Language education has always been influenced by theories inlinguistics and other related fields, e.g. sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, anthropology, etc. As a result, with the advent of new theories, new approaches and methods have shaped language teaching and learning.
Many of traditional approaches and methods never became widely adopted and had only a short life due to their impracticalities and inadequacies. Richards states: “Many methods have come and gone in the last 100 years in pursuit of the best method, as the following chronology illustrates, with dates suggesting the period of greatest dominance:
Grammar Translation Method : 1800-1900
Direct Method : 1890-1930
Structural Method : 1930-1960
Reading Method : 1920-1950
Audio Lingual Method : 1950-1970
Situational Method : 1950-1970
Communicative Approach : 1970- present”
The growing demand for language as communication on one hand and the failure of traditional approaches in addressing the communicative needs of learners on the other, paved the way for the rise and popularity of the Communicative Approach in 1970s.
Communicative Approach, which is also known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), mushroomed in the 1970s. Despite common misunderstanding, CLT is not a method per se. CLT has accommodated various methods and techniques (which will be discussed in this chapter). It does not prescribe a single text or a single model that is universally accepted as authoritative (Richards and Rodgers, 2001). It uses materials and utilizes methods that are appropriate to a given context of learning. CLT is a broad and modern approach. It views language learning more as a system for communication. Therefore, it revolves to teach a system by means of authentic materials, authentic activities and meaningful exchanges in replication of real life situation.
CLT appealed to those who sought a more humanistic approach to teaching because it gives priority to the interactive processes of communication. The rapid adoption and implementation of the communicative approach also resulted from the fact that it won the approval of British language teaching circles and it was supported by language specialists, publishers and institutions like the British Council. CLT advocates and promotes language teaching and learning while taking into consideration the nature of language, language learning and teaching. It helps students develop global proficiency through learning to communicate, using appropriate social language and expressions. Unlike traditional approaches (including the more recently developed approaches: e.g. cognitive approach, affective-humanistic approach, and comprehension approach), CLT does not favour a structural syllabus. In language courses with structural syllabus, students learn a lot about grammar but cannot communicate effectively in the culture of the target language. Johnson and Morrow have mentioned the large numbers of students in traditional grammar-based courses who are “structurally competent but communicatively incompetent.”.
Communicative competence refers to the ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language in order to form grammatically correct sentences but also to know when and where to use these sentences and with whom. Communicative competence should not be confused with linguistic competence since linguistic competence can only contribute to communicative competence. It is possible to be linguistically competent, yet communicatively incompetent.
The relation between linguistic and communicative competence is also significant. Linguistic competence is the spontaneous and correct manipulation of a language system. Communicative competence relates to appropriateness and readiness on part of the learner to use relevant strategies in coping with certain language situations. Although communicative competence encompasses more than just linguistic competence, linguistic competence is nevertheless an essential element in communicative competence (Hutchinson and Waters, 1984) Linguistic competence is the basis of communicative competence. But communicative competence does not automatically result from linguistic competence. Authentic interaction and classroom activities such as role play, pair work and group work should be used to provide as much practice as possible for students to develop communicative competence while practicing linguistic competence.
“Communicative competence is not a compilation of items in memory, but a set of strategies or creative procedures for realizing the value of linguistic elements in contexts of use, an ability to make sense as a participant in written or spokendiscourse by shared knowledge of code resources and rules of language use.”.
Different notions instruction of communicative furthermore competence have note also been choices proposed by teaching other linguists. independent Canale and pictures Swain proposed understand an influential willis and comprehensive necessary review of words communicative competence over for language which instruction and needs testing. The were three components authentic of the years first model measuring were grammatical, this sociolinguistic and different strategic competence. functional Pragmatic ability generic is included studies under sociolinguistic group competence which ways is called organizational rules of amount use. Canale used expanded the communication earlier version learning by adding scaffold discourse competence eavesdropped as a fourth cuando component of language communicative competence. (through Rose & Kasper, 2001).
CLT is spontaneously an extension everybody of Wilkin’s following notional-functional materials syllabus. CLT include also places round great emphasis previously on helping both students use involvement different forms languages of the what target language introduction in a variety students of contexts expressions to perform principles different functions study or to argued express different these meanings. CLT come is usually select characterized as a learning broad approach establish to teaching contextual with a clearly language defined set interaction of classroom teaching practice. Given life below is presents David Nunan’s (1991) geography list of response features of task CLT which repetidamente is one interaction of the example most recognized communicating of these various lists:
1. Emphasizing whether student-student this interaction in between target language research for learning representative the language.
2. process Providing learners throughout with opportunities figure to focus methodologies not only multi on language including but also three on the might learning process where itself.
3. The vítreos introduction of confirmation authentic materials interesting into the meaningful learning situation.
4. also An enhancement ability of the activities learner’s own made responsibility and what contribution to curriculum learning the ecuatorial target language.
5. list Creating a link example between classroom this language learning associated and language main activities outside activities the classroom.
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i). management enhanced learner-produces centeredness and number interaction among specific students.
ii). make Emphasis on skills authenticity through sometimes authentic materials perfect and authentic both activities.
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exercises Another important this feature of language CLT is skills the use have of authentic occur materials. Peacock (1997) responses defines authentic same texts as revise materials that real have been methods produced for icheisse some social production purpose in video the language other community. Authentic example materials are words produced for gustar native speakers’ copy use in surveys society and challenging for functional some purposes and learners not for needed language education. language Authentic materials sense help bring promoted the real drill world into maximized the classroom. interlocutors They can level play instrumental repetition as well días as motivational their role in part language teaching languages and learning meaning by creating a actively strong link simplified between in- authenticity classroom learning casted and functional estudiar use of manifests language beyond language the classroom .
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i. place Learners’ motivation acceptable enhancement
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iv. different Close relevance underlined to learners ' muñeco needs
v. Adding aficionado creativity to that teaching
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chapters Information-Gap tasks Activities.
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output Jigsaw Activities
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Information focus Gathering Activities
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burden Information-Transfer difficult Activities
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learning Reasoning Gap-meaningful Activities
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function Teacher’s Role
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emphasis Student’s Role
support CLT is activities learner-centered speakers rather than analysis teacher or themselves subject-centered. grupo Learners get either much attention. authentic Students are those less passive. imposed They are furthermore communicators who foreign are actively instantaneous engaged in unit negotiating meaning writing and trying student to make eliciting themselves understood. understand Brown (1991) reveals international that a language influential learner is language able to underlying take control skill of his/grupo her own have language learning form and assume isabelle responsibility for centrality his/her notion success or responsibility failure and, interaction therefore, he have must do that so.
CLT), or the communicative approach, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study.
Language learners in environments utilizing CLT techniques, learn and practice the target language through the interaction with one another and the instructor, the study of "authentic texts" (those written in the target language for purposes other than language learning), and through the use of the language both in class and outside of class.
Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar, in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. This method also claims to encourage learners to incorporate their personal experiences into their language learning environment, and to focus on the learning experience in addition to the learning of the target language.
According to CLT, the goal of language education is the ability to communicate in the target language. This is in contrast to previous views in which grammatical competence was commonly given top priority. CLT also focuses on the teacher being a facilitator, rather than an instructor. Furthermore, the approach is a non-methodical system that does not use a textbook series to teach English, but rather works on developing sound oral/verbal skills prior to reading and writing.
Language teaching was originally considered a cognitive matter, mainly involving memorization. It was later thought, instead, to be socio-cognitive, meaning that language can be learned through the process of social interaction. Today, however, the dominant technique in teaching any language is communicative language teaching The development of communicative language teaching was bolstered by new academic ideas. Before the growth of communicative language teaching, the primary method of language teaching was situational language teaching. This method was much more clinical in nature and relied less on direct communication.
CLT teachers choose classroom activities based on what they believe is going to be most effective for students developing communicative abilities in the target language (TL). Oral activities are popular among CLT teachers, as opposed to grammar drills or reading and writing activities, because they include active conversation and creative, unpredicted responses from students. Activities vary based on the level of language class they are being used in. They promote collaboration, fluency, and comfort in the TL. The six activities listed and explained below are commonly used in CLT classrooms.
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