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Essential components of strong MTB MLE programs

Powerpoint presentation on the essential components of MTB MLE with brief explanation of each component

Booklet for Programme Implementers

3rd booklet in the 2016 MTB MLE Resource Kit. Including the Excluded, produced by UNESCO’s Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau of Education.  Describes the problems that students from non-dominant language communities face in dominant language-only education programs and explains why MTB MLE helps students achieve their educational goals. Identifies the features of MTB MLE programs that should be included in the implementation process, with examples from different countries.

MTB MLE: What have we learned about best practices in developing strong programs?

Powerpoint presentation on “best practices” in implementing MTB MLE, with photos from programs in Asia, Africa and the Pacific

Literacy for development in multilingual contexts: five characteristics of sustainable programs

Argues for the need to rethink the meaning of “sustainable development” when planning literacy and education programs across cultures.  Published in the Philippine Journal of Linguistics, 2001

Planning Mother Tongue-based education programs in minority language communities 

Program planning resource manual for MTB MLE. Includes suggestions for implementation (also in other languages, below)

Planning for MTB MLE program expansion

Part 1. Potential problems and suggested solutions in expanding MTB MLE programs.
Part 2. Three types of program expansion

Issues to consider in planning for implementation and expansion of MTB MLE programs

Powerpoint presentation explaining the “essential components” of MTB MLE and the importance of each in planning for implementation and expansion.  

Education for multilingualism and multi-literacy in ethnic minority communities: The situation in Asia

Four types of  language education programs in Asia and actions that can be taken to strengthen them.  Published in the Asian Book Development, Volume 34, Number 2. January 2004.

Composantes primordiales de programmes EML

“Essential components” graphic (French)

Défis actuels et quelques stratégies pour faire avancer le travail

Powerpoint presentation describing the challenges and strategies in developing MTB MLE programs (French)


Program planning resource manual for MTB MLE (Mandarin)

Manuel de planification de programme EML   

Program planning resource manual for MTB MLE (French)


د منابعو لارښود: د اقلیتی ژبو ویونکو په ټولنو کې د ګڼ شمیر ژبو په هکله د ښوونیزو پروګرامونو جوړول

Program planning resource manual for MTB MLE  (Pashto)

Planning MTB MLE programs for adult learners

Planning learner-centred adult literacy programmes

UNESCO Publication.  Susan Malone, Robert Arnove, authors

La planification des programmes d’alphabétisation des adultes centrés sur les élèves

UNESCO Publication. Susan Malone & Robert Arnove, authors (French)

Manual for developing literacy and adult education programmes in minority language communities
Published by UNESCO Bangkok.  

Case study

Multilingual education in Papua New Guinea. Malone, Susan E., and Patricia Paraide. 2012. International Review of Education 57(5):705–720.

Background and main features of the Papua New Guinea government’s attempt to establish Mother Tongue-Based education in a country of great linguistic diversity and the factors that led the government to return to English only.

Resources for program planning

Template for developing an MTB MLE program plan.docx 

 Blank template for planning (and revising) each component of an MTB MLE program

Example of an Implementation Plan: Liberian Languages and English Multilingual Education (LLEME) Program

  Implementation plan for MTB MLE in or 15 indigenous language communities of Liberia (updated from the original plan)

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