examples of properties could include strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, and absorbency.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of quantitative measurements is limited to length.] (2-PS1-2)

Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs.  (K-2-ETS1-3)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text. (2-PS1-2) RI.2.8

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.  (K-2-ETS1-3) W.2.6

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations). (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2) W.2.7

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2),(K-2-ETS1-3) W.2.8

Mathematics

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (2-PS1-2), (K-2-ETS1-3) MP.2

Model with mathematics. (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2, (K-2-ETS1-3)) MP.4

Use appropriate tools strategically. (2-PS1-2), (K-2-ETS1-3) MP.5

Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2), (K-2-ETS1-3) 2.MD.D.10

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP9.Model integrity, ethical leadership and effective management.
  • CRP10. Plan education and career paths aligned to personal goals.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.
  • CRP12.Work productively in teams while using cultural global competence.

By the end of 4th grade,  

  • 9.2.4.A.2 Identify various life roles and civic and work‐related activities in the school, home, and community.
  • 9.2.4.A.3 Investigate both traditional and nontraditional careers and relate information to personal likes and dislikes.
  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.3 Compare the common uses of at least two different digital applications and identify the advantages and disadvantages of using each.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

8.1.2.A.5 Enter information into a spreadsheet and sort the information.

8.1.2.A.6 Identify the structure and components of a database.

8.1.2.A.7 Enter information into a database or spreadsheet and filter the information.

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

8.1.2.F.1 Use geographic mapping tools to plan and solve problems.

Future Learning

Grade 5 Unit 1: Properties of Matter

 • Measurements of a variety of properties can be used to identify materials. (Boundary: At this grade level, mass and weight are not distinguished, and no

        attempt is made to define the unseen particles or explain the atomic-scale mechanism of evaporation and condensation.)

• Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means. A

        model showing that gases are made from matter particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations,

        including the inflation and shape of a balloon and the effects of air on larger particles or objects.

Grade 2 Model Science Unit 2: Properties of Matter (draft 1.27.16) Instructional Days: 20 6

• The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish. Grade 5 Unit 2: Changes to Matter

• When two or more different substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed.

• No matter what reaction or change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. (Boundary: Mass and weight are not

        distinguished

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

  • Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.
  • Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures, illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).
  • Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).
  • Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple representation and multimodal experiences).
  • Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate their understandings.
  • Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.
  • Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.
  • Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.
  •  Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.
  • Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).  

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties. [Clarification Statement: Observations could include color, texture, hardness, and flexibility. Patterns could include the similar properties that different materials share.] ( 2-PS1-1)

Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose. [Clarification Statement: Examples of properties could include strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, and absorbency.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of quantitative measurements is limited to length.] (2-PS1-2)

Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs.  (K-2-ETS1-3)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

     Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

     Analyzing and Interpreting Data

     Analyzing and Interpreting Data

   PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

     ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

     Patterns

     Cause and Effect

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                        Applications of Science

    Influence of Engineering, Technology, and

   Science, on Society and the Natural World

Unit Title

Unit 3:  Changes to Matter

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 15

Unit Summary

How can objects change?   Are all changes reversible?

In this unit of study, students continue to develop an understanding of observable properties of materials through analysis and classification of different materials. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect and energy and matter are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in constructing explanations, designing solutions, and engaging in argument from evidence. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on 2-PS1-3 and 2-PS1-4.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

In what ways can an object made of a small set of pieces be disassembled and made into a new object?

Can all changes caused by heating or cooling be reversed?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Objects may break into smaller pieces and be put together into larger pieces or change shapes.
  • Different properties are suited to different purposes.
  • A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces
  • People search for cause-and-effect relationships to explain natural events.
  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible, and sometimes they are not.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Objects may break into smaller pieces and be put together into larger pieces or change shapes.
  • Different properties are suited to different purposes.
  • A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces
  • People search for cause-and-effect relationships to explain natural events.
  • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
  • Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible, and sometimes they are not.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Develop understanding of observable properties of materials through analysis and classification of different materials.
  • Investigate cause-and-effect relationships between matter and energy as they analyze and classify materials that undergo change.
  • Construct explanations and engage in argument from evidence as they investigate the ways in which matter can change and determine whether or not a change is reversible.
  • Notice that all events have causes that generate patterns of change that can be observed and predicted.
  • Recognize that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot, and they can use evidence from their investigations to support their thinking.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts are able to:

     •   Break objects into smaller pieces and put them together into larger pieces or change shapes.

     •   Make observations (firsthand or from media) to construct an evidence-based account for natural phenomena.

     •   Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be

          disassembled and made into a new object.

     •   Observe patterns in events generated due to cause-and-effect relationships. • Construct an argument with evidence to support

          a claim.

     •   Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed, and some cannot.  

  1.  Examples of reversible changes could include materials such as water and butter at different temperatures.
  2.  Examples of irreversible changes could include:
  • Cooking an egg  
  • Freezing a plant leaf  
  • Heating paper

In this unit of study, students investigate cause-and-effect relationships between matter and energy as they analyze and classify materials that undergo change. Throughout the unit, students will construct explanations and engage in argument from evidence as they investigate the ways in which matter can change and determine whether or not a change is reversible.

In Unit 2, Properties of Matter, students engaged in the engineering design process in order to understand that different properties are suited to different purposes. Students use this understanding as they construct evidence-based accounts of how an object made of small pieces can be disassembled and made into new objects. In order to do this, they need multiple opportunities to take apart and reassemble objects that are made of small pieces. For example, using blocks, building bricks, and other small objects such as Legos, small groups of students can build an object, and then a second group of students can take the object apart and build another object using those same small blocks or bricks. As students construct and deconstruct objects, then reconstruct the pieces into new objects, they should document the process in their science journals, explaining how they went about reconstructing the pieces into a new object.

After students have worked through and documented this process, ask them, “Are the changes you made to each of the original objects reversible? Can we disassemble the new objects and use the pieces to reconstruct the original object? After class discussion, ask students, “Are all changes reversible?” This should lead to opportunities for students to observe changes caused by heating or cooling. With close supervision and guidance by teachers, students can investigate such changes as heating or cooling butter, chocolate chips, or pieces of crayon, freezing water, and melting ice. They can observe an egg before and after cooking or a small piece of paper or cardboard before and after burning. As they attempt to reverse changes, they will also notice that all events have causes that generate patterns of change that can be observed and predicted. Through these types of experiences, students will recognize that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot, and they can use evidence from their investigations to support their thinking.

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Construct evidence-based accounts of how an object made of small pieces can be disassembled and made into new objects.
  • Take apart and reassemble objects that are made of small pieces. Reconstruct the pieces into new objects.
  • Document the process in their science journals. Explain how they went about reconstructing the pieces into a new object

In this unit of study, students investigate cause-and-effect relationships between matter and energy as they analyze and classify materials that undergo change. Throughout the unit, students will construct explanations and engage in argument from evidence as they investigate the ways in which matter can change and determine whether or not a change is reversible.

In Unit 2, Properties of Matter, students engaged in the engineering design process in order to understand that different properties are suited to different purposes. Students use this understanding as they construct evidence-based accounts of how an object made of small pieces can be disassembled and made into new objects. In order to do this, they need multiple opportunities to take apart and reassemble objects that are made of small pieces. For example, using blocks, building bricks, and other small objects such as Legos, small groups of students can build an object, and then a second group of students can take the object apart and build another object using those same small blocks or bricks. As students construct and deconstruct objects, then reconstruct the pieces into new objects, they should document the process in their science journals, explaining how they went about reconstructing the pieces into a new object.

After students have worked through and documented this process, ask them, “Are the changes you made to each of the original objects reversible? Can we disassemble the new objects and use the pieces to reconstruct the original object? After class discussion, ask students, “Are all changes reversible?” This should lead to opportunities for students to observe changes caused by heating or cooling. With close supervision and guidance by teachers, students can investigate such changes as heating or cooling butter, chocolate chips, or pieces of crayon, freezing water, and melting ice. They can observe an egg before and after cooking or a small piece of paper or cardboard before and after burning. As they attempt to reverse changes, they will also notice that all events have causes that generate patterns of change that can be observed and predicted. Through these types of experiences, students will recognize that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot, and they can use evidence from their investigations to support their thinking.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

 STEM in a BOX - Shakin' Up the Classroom: K-3EarthScienceSTEMintheboxprint.docx

In this engaging lesson, the students examine and describe materials and their properties in order to assemble these materials into a strong building that could withstand the earth shaking. The physical science core ideas in the Performance Expectation are met through a larger earth science/earthquake unit that is part of the unit level resource.

Go to the resource listed under K-3: k-3EarthScienceSTEMintheboxprint.docx 

Thousands of tiny pieces can create something big

 In this resource which is based on enactment in a second grade classroom and includes videos and examples of student work, the teacher introduces students to Watt's tower, a tower made of many pieces of junk in the neighborhood. Students make their own objects out of many pieces or materials that the teacher provides and the students think about and discuss whether they could use the same set of materials to make something different.

Take it apart, put it together

This is a wonderfully supported and creative lesson that involves students taking apart an old appliance and making a new object using the appliance parts. The teacher guides students using a variety of teacher prompts and individual journaling to track their idea development, questions, changing plans, and evidence-based explanations.

Exploring Reversible Changes of State and Exploring Irreversible Changes of State

These two lessons work together to explore reversible and irreversible changes of state through guided investigations. The PDF is a set of activities focusing on materials followed by some optional post-activity lessons. Two of these post activity lessons deal with reversible and irreversible changes to materials. The first lesson involves teachers showing students phenomena and then asking the students to generate questions about their observations of the phenomena. The second lesson involves students engaging in investigating, explaining and asking questions about two irreversible changes and using observations to identify what about the changes make them irreversible.

The Magic School Bus Bakes in a Cake lesson and video, "Ready Set Dough" !

This is a lesson plan that accompanies the reading or watching of The Magic School Bus Bakes a Cake, or Ready Set Dough. The lesson is a short activity with guided questions that accompany making pretzel dough. In the book and video, which are not included in the resource, The Magic School Bus shrinks down to molecule size to observe and discuss chemical and physical changes while baking. The resource contains a link to purchase the book. The video can be found at  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dTw-ok3KkuU 

The Science of Macaroni Salad (and 2. Dig Deeper)

This three minute video is great for teachers who need a short and deeper understanding of what is entailed in the Performance Expectations for Properties of Matter and what is involved when a physical and chemical change occurs. It would be over the heads of younger children, but perfect for elementary teachers who can either view the video themselves and translate the most pertinent ideas in it, or watch the video with the students and narrate in kid language. If the teacher watched the video first, they would be ensured that they had the understanding necessary for tough questions.

Standards

Content Statement

Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object. [Clarification Statement: Examples of pieces could include blocks, building bricks, or other assorted small objects.] (2-PS1-3)

Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot. [Clarification Statement: Examples of reversible changes could include materials such as water and butter at different temperatures. Examples of irreversible changes could include cooking an egg, freezing a plant leaf, and heating paper.] (2-PS1-4)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

(2-PS1-4) RI.2.1 

Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. (2-PS1-4) RI.2.3 

Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text. (2-PS1- 4) RI.2.8  

Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section. (2-PS1-4) W.2.1

 Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations). (2-PS1-3) W.2.7

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (2-PS1-3) W.2.8

Mathematics

N/A

  • CRP1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP3. Attend to personal health and financial well-being.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP9.Model integrity, ethical leadership and effective management.
  • CRP10. Plan education and career paths aligned to personal goals.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.
  • CRP12.Work productively in teams while using cultural global competence.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.1 Identify reasons why people work, different types of work, and how work can help a person achieve personal and professional goals.  
  • 9.2.4.A.2 Identify various life roles and civic and work‐related activities in the school, home, and community.
  • 9.2.4.A.3 Investigate both traditional and nontraditional careers and relate information to personal likes and dislikes.
  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.3 Compare the common uses of at least two different digital applications and identify the advantages and disadvantages of using each.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

8.1.2.A.5 Enter information into a spreadsheet and sort the information.

8.1.2.A.6 Identify the structure and components of a database.

8.1.2.A.7 Enter information into a database or spreadsheet and filter the information.

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

8.1.2.F.1 Use geographic mapping tools to plan and solve problems.

Future Learning

Grade 4 Unit 1: Weathering and Erosion 

     • Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils,

        and sediments into smaller particles and move them around.

 Grade 5 Unit 1: Properties of Matter 

     • Measurements of a variety of properties can be used to identify materials. (Boundary: At this grade level, mass and weight are not distinguished, and no

        attempt is made to define the unseen particles or explain the atomic-scale mechanism of evaporation and condensation.)

     • Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means. A

        model showing that gases are made from matter particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations,

        including the inflation and shape of a balloon and the effects of air on larger particles or objects.

Grade 5 Unit 2: Changes to Matter

     • When two or more different substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed.

     • No matter what reaction or change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. (Note: Mass and weight are not distinguished

        at this grade level.)

     • The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish.

 Grade 5 Unit 3: Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

     • The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and

        other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Some organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms (both plants or plants parts and

        animals) and therefore operate as “decomposers.” Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil. Organisms can survive

        only in environments in which their particular needs are met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple sp

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

     •   Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.

     •   Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures,

          illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).

     •   Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the

          community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).

     •   Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple

          representation and multimodal experiences).

     •   Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate

          their understandings.

     •   Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.

     •   Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.

     •   Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies. • Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.

     •   Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object. [Clarification Statement: Examples of pieces could include blocks, building bricks, or other assorted small objects.] (2-PS1-3)

Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot. [Clarification Statement: Examples of reversible changes could include materials such as water and butter at different temperatures. Examples of irreversible changes could include cooking an egg, freezing a plant leaf, and heating paper.] (2-PS1-4)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document  A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

   Analyzing and Interpreting Data

     • Analyze and interpret data to make sense of

        phenomena using logical reasoning. (3-LS3-1)

  Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions 

     • Make observations (firsthand or from media) to

       construct an evidence-based account for natural

       phenomena. (2-PS1-3)

  Engaging in Argument from Evidence

      • Construct an argument with evidence to support

         a claim. (2-PS1-4)

   PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter 

     • Different properties are suited to different

        purposes. (2-PS1-3)

     • A great variety of objects can be built up from a

        small set of pieces. (2-PS1-3)

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

      • Heating or cooling a substance may cause

         changes that can be observed. Sometimes

         these changes are reversible, and sometimes

         they are not. (2-PS1-4)

 Cause and Effect 

   • Events have causes that generate observable

       patterns. (2-PS1-4)

 Energy and Matter 

   • Objects may break into smaller pieces and be

      put together into larger pieces, or change

      shapes. (2- PS1-3)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

   Connections to Nature of Science Science

   Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories

   Explain Natural Phenomena 

    • Science searches for cause and effect

       relationships to explain natural events.

      (2-PS1-4)

Unit Title

Unit 4:  The Earth's Land and Water

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 15

Unit Summary

Where do we find water?

In this unit of study, students use information and models to identify and represent the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in an area and where water is found on Earth. The crosscutting concept of patterns is called out as an organizing concept for these disciplinary core ideas. Students demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in developing and using models and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on 2-ESS2-3 and 2-ESS2-2.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

How can we identify where water is found on Earth and if it is solid or liquid?

 In what ways can you represent the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in an area?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Patterns in the natural world can be observed.
  • Water is found in the ocean, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Water exists as solid ice and in liquid form
  • Patterns in the natural world can be observed. • Maps show where things are located. One can map the shapes and kinds of land and water in any area.

Know

By the end of this unit, students will know:

  • Patterns in the natural world can be observed.
  • Water is found in the ocean, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Water exists as solid ice and in liquid form.
  • Patterns in the natural world can be observed.
  • Maps show where things are located. One can map the shapes and kinds of land and water in any area.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Identify where water is found on Earth and whether it is solid or liquid.
  • Discover that water exists as a solid in the Earth’s snowcaps and glaciers.
  • Identify where water is found on the Earth.
  • Notice that mountains are much taller and more rugged than hills, lakes are an enclosed body of water surrounded by land, and streams flow across land and generally end at a larger body of water, such as a lake or the ocean.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts are able to: 

     •   Observe patterns in the natural world.

     •   Obtain information using various texts, text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons)

          and other media that will be useful in answering a scientific question.

     •   Obtain information to identify where water is found on Earth and to communicate that it can be a solid or liquid.

     •   Observe patterns in the natural world.

     •   Develop a model to represent patterns in the natural world. • Develop a model to represent the shapes and kinds of land and

          bodies of water in an area. (Assessment does not include quantitative scaling in models.)

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Explore the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water found in an area. Students also
  • Using texts, maps, globes, and other resources (including appropriate online resources), students will observe that water is found in liquid form in oceans, rivers, lakes, and ponds.
  • Using observations and media resources, students should look for patterns among the types of landforms and bodies of water.

Students look for patterns as they identify where water is found on Earth and explore the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water found in an area. Students also develop models to identify and represent the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in an area.

To begin this unit’s progression of learning, students identify where water is found on Earth and whether it is solid or liquid. Using texts, maps, globes, and other resources (including appropriate online resources), students will observe that water is found in liquid form in oceans, rivers, lakes, and ponds. They also discover that water exists as a solid in the Earth’s snowcaps and glaciers.

After students identify where water is found on the Earth, they take a closer look at bodies of water and landforms that can be found in the natural world. Using firsthand observations and media resources, students should look for patterns among the types of landforms and bodies of water. For example, students should notice that mountains are much taller and more rugged than hills, lakes are an enclosed body of water surrounded by land, and streams flow across land and generally end at a larger body of water, such as a lake or the ocean.

Students should also have opportunities to use maps to determine where landforms and bodies of water are located. As students become more familiar with the types and shapes of landforms and bodies of water, they develop models to represent the landforms and bodies of water found in an area. For example, students can draw/create a map of the area of the state in which they live, showing various landforms (e.g., hills, coastlines, and islands) and bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes, ponds, and the ocean). Teachers should keep in mind that assessment does not include quantitative scaling of models (an accurate proportional relationship with the real world).

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

None found.

Standards

Content Statement

Obtain information to identify where water is found on Earth and that it can be solid or liquid. (2-ESS2-3)

Develop a model to represent the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in an area. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative scaling in models.] (2-ESS2-2)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (2-ESS2-3) W.2.6

 Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (2-ESS2-3) W.2.8

Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (2-ESS2-2) SL.2.5

Mathematics

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (2-ESS2-2)

MP.2 Model with mathematics. (2-ESS2-2) MP.4

Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. (2-ESS2-2) 2.NBT.A.3

Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (2-ESS2-1) 2.MD.B.5

  • CRP1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP3. Attend to personal health and financial well-being.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP9.Model integrity, ethical leadership and effective management.
  • CRP10. Plan education and career paths aligned to personal goals.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.
  • CRP12.Work productively in teams while using cultural global competence.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.1 Identify reasons why people work, different types of work, and how work can help a person achieve personal and professional goals.  
  • 9.2.4.A.2 Identify various life roles and civic and work‐related activities in the school, home, and community.
  • 9.2.4.A.3 Investigate both traditional and nontraditional careers and relate information to personal likes and dislikes.
  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.3 Compare the common uses of at least two different digital applications and identify the advantages and disadvantages of using each.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

8.1.2.A.5 Enter information into a spreadsheet and sort the information.

8.1.2.A.6 Identify the structure and components of a database.

8.1.2.A.7 Enter information into a database or spreadsheet and filter the information.

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

8.1.2.F.1 Use geographic mapping tools to plan and solve problems.

Future Learning

Grade 4 Unit 2: Earth Processes 

     •   The locations of mountain ranges, deep ocean trenches, ocean floor structures, earthquakes, and volcanoes occur in patterns. Most earthquakes and

          volcanoes occur in bands that are often along the boundaries between continents and oceans. Major mountain chains form inside continents or near

          their edges. Maps can help locate the different land and water features areas of Earth.

 Grade 5 Unit 4: Water on the Earth

     •   Nearly all of Earth’s available water is in the ocean. Most fresh water is in glaciers or underground; only a tiny fraction is in streams, lakes, wetlands, and

          the atmosphere.

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

     •   Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.

     •   Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures,

          illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).

     •   Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the

          community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).

     •   Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g. multiple

          representation and multimodal experiences).

     •   Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate

          their understandings. • Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena. • Structure the learning around explaining

          or solving a social or community-based issue.

     •   Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies. • Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.

     •   Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Obtain information to identify where water is found on Earth and that it can be solid or liquid. (2-ESS2-3)

Develop a model to represent the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in an area. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative scaling in models.] (2-ESS2-2)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

 

 Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating

  Information 

     • Obtain information using various texts, text

        features (e.g., headings, tables of contents,

        glossaries, electronic menus, icons), and other

        media that will be useful in answering a scientific

        question. (2-ESS2-3)

  Developing and Using Models

     • Develop a model to represent patterns in the

        natural world. (2-ESS2-2)

ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes

     • Water is found in the ocean, rivers, lakes, and

        ponds. Water exists as solid ice and in liquid

        form. (2-ESS2-3)

ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions 

     • Maps show where things are located. One can

        map the shapes and kinds of land and water in

        any area. (2-ESS2-2)

Patterns

     • Patterns in the natural world can be

         observed. (2- ESS2-2),(2-ESS2-3)

Unit Title

Unit 5:  Changes to Earth's Land

Timeframe 

Instructional Days: 20

Unit Summary

In what ways do humans slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land?

In this unit of study, students apply their understanding of the idea that wind and water can change the shape of land to compare design solutions to slow or prevent such change. The crosscutting concepts of stability and change; structure and function; and the influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. Students demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in asking questions and defining problems, developing and using models, and constructing explanations and designing solutions. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

 This unit is based on 2-ESS1-1, 2-ESS2-1, K-2-ETS1-1, and K-2-ETS1-2.

Learning Targets

Essential Questions

 What evidence can we find to prove that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly?

 In what ways do humans slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land?

Enduring Understandings

Students will understand:

  • Some events happen very quickly; others occur very slowly over a time period much longer than one can observe.
  • Things may change slowly or rapidly.
  • Things may change slowly or rapidly.
  • Developing and using technology has impacts on the natural world.
  • Scientists study the natural and material world.
  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).
  • Wind and water can change the shape of the land. • Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs.
  • A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering.
  • Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems.
  • Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem.
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.

Know

Students will know:

  • Some events happen very quickly; others occur very slowly over a time period much longer than one can observe.
  • Things may change slowly or rapidly.Things may change slowly or rapidly. •
  • Developing and using technology has impacts on the natural world.  
  • Scientists study the natural and material world. The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).
  • Wind and water can change the shape of the land.
  •  Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs.
  • A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering.
  • Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems.  
  • Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem
  • Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people.

Do

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Develop an understanding that the Earth events can occur quickly or slowly
  • Make observations and gather information to clearly understand the problem
  • Understand that people can change the problem through engineering.

Evidence of Learning

Formative

Students who understand the concepts are able to:

     •   Make observations from several sources to construct an evidence-based account for natural phenomena.

     •   Use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly. (Assessment does not

          include quantitative measurements of timescales.) Some examples of these events include:  Volcanic explosions  Earthquakes

          Erosion of rocks

     •   Compare multiple solutions to a problem.

     •   Compare multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land. Examples of

          solutions could include:  Different designs of dikes and windbreaks to hold back wind and water  Different designs for using

          shrubs, grass, and trees to hold back the land.

     •   Ask questions based on observations to find more information about the natural and/or designed world.

     •   Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem

          that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

     •   Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

     •   Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a proposed object or tool.

     •   Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to

          solve a given problem.

Summative/ Benchmark

  • Unit Rubric
  • Student Unit -Portfolio/Science Journal/ Work Sample

Alternative Assessments

  • Teacher made test, quizzes, Performance Assessments
  • Projects

Learning Activities

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction w/ Integration of Technology/CRP

  • Use models, simulations, video and other media to gather information
  • Create designs with sketches, drawing or physical models to solve the problem.

In this unit of study, students learn that a situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem, and asking questions, making observations and gathering information are helpful in thinking about and clarifying problems.

Students learn that designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models, and that these representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. As outlined in the narrative above, students will develop simple sketches or drawings showing how humans have helped minimized the effects of a chosen Earth event. Students use evidence from several sources to develop an understanding that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly. Because some events happen too quickly too observe, and others too slowly, we often rely on models and simulations to help us understand how changes to the surface of the Earth are caused by a number of different Earth events. For example,  

  • Volcanic eruptions are Earth events that happen very quickly. As volcanic eruptions occur, ash and lava are quickly emitted from the volcano. The flow of lava from the volcano causes immediate changes to the landscape as it flows and cools.  
  • Flooding can happen quickly during events such as hurricanes and tsunamis. Flooding can cause rapid changes to the surface of the Earth.  
  • Rainfall is an event that recurs often over long periods of time and will gradually lead to the weathering and erosion of rocks and soil.

In order to gather information to use as evidence, students need to make observations. They can easily look for evidence of changes caused by rain, flooding, or drought. However, actually observing Earth events as they happen is often not possible; therefore, students will need opportunities to observe different types of Earth events using models, simulations, video, and other media and online sources. At this grade level, quantitative measurements of timescales are not important. Students do need to see the kinds of changes that Earth events cause, and whether the changes are rapid or slow.

Engaging in engineering design helps students understand that a situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in clearly understanding the problem. Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. In this unit of study, students need the opportunity to engage in the engineering design process in order to generate and compare multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land. Students are not expected to come up with original solutions, although original solutions are always welcome. The emphasis is on asking questions, making observations, and gathering information in order to compare multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind or water from changing the land. This process should include the following steps:  As a class, with teacher guidance, students brainstorm a list of natural Earth events, such as a volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, or floods. The class selects one Earth event to research in order to gather more information.

  • As a class or in small groups, with guidance, students conduct research on the selected Earth event using books and other reliable sources. They gather

information about the problems that are caused by the selected event, and gather information on the ways in which humans have minimized the effects of the chosen earth event. For example,  

  • Different designs of dikes or dams to hold back water,  
  • Different designs of windbreaks to hold back wind, or  
  • Different designs for using plants (shrubs, grass, and/or trees) to hold back the land.
  • Next, students look for examples in their community of ways that humans have minimized the effect of natural Earth events. This can be accomplished through a nature walk or short hike around the schoolyard, during a field trip, or students can make observations around their own neighborhoods. If available, students can carry digital cameras (or other technology that allows them to take pictures) in order to document any examples they find.
  • Groups select one solution they have found through research and develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how it minimizes the effects of the selected Earth event.  
  • Groups should prepare a presentation using their sketches, drawings, or models, and present them to the class.

Materials / Equipment / Resources

Core Instructional

Materials and Texts

Mystery Science: Lessons for elementary teachers

K-5 Combined Mystery Science Planning Guide

Equipment

See Mystery Science Activity Prep for each Mystery

See Get Activity Supplies for Mystery

Supplemental Resources

How Can Water Change the Shape of the Land?

In this lesson plan children investigate water erosion. Students make a sand tower and observe the erosion as they drop water on it. Students observe, illustrate, and record notes about the process. Short videos and a read aloud also further support understanding of the Performance Expectation.

How Can Wind Change the Shape of the Land?

This lesson builds on another lesson created by Jeri Faber in which students discovered how water changes the earth. For this lesson, students take part in a teacherled investigation to show how wind changes the land. The children use straws to blow on a small mound or hill of sand. As each child takes a turn, the other students record their detailed observations that will later be used to draw conclusions. Students also watch a short video on wind erosion and discuss the new learning with partners.

Finding Erosion at Our School

In this lesson, students walk around the school grounds, neighborhood, or another area of their community to locate evidence of erosion. Various problems caused by erosion are discussed and a solution is developed for one of the problems. This lesson is one in a series on erosion by Jeri Faber. A follow-up lesson is available where students compare their erosion design solutions.

Standards

Content Statement

Use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly. [Clarification Statement: Examples of events and timescales could include volcanic explosions and earthquakes, which happen quickly and erosion of rocks, which occurs slowly.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of timescales.] (2-ESS1-1)

Compare multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land.*[Clarification Statement: Examples of solutions could include different designs of dikes and windbreaks to hold back wind and water, and different designs for using shrubs, grass, and trees to hold back the land.] (2-ESS2-1)

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem. (K-2-ETS1-2)

21st Century Skills and Themes

Interdisciplinary Connections

Career Ready Practices

9.2 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation  

English Language Arts

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (2-ESS1-1), (K-2-ETS1-1) RI.2.1

Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. (2-ESS1-1) RI.2.3 

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (2-ESS1-1), (K-2-ETS1-1) W.2.6

 Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations). (2-ESS1-1) W.2.7

 Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (2-ESS1-1), (K-2-ETS1-1) W.2.8

Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. (2-ESS1-1) SL.2.2

Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. (2-ESS2-1) RI.2.3 

Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (K-2-ETS1-2) SL.2.5

Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic. (2-ESS2-1) RI.2.9

 Mathematics

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (2-ESS1-1), (2-ESS2-1), (K-2-ETS1-1) MP.2

Model with mathematics. (2-ESS1-1), (2-ESS2-1) MP.4 

Use appropriate tools strategically. (2-ESS2-1, (K-2-ETS1-1) MP.5 

Understand place value. (2-ESS1-1) 2.NBT.A

Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (2-ESS2-1) 2.MD.B.5 

Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (K-2- ETS1-1) 2.MD.D.10

  • CRP2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
  • CRP4.Communicate clearly and effectively and with reason.
  • CRP5.Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
  • CRP6.Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  • CRP7.Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
  • CRP8.Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • CRP9.Model integrity, ethical leadership and effective management.
  • CRP10. Plan education and career paths aligned to personal goals.
  • CRP11. Use technology to enhance productivity.
  • CRP12.Work productively in teams while using cultural global competence.

By the end of 4th grade,

  • 9.2.4.A.2 Identify various life roles and civic and work‐related activities in the school, home, and community.
  • 9.2.4.A.3 Investigate both traditional and nontraditional careers and relate information to personal likes and dislikes.
  • 9.2.4.A.4 Explain why knowledge and skills acquired in the elementary grades lay the foundation for future academic and career success.

Technology Standards - 8.1

K-2 Grade

A. Technology Operations and Concepts: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems.

8.1.2.A.1 Identify the basic features of a digital device and explain its purpose.

 

  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.

8.1.2.A.2. Create a document using a word processing application.

8.1.2.A.3 Compare the common uses of at least two different digital applications and identify the advantages and disadvantages of using each.

8.1.2.A.4 Demonstrate developmentally appropriate navigation skills in virtual environments (i.e. games, museums).

8.1.2.A.5 Enter information into a spreadsheet and sort the information.

8.1.2.A.6 Identify the structure and components of a database.

8.1.2.A.7 Enter information into a database or spreadsheet and filter the information.

B. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge and develop innovative products and process using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

8.1.2.B.1 Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories using multiple digital tools and resources.

C. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others by employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

8.1.2.C.1 Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate learning activities with students in other classes, schools, or countries using various media formats such as online collaborative tools, and social media.

D. Digital Citizenship: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

8.1.2.D.1 Develop an understanding of ownership of print and nonprint information.

E: Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

8.1.2.E.1 Use digital tools and online resources to explore a problem or issue.

 

 

F: Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

8.1.2.F.1 Use geographic mapping tools to plan and solve problems.

Future Learning

Grade 3 Unit 7: Using Evidence to Understand Change in Environments 

•   When the environment changes in ways that affect a place’s physical characteristics, temperature, or availability of resources, some organisms survive

     and reproduce, others move to new locations, yet others move into the transformed environment, and some die.(secondary)

Grade 4 Unit 1: Weathering and Erosion 

•   Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils,

     and sediments into smaller particles and move them around.

Grade 4 Unit 2: Earth Processes 

• Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. (secondary)

Grade 4 Unit 7: Using Engineering Design with Force and Motion Systems 

•   Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by

     considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets

     the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (secondary) • Different solutions need to be tested in order to

     determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints.(secondary)

Grade 5 Unit 5: Earth Systems 

•   Earth’s major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere (air), and the

     biosphere (living things, including humans). These systems interact in multiple ways to affect Earth’s surface materials and processes. The ocean

     supports a variety of ecosystems and organisms, shapes landforms, and influences climate. Winds and clouds in the atmosphere interact with the

     landforms to determine patterns of weather.

Modifications/Accommodations

(IEPs, ELLs, 504s, G/T & BASIC SKILLS)

(Note: Teachers identify the modifications that they will use in the unit. See NGSS Appendix D: All Standards, All Students/Case Studies for vignettes and explanations of the modifications.)

•   Structure lessons around questions that are authentic, relate to students’ interests, social/family background and knowledge of their community.

•   Provide students with multiple choices for how they can represent their understandings (e.g. multisensory techniques-auditory/visual aids; pictures,

     illustrations, graphs, charts, data tables, multimedia, modeling).

•   Provide opportunities for students to connect with people of similar backgrounds (e.g. conversations via digital tool such as SKYPE, experts from the

     community helping with a project, journal articles, and biographies).

•   Provide multiple grouping opportunities for students to share their ideas and to encourage work among various backgrounds and cultures (e.g.

     multiple representation and multimodal experiences).

•   Engage students with a variety of Science and Engineering practices to provide students with

     multiple entry points and multiple ways to demonstrate their understandings.

•   Use project-based science learning to connect science with observable phenomena.

•   Structure the learning around explaining or solving a social or community-based issue.  

•   Provide ELL students with multiple literacy strategies.

•   Collaborate with after-school programs or clubs to extend learning opportunities.

•   Restructure lesson using UDL principals (http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html#.VXmoXcfD_UA).

Appendix A: NGSS and Foundations for the Unit

Use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly. [Clarification Statement: Examples of events and timescales could include volcanic explosions and earthquakes, which happen quickly and erosion of rocks, which occurs slowly.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of timescales.] (2-ESS1-1)

Compare multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land.*[Clarification Statement: Examples of solutions could include different designs of dikes and windbreaks to hold back wind and water, and different designs for using shrubs, grass, and trees to hold back the land.] (2-ESS2-1)

 Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem. (K-2-ETS1-2)

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

 

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions 

•   Make observations from several sources to

     construct an evidence-based account for

     natural phenomena. (2-ESS1-1)

•   Compare multiple solutions to a problem.

    (2- ESS2-1)

  Asking Questions and Defining Problems 

•   Ask questions based on observations to find

     more information about the natural and/or

     designed world(s). (K-2-ETS1-1)

•   Define a simple problem that can be solved

     through the development of a new or

    improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)

  Developing and Using Models 

•   Develop a simple model based on evidence

     to represent a proposed object or tool.

     (K-2-ETS1- 2)

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth 

•  Some events happen very quickly; others

    occur very slowly, over a time period much

    longer than one can observe. (2-ESS1-1)

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems 

•  Wind and water can change the shape of the

     land. (2-ESS2-1)

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

•  A situation that people want to change or

    create can be approached as a problem to be

    solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1)

•  Asking questions, making observations, and

   gathering information are helpful in thinking

    about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

•  Before beginning to design a solution, it is

    important to clearly understand the problem.

    (K-2- ETS1-1)

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions 

•  Designs can be conveyed through sketches,

    drawings, or physical models. These

    representations are useful in communicating

    ideas for a problem’s solutions to other

    people. (K-2- ETS1-2)

Stability and Change

 •  Things may change slowly or rapidly.

     (2-ESS1- 1)

Structure and Function

•  The shape and stability of structures of

    natural and designed objects are related to

     their function(s). (K-2-ETS1-2)

 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Connections to Nature of Science Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material World 

•  Scientists study the natural and material

     world. (2-ESS2-1)